7th heredity & genetics 10 13-08
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7th heredity & genetics 10 13-08 Document Transcript

  • 1. I. Grade Level/Unit Number: 7th grade/Unit 4 II. Unit Title- Heredity and Genetics III. Unit Length: 24 days, based on 60 minute class periods IV. Major Goals and Learning Outcomes • How are genes and alleles related to genotype and phenotype? • What is the relationship between traits and heredity? • How do genes pass information? • How can there be a variation in genotype and phenotype among offspring from the same parents? • What does probability have to do with genetics? • What are dominant and recessive traits? • How is a Punnett square used to determine the probability of possible offspring? • How can environmental factors and lifestyles choices affect human characteristics? • What is a sex-linked disorder? • What is a pedigree chart and how do you interpret it? • How can some medical conditions be genetic? • What happens when there is co-dominance or incomplete dominance? V. Objectives Included Objective Goals RBT tag 1.01 Identify and create questions and hypotheses that can be answered through scientific investigations. A3 1.02 Develop appropriate experimental procedures for student and teacher generated questions. A3 1.04 Analyze variables in scientific investigations: • Identify dependent and independent. • Use of control • Manipulate • Describe relationships between • Define operationally A3, A4 1.05 Analyze evidence to: • Explain observations • Make inferences and predictions • Develop the relationship between evidence and A3, A4 1
  • 2. explanation 1.06 Use mathematics to gather, organize, and present quantitative data resulting from scientific investigations: • Measurement • Analysis of data • Graphing • Prediction models A2, A3 1.07 Prepare models and/or computer simulations to: • Test hypotheses • Evaluate how data fit A6 1.08 Use oral and written language to: • Communicate findings • Defend conclusions of scientific investigations A3, A4 1.09 Use technologies and information systems to: • Research • Gather and analyze data • Visualize data • Disseminate finding to others A3 1.10 Analyze and evaluate information from a scientifically literate viewpoint by reading, hearing and/or viewing: • Scientific text • Articles • Events in the popular press A4, A5 5.01 Explain the significance of genes to inherited characteristics: • Genes are the units. • Parents transmit genes to their offspring. • Some medical conditions and diseases are genetic. A2 5.02 Explain the significance of reproduction: • Sorting and recombination of parents’ genetic material. • Potential variation among offspring. B2 5.03 Identify examples and patterns of human genetic traits: • Dominant and recessive • Incomplete dominance A2, B4 5.04 Analyze the role of probability in the study of heredity: • Role of each parent in transfer of genetic traits. C3, C4 5.05 Summarize the genetic transmittance of disease. A3 5.06 Evaluate evidence that human characteristics are a product of: • Inheritance • Environmental factors B3 2
  • 3. • Lifestyle choices. VI. Materials and Equipment needs: Handouts, computer access, research materials Pop Beads – purchased from craft stores or catalogs http://www.thebeadsite.com/BNW-pop.htm 2 pennies per group of students Gummy Bears – Each pair of students will need the following gummy bear combinations in re-closable bags: 30 red, 30 yellow, 28-31 red and 9-12 yellow (total of 40 per bag), 9-11 red – 19-21 orange – 9-11 yellow (40 per bag) VII. Big Ideas HEREDITY and GENETICS There is enormous variety among living organisms in the world. In the context of heredity, the focus is on the origin of variation. Difference between individuals within the same species, and even within the same family, result from the recombination of parents’ genes or mutations of genes in reproductive cells. The basis for the diversity of life lies in the DNA molecule. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) contains the genetic code for each species. This molecule contains 4 smaller compounds that mix and match to make millions of proteins like the letters of our alphabet nix and match to make millions of words. The different proteins are responsible for the differences among species and within the same species. Each protein code is a gene (trait). Genes connect to make up the DNA molecule (chromosomes). Chromosomes come in pairs and thus genes are paired. Each individual gene of the pair can have a little different 3 VI. NC English Language Proficiency (ELP) Standard 4 (2008) – for Limited English Proficient students (LEP) English language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of SCIENCE. LEP Modifications: Modifications appear in gray boxes throughout the unit. Additional handouts and diagrams will appear after each unit. ELD modifications are mainly for entering, beginning, and developing English language proficiency level students. When the following symbol appears in the unit, , it indicates an opportunity to assess the embedded language objectives. Regular assessment of language objectives will ensure that LEP students progress in using the English language within the science content area. A brief explanation of how to assess the language objective will follow the symbol.
  • 4. information about that trait. These individual differences result in dominance, recessiveness, and incomplete dominance and are exhibited through characteristics of the organism. Analysis of the patterns of genetic traits enhances the understanding of genetic diseases and allows for predictions to be made by studying pedigrees and probability diagrams. Either one or many genes determine an inherited trait of an individual, and a single gene can influence more than one trait. Some traits are inherited and others result from interactions with the environment, life style choices, and environmental influence human characteristics that may or may not be passed on to future generations. Technological advances have allowed us to better understand how heredity and genetics are interrelated. As scientists learn more about the human genome, we are able to better understand how genetic differences affect the human body and allow us to make informed choices. VIII. Notes to the teacher/ storyline Additional resources, websites and interactive links are found at the end of the unit. The first lesson begins with an overview of traits and common examples. Students will complete a self survey determining which dominant and recessive traits they have. Students will learn that traits are determined by probability and this can be simulated by setting up and solving a Punnett square. Students will use what they learn about inherited traits to solve a computer simulation about blood types. The second lesson will begin with students using probability to determine the traits of a fictitious offspring. They will then compile those traits to complete a drawing of the child. Students will learn about incomplete dominance and mutations and its affects on offspring. The third lesson introduces pedigrees and how they are interpreted. Students will learn how to analyze and create their own pedigree. Students will have the opportunity to research genetic diseases and create an information display. IX. Global Content- 21st Century Skills Lesson-Location-Activity Title NCSCOS Grade 7 21st century skills Communication Skills Traits-extension-triarama Pedigree-explain- poster 1.01, 1.02, 1.08 Conveying thought or opinions effectively 4
  • 5. Traits-evaluate-project 1.05, 1.10 When presenting information, distinguishing between relevant and irrelevant information Mendel-explore-infer Pedigree-explain-poster 1.04, 4.02, 4.03, 4.06, 4.07, 4.08, Explaining a concept to others Interviewing others or being interviewed Computer Knowledge Mendel-evaluate-project 1.09 Using word-processing and database programs Mendel-evaluate-project Pedigree-explain-poster 1.07 Developing visual aides for presentations 1.08 Using a computer for communication Mendel-evaluate-project 2.04 Learning new software programs Employability Skills Mendel-evaluate-project Pedigree-explain-poster 1.02 Assuming responsibility for own learning Persisting until job is completed Mendel-explore-infer 1.03 Working independently Pedigree-explain-poster Developing career interest/goals Mendel-engage Pedigree-elaborate-research 1.08 Responding to criticism or questions Information-retrieval Skills Mendel-evaluate-project 1.09 Searching for information via the computer Pedigree-explain-poster 1.08 Searching for print information 1.09, 2.02 Searching for information using community members Language Skills - Reading Mendel-engage-lab Pedigree-explain-poster 1.03, 1.05 Following written directions Lesson-Location-Activity Title NCSCOS Grade 7 21st century skills Mendel-explain-Mendel Pedigree-explain-poster 1.10 Summarizing main points after reading Pedigree-explain-poster 1.07, 1.08 Locating and choosing appropriate reference materials Pedigree-explain-poster 1.10 Reading for personal learning 5
  • 6. Language Skill - Writing Using language accurately Mendel-evaluate-project 1.07, 1.08, 1.10 Organizing and relating ideas when writing Pedigree-explain-poster 1.10 Proofing and Editing Mendel-elaborate-blood 2.04 Synthesizing information from several sources Pedigree-explain-poster 1.10 Documenting sources Traits-explain-graphic org 2.03 Developing an outline Pedigree-elaborate-research 1.05 Writing to persuade or justify a position 1.09 Creating memos, letters, other forms of correspondence Teamwork Traits-evaluate-project 1.01, 1.05 Taking initiative Pedigree-elaborate-research Working on a team Thinking/Problem-Solving Skills Mendel-evaluate-project 1.02 Identifying key problems or questions Mendel-engage-lab Triats-evaluate-lab 1.05, 1.07, 1.10, 2.03, 4.04 Evaluating results 1.06, 4.01, 4.05, Developing strategies to address problems 1.09 Developing an action plan or timeline I. Grade Level/Unit Number: 7th grade II. Unit Title: Genetics and Heredity- Mendel and Traits III. Unit Length: 8 days IV. Objectives Included: 5.01, 5.02, 5.03, 5.04, 5.05 V. Materials Needed: Handouts, computer access 6 Language Objectives: The students will… • Use appropriate vocabulary for the study of genetics to describe and identify genotypes orally and in writing.
  • 7. Pop Beads – purchased from craft stores or catalogs. http://www.thebeadsite.com/BNW-pop.htm 2 pennies per group of students Gummy Bears – Each pair of students will need the following gummy bear combinations in re-closable bags: 30 red, 30 yellow, 28-31 red and 9-12 yellow (total of 40 per bag), 9-11 red – 19-21 orange – 9-11 yellow (40 per bag) VI. Notes to Teacher: Additional resources, websites and interactive links are found at the end of the unit. Day 1- 2 Engage- To determine if students know what genetics are, start the lesson by first asking students if they can list any genetic traits. If they cannot name any then mention some of the traits listed below: eye color, hair color, height, bone structure, shape of teeth….. Ask: Where do traits come from? (your parents pass then down through genetic traits) Children can receive half of their genes from each parent. Each person actually has about 70,000 pairs of genes. Tell the students that genes can be dominant or recessive. Ask: What do you think dominant or recessive traits are? (Dominant means it is the strongest trait, it actually masks or covers up the weaker trait. Recessive means it is the weaker trait.) To see if they understand the definitions follow up with the examples below. Ask: Which hair color do you think is dominant? (brown) Which eye color do you think is dominant? (brown) Which hair color do you think is recessive? (light color or red) Pair students and allow them to complete the worksheet Exploring Dominant and Recessive traits (attachment 1). Allow them to go through each trait and put a check mark in the column of the physical characteristics they have. Allow students to work in pairs and help each other recognize which traits they have. Once everyone has finished their chart allow students to share their results by raising their hands and completing a class data table. 7 LEP Modification • Many terms are presented throughout this unit that students will need later in their study of genetics. Each new term introduced should be taught explicitly using ample visual aids. The creation of a personal genetics themed dictionary for each student is desirable throughout this entire unit of study.
  • 8. After completing the activity Ask: Were traits that are dominant, actually dominant among classmates? Is it possible for you to have traits that are not visible in your parents? (yes, if both parents have heterozygous traits (Bb) then there is a 25% chance that the recessive trait be passed to an offspring. Both parents could have the dominant trait but also be carriers for the recessive trait.) You can show them these results with the Punnett square below. This will be a good introduction to how inherited traits are an example of probability. Each parent below is heterozygous for brown eyes, but a carrier for blue eyes. (Each parent has brown eyes because it is a dominant trait; the dominant trait always takes over the weaker trait, which in this case is blue eyes.) B b B b When you fill in the Punnett square you have a probability of: 75% probability of brown eyes (25% homozygous 50% heterozygous) 25% probability of blue eyes (homozygous) So it is possible for two brown-eyed parents to produce a blued eyed offspring. Day 3 Explore- To introduce genetics and reinforce vocabulary you can show one of the videos listed below. Visit http://www.unitedstreaming.com/ BB Bb Bb bb 8 LEP Modification • Provide the trait diagram from the “Traits and Punnett squares” unit as a reference. Some students may not understand what the various traits listed in this activity are unless provided with a visual example.
  • 9. 1. Search: Life Science Genetics (20 minutes) http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com/search/assetDetail.cfm? guidAssetID=8620ce1d-8714-46ad-ae42-7b8b379f380a&tabDisplay=myContent This video starts with an introduction to DNA and its role in genetics. It gives an overview of how DNA can be used to help solve crimes and how it can be altered and used in cloning. 2. Search: Mystery of Twins (24 minutes) http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com/search/assetDetail.cfm? guidAssetID=4a58f0b5-22b6-435b-9923-3ee4939b23b6&tabDisplay=myContent This video gives an overview of how twins separated at birth can still have very similar qualities even though they grow up in different environments. Introduce students to the probability of how genetic traits are transferred using a Punnett square. A Punnett square is a chart that shows the possible allele combinations of offspring that can result from the alleles that two parents contribute. Ask: How many alleles (forms of a trait) does each parent contribute?(Two) These two alleles are crossed in a Punnett square to determine the probability of offspring. Letters of the alphabet are used to represent the alleles. Dominant alleles are expressed with a capital letter and recessive alleles are expressed with a lower case letter. The following websites are interactive examples that can be presented to a class or accessed individually by students in order to reinforce setting up and solving Punnett squares. http://www.athro.com/evo/gen/punexam.html http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio105/geneprob.htm 9 LEP Modification: • Provide a note-taking organizer for key points. • Stop at key points so students may complete organizer.
  • 10. Present the Punnett square below to your class and ask them to make inferences. Ask: What do you know about each of the parents? What do you know about each of the four children? Being able to roll your tongue is a dominant trait, what is the probability that the children will be tongue rollers? Why? Ask: What is an allele? (An allele is a set of genetic information for a trait. Each of us has two alleles for a particular trait.) You can get the combination AA, Aa, or aa. Scientists use the term HOMOZYGOUS to describe having two of the same allele for a trait (AA or aa). What happens when two different alleles are present? (When two different alleles are present they interact.) The dominant allele (A) will mask the recessive (a) one. Scientists used the term HETEROZYGOUS to describe having two different alleles for a trait (A,a). The terms genotype and phenotype are used to describe alleles. Phenotype refers to the physical characteristics in an organism, such as blue eyes, brown hair, attached earlobes. What are some examples of phenotype in the pictures below? 10
  • 11. Pictures taken from Who’s Your Daddy advanced version. You may project or print the pictures by visiting the following website: http://www.cccoe.net/genetics/daddy2adv.html Possible answers: widows peak no widows peak thin eyebrows thick eyebrows round shaped eyes oval shaped eyes green eye color brown eye color freckles no freckles medium size nose small nose no dimples dimples attached earlobes unattached earlobes blond/brown hair brown hair short eyelashes long eyelashes thin lips medium lips Genotype refers to the allele makeup such as TT, Tt, tt. If two alleles are combined what will the genotype be in the following examples? Encourage students to set up a Punnett square to find the answer. TT + TT = 100 % of the offspring’s genotype will be dominant TT. TT + Tt = 50% of the offspring’s genotype will be hybrid Tt, while the other 50% will have a TT dominant, homozygous (purebred) genotype. TT + tt = 100% of the offspring’s genotype will be hybrid Tt. Ask: Which traits will show up when there is one dominant and one recessive allele? (the dominant allele) Day 4 Explain- Each person has about 70,000 genes. Each person has the same number of genes and number of sets of genes. 11
  • 12. How can parents transmit genes to offspring? Everyone has a combination of traits that makes us different and unique. A trait is a notable quality passed down from generation to generation. Some traits are PHYSICAL and observable such as hair and eye color and height. BEHAVIORAL traits refer to the way someone acts. Differences between individuals of the same family or the same species occur as a result of the recombination of parents’ genes. Ask the following questions: Do all children (brothers and sisters) get the same mix of genes from their parents? (no- if so then siblings would be identical) How about identical twins, do they get the same mix of genes from their parents? (yes) How many pairs of chromosomes are in the body? (23 pairs, 46 total) The male and female each give 23. Gregor Mendel is known as the “Father of Genetics”. He was the first person to study genetics and make conclusions about dominant and recessive traits. Visit the following video link from How Stuff Works: Topic: The Genetic Work of Gregor Mendel (4 minutes) http://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/6013-genetics-the-genetic-work-of- gregor-mendel-video.htm Gregor Mendel is introduced as the first person to create a scientific experiment to study genetics by breeding pea plants. If unable to show the video, the links provided below give a background into the life and scientific works of Gregor Mendel. http://www.zephyrus.co.uk/gregormendel.html http://anthro.palomar.edu/mendel/mendel_1.htm http://mendel.imp.ac.at/mendeljsp/biography/biography.jsp Distribute students into groups to answer the follow up questions below. Then discuss as a class. 12 LEP Modification: • Give the students the questions ahead of time so they can use them as a guide for listening and viewing during the video. This way they will be more likely to catch the important information and be more productive in the group discussion.
  • 13. 1. What was Gregor Mendel’s profession? (he was an Austrian monk) 2. What plants did Gregor Mendel study in order to learn about how traits are inherited? (pea plants) 3. What traits did he see in the pea plants that he began to study? (shape of seed, color of seed, tall and short stem plants, tall and short plants) 4. During Mendel’s lifetime was his work in the field of genetics recognized by other scientists? (no) As a reinforcement of vocabulary visit the following interactive website: Welcome to Phantom Manor This website reviews the basics of genetics and reviews vocabulary. http://www.vilenski.org/science/notebook/unit2/genetics_evolution/index.ht ml Day 5 Elaborate- Once students understand how traits are inherited, present them with a blood type challenge. If you have already studied the human body, ask the following questions: What are the 4 types of blood? (A,B,AB,O) Which blood type is the most common? (O) Which blood type is the rarest or least common? (AB) The following activity is included as an attachment but – “Who’s your daddy” is also a web investigation that offers 3 variations- novice (only blood types), intermediate (only visible traits), advanced (blood types and visible traits) You may choose to use the web simulation and complete the activity as a class or use the handout for individual or group work. If students are doing the intermediate or advanced you will need to refer to the website for the visuals included. (attachment 2) Before presenting the activity go over the blood type chart and pose a couple of questions about it. Blood type chart: Allele from parent 1 Allele from parent 2 Genotype of offspring Blood types of offspring A A AA A A B AB AB 13
  • 14. A O AO A B A AB AB B B BB B B O BO B O O OO O Which 2 sets of alleles will create type B blood? (BB and BO) Which 2 sets of alleles will create type A blood? (AA, and AO) Which alleles must be present in order to form AB blood? (AB) Is it possible for a parent with A blood and a parent with B blood to have a child with O blood? (Yes, if both parents carry the O as a recessive blood type) Each of the 3 levels of the web interactive has a printable worksheet. The worksheet attached was adapted from the website. If students get stuck there are tutorials included on the website that can serve as a review. There are three different scenarios and levels of difficulty. The activity included is adapted from the novice level, the other 2 levels require students to look at the parent photographs found on the website. Tip: To see which baby belongs to the Poole’s, the students will need to complete two Punnett squares…. If they do not know which 2 alleles to cross for the second Punnett square, have them refer them back to the blood type chart. Answers to Who’s Your Daddy? web simulation: Baby # 1 belonged to the Poole’s Baby # 2 belonged to the Leele’s Baby # 3 belonged to the Hayes Day 6-7 Evaluate- Pass out the project choices handout. (attachment 3) Allow students to choice a project to complete. Many of the projects may require some independent research so you may want to reserve time in the media center or resources for them to use. The last project choice about cloning was adapted from http://www.discoveryschool.com/curriculumcenter 14 LEP Modification: • Limit length and number of questions and or provide appropriate template or writing frame.
  • 15. Day 8 Extensions- Visit the link below to NOVA-Cracking the Code of Life http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/genome/program.html It is divided into 16 short video segments, each one explaining a deeper level of genetics and its affect on human life. Name ______________________________ Date _________ Look at the list of traits listed below. Determine which traits you have and put a check mark inside the appropriate column. The left column indicates dominant traits while the right represents recessive traits. Once you have completed your list we will collect class data and look at similarities or differences. 1. Did you have more dominant or recessive traits? ______________________ Traits Dominant Recessive 1 Earlobe Free Attached 2 Dimples Dimples No dimples 3 Tongue roller Roller Non roller 4 Freckles Freckles No freckles 5 Eyelashes Long Short 6 Hair line Widow’s peak No widow’s peak 7 Hair type Curly Straight 8 Hair color Dark or Brown Blonde, light or red 9 Eyes Dark Blue or Green 10 Lips Thick Thin 11 Thumb Normal curve Hitch hiker 12 Skin pigment Brown shade Albinism 13 Vision Normal colors Colorblindness 14 Tongue folds to touch nose Tongue can Not touch nose Tongue can fold to touch the nose 15 Fingers Hair on knuckles No hair on knuckles 16 Interlaced fingers Left thumb folds over right thumb Right thumb folds over left thumb 17 Pinkie bend Pinkie does not curve in to others Pinkie curves in toward other fingers 15
  • 16. 2. Which kinds of traits (dominant or recessive) are more likely to be passed down to your children? _____________________ 3. Is it possible for you to have traits that are not visible in your parents? ______ 4. Were your dominant traits actually dominant among your classmates? _____ Name _________________________ Date ___________ There has been an earthquake at a local bay area hospital. Nurse Ratchet, only on her second day on the job, was assigned to care for the babies in the nursery. In her haste to evacuate the hospital, Nurse Ratchet neglected to put identification bracelets on the newborn babies. Your job is to utilize your knowledge of genetics and heredity in order to the deliver the babies to their correct parents. To solve the mystery, you must analyze various genetic traits in order to match the babies to their parents. You will need a solid understanding of Punnett squares, blood types, dominant, recessive, and codominant genes in order to solve the case. Baby Genotypes: Baby # 1 Baby # 2 Baby # 3 O AB A The first set of parents are the Leel’s. Mr. Al Leel’s blood type is AB. Mrs. Allie Leel’s blood type is AB. Use the Punnett square below to determine the possible genotypes of the babies born to the Leel’s. 16
  • 17. Compare the 4 possible genotypes with the genotypes of the 3 evacuated babies. Which baby or babies could possibly belong to the Leel’s? _____________________________ Why? ___________________________________________________________ Activity adapted from: http://www.cccoe.net/genetics/daddyhome.html The second set of parents are the Haye’s. Mr. Aaron Haye’s blood type is O. Mrs. Dina Haye’s blood type is AB. Use the Punnett square below to determine the possible genotypes of the babies born to the Haye’s. Compare the 4 possible genotypes with the genotypes of the 3 evacuated babies. Which baby or babies could possibly belong to the Haye’s? _____________________________ Why? ___________________________________________________________ The third set of parents are the Poole’s. Mr. Gene Haye’s blood type is B. Mrs. Fallen Poole’s blood type is O. Use both of the Punnett squares below to determine the possible genotypes of the babies born to the Poole’s. Compare the 4 possible genotypes with the genotypes of the 3 evacuated babies. Which baby or babies could possibly belong to the Poole’s? _____________________________ 17
  • 18. Why? ___________________________________________________________ Based on all the information you have gathered, indicate which babies belong to each set of parents? Parents Baby # Leel’s Haye’s Poole’s 18
  • 19. The movie Jurassic Park, based on a novel by Michael Crichton, explored what could happen if scientists were able to clone dinosaurs. In the story, scientists found dinosaur genetic material in insect bodies that had been preserved in amber, the hardened sap of trees, for millions of years. The cloned dinosaurs were placed in a theme park on an island. Research genetics and cloning and write a brief essay in which you argue whether the plot of Jurassic Park is realistic. Make sure you give details to support your reasoning. I. Grade Level/Unit Number – 7th Grade II. Unit Title: Genetics – Traits and Punnett Squares III. Length of Time: 9 days IV. Objectives Included: 5.01, 5.02, 5.03, 5.04, 5.05, 5.06 V. Materials/Equipment Pop Beads – purchased from craft stores or catalogs. http://www.thebeadsite.com/BNW-pop.htm 2 pennies per group of students Gummy Bears – Each pair of students will need the following gummy bear combinations in re-closable bags: 30 red, 30 yellow, 28-31 red and 9-12 yellow (total of 40 per bag), 9-11 red – 19-21 orange – 9-11 yellow (40 per bag) VI. Notes to Teacher Additional resources, websites and interactive links are found at the end of the unit. Day 1 Engage- Begin by asking the class some questions. How many of you have a brother or a sister? If you don’t have any brothers or sisters, do you have any aunts or uncles? Consider what these individuals look like in relation to you, your parents, or each other. The teacher should then relay some information about their own family, thereby increasing the interaction and authenticity between teacher and student. Explain that each person in the room is a zygote – the product of their 19 Language Objectives: The student will… • Use appropriate terminology to discuss the results of a Punnett square. • Express similarities and differences between genetic concepts.
  • 20. mother’s egg and father’s sperm. As such, ½ of your genetic material came from Mom and ½ from Dad, but the traits carried by the genetic material aren’t always the same between each child in a family. Explore- What is heredity? Heredity is the transmission of genetic material from one generation to another generation. In organisms with two sexes half of the genes come from each parent. The fertilized egg cell carries genetic information from each parent and then multiplies to form the complete organism. A person’s appearance and composition is inherited, based on human characteristics involving DOMINANT and RECESSIVE traits, Dominant traits are those that prevail over others; recessive traits are those that are masked. Can we predict a person’s looks? Allow student to participate in the activity on determining traits with coins. (attachments 1 & 2) Students engage in a coin toss to determine the looks of their offspring. They will compile all the results and illustrate their offspring with the randomly chosen traits. Each set of students needs 2 coins, the two charts with the possible allele combinations and the blank paper to draw the offspring. Remind students to add color to their offspring drawing. Day 2 Explain- Chromosomes are composed of strands of DNA that contain information that codes for specific proteins in each individual. The section of DNA that codes for a specific trait is called a gene. There are two possible forms of each gene, which are called alleles. Since our genetic make-up is ½ from our mother and ½ from our father, alleles occur in pairs. Remind students that alleles that are identical are termed homozygous or purebred (examples- BB,SS,TT) while alleles that are different are called heterozygous or hybrid (examples- Bb, Ss, Tt). Alleles can either be dominant meaning that they usually occur most often in a population for a particular trait, or they can be recessive. Recessive alleles are only truly expressed if there is no dominant allele present in a pair of genes for the same trait. The combination of alleles determines which form of a particular gene will occur within an individual. Allow students to work in pairs to complete the brace map and vocabulary review chart to reinforce vocabulary about genetics. (attachments 3 & 4) Answers to the brace map: Different form of a gene: alleles Trait that shows up when present: dominant ; examples: dark hair, dark eyes Trait that is hidden or masked: recessive; examples: light hair, blue or green eyes Answers to the vocabulary review chart: These answers are opinion. Students are to link the terms together and create a connection between all vocabulary terms in the same row and same column. 20
  • 21. There are no exact answers, so allow student to share the similarities they come up with. 21
  • 22. Day 3 Elaborate- Every individual carries genetic material from each parent. The germ cells, egg and sperm contain only ½ of the genetic material (23 chromosomes) compared to a regular cell (somatic cells) with 46 chromosomes – 23 pairs. Therefore, each particular germ cell can be composed of a number of different variations of the original combined material from both parents. As two germ cells combine to form a zygote, it makes sense that some traits may occur in siblings of a particular family, but other traits give each individual their unique features. Review with students that the physical expression of the allele combinations for particular traits is called the phenotype. A phenotype is something that is outwardly expressed (hair color, eye color, dimples, tongue rolling, body proportions, etc.). The combination of allele types that determine a person’s phenotype is called the genotype, and it is expressed as a pair of letters representing the homozygous or heterozygous allele pairs for a trait (Bb, TT, rr). During complete dominance situations, a dominant trait will be expressed if the alleles are homozygous or heterozygous in their pairing. For example, if brown fur is dominant (B) to white fur (b) in cattle, then the possible genotypes for fur color are BB (brown), Bb (brown) or bb (white). If the genotypes of the parents are known for a particular trait, it is possible to predict which genotypes will occur more or less often. An English geneticist by the name of Reginald Punnett developed a system in the early 20th century to predict the genotypes and phenotypes for offspring of different genetic traits. His system is known as the Punnett Square. In a Punnett Square, a grid is drawn to represent the possible statistical combinations from crossing different traits. A single trait is termed monohybrid and is represented by two possible allele forms for each parent. (SS, Ss, ss) Therefore, the Punnett Square contains 4 boxes (two for the female contribution and two for the male contribution). Each box will represent a possible genetic combination for the offspring. On the top of the square, the allele pair for either the mother or father is split and one letter (allele) is placed over each box. The splitting of the alleles represents how the germ cells only contain one allele for 22 LEP Modification: • During the lecture, support student learning of concepts through providing visual aids, note-taking guidelines and/or partially completed notes to be completed during the lecture. • Isolate key vocabulary and define explicitly using as much simple vocabulary and visual representation as possible. • Use written descriptions of traits to illustrate the phenotype of a hypothetical person.
  • 23. each pair. A similar splitting of the other parent’s alleles occurs on the left side of the Punnett Square as shown below. In this example, a Punnett Square is developed for the cross between a homozygous dominant brown cow and a recessive white bull. This simple design can be used to check the probability that particular genotypes and subsequent phenotypes are expressed in a population. Notice in this example all the offspring have the same genotype (Bb) and all will have brown fur. The parents are homozygous for their dominant and recessive traits. The parents are known as “true-breed or purebred” individuals. This term, developed by Mendel, means that a cross between two homozygous individuals with the same alleles (BB x BB or bb x bb) will always produce offspring with the same allele combination as the parent. Notice that the gene for white fur (recessive) although present is hidden by the dominant gene for brown fur. If one were to cross two of these offspring (Bb x Bb), what do you think would be the potential composition of the offspring? Use the Punnett square below to find the answer. B B b b Brown Cow White Bull Bb Bb Bb Bb 23 b b B B
  • 24. The dominant brown fur allele is still most often expressed either as the homozygous BB or the heterozygous Bb. One change, however, is the reappearance of the recessive white fur allele (b). Notice only one quarter of the boxes (representing possible offspring) has to recessive alleles (bb). The reappearance of the recessive trait confirmed that it had not somehow been blended into the dominant trait, but rather just temporarily masked. By using the Punnett Square, it is possible to estimate the proportion of different offspring phenotypes based on the parental alleles. This proportion is termed the phenotypic ratio. For traditional Mendelian Genetics, a monohybrid cross between two individuals that are heterozygous for a single trait will yield 3 dominant offspring to every recessive offspring – a 3:1 ratio. Mendel’s results work well for large populations of offspring, but may not work with small populations. The Punnett Square can also be used to discuss the genotypic ratio for a particular cross of parents. In the last example, one quarter of the offspring were homozygous dominant (BB), one half heterozygous (Bb) and one quarter recessive (bb). Therefore, the genotypic ratio is 1:2:1 Other geneticists discovered that Mendel’s theories were not universal for all types of genetic crosses. What is INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE? When traits are passed from parent to child as a result of different combinations of alleles. Occasionally alleles produce incomplete dominance such as crossing a red carnation with a white one and producing a pink carnation. The result is a mixture of both traits. Occasionally the heterozygous individuals actually were some blend between the dominant and recessive trait (red + white = pink). This type of dominance is termed incomplete, because the dominant trait does not completely overshadow the recessive. An additional exception to Mendelian genetic principles is the idea of co- dominance. In co-dominance, both the dominant and recessive allele are expressed equally. An example of co-dominance can be shown in the A,B,O and AB blood types. Type “O” blood is recessive and both types A and B are dominant. When a germ cell carrying the “A” blood type combines with a “B” type germ cell, the resultant zygote contains type AB blood. In either case, Punnett squares can be use to show the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of these crosses. Day 4 Evaluate- To evaluate student understanding of Mendelian genetics and the use of the Punnett square, students will complete the following exercise. The exercise is based on a lab activity from 1998: W. P. Baker and C.L. Thomas. 1998. Gummy Bear Genetics. The Science Teacher, Nov (attachment 5) 24
  • 25. Provide the following for each pair of students. Use re-sealable plastic bags to reuse the materials. 30 red gummy bears 30 yellow gummy bears 28-31 red gummy bears and 9-12 yellow gummy bears (40 total) 9-11 red gummy bears, 19-21 orange gummy bears, 9-11 yellow gummy bears (40 total) Explain to the students that each bag represents the offspring from a cross between two gummy bears. Don’t imply/suggest that any particular color is dominant or recessive. The student’s job is to determine the phenotypic ratio for each bag, and to designate letters to represent dominant and recessive alleles thereby determining the genotype of each cross and their offspring. After the students have gathered their data, have them place the information on the board. Some of the ratios won’t be exactly 3:1 (just like in nature), but students should be able to discern what the correct ratio should be based on Mendelian genetics. Lower functioning students may need more prompting and work better in a small group setting if possible. Discuss all results of the crosses, especially the bags that have only one color in them. These bags represent true-breeding pairs and have ratio of 1:1. Have students lead the discussion and explain their reasoning behind designations that are given to each bag. The bag that demonstrates incomplete dominance should generate the most discussion. This bag may require much more prompting and explanation than the others. Have the students make a table of their results and generate Punnett Squares to show both the offspring ratios (from the bag) and the assumed parent alleles on which they are based. Day 5 Extension 1- Complete the pop bead lab to help illustrate how the genetic material from each parent combines to form an offspring. Be sure to have enough beads so that each pair of students can form three different pairs of chromosomes. (attachment 6) Day 6 25 LEP Modification: • This activity will be more accessible to LEP students if the teacher models the steps for the students as the students complete their own bead pairs. The teacher should explain the science of what is happening during the demonstration/experiment.
  • 26. Extension 2- Manipulate the gummy bears to form examples of co-dominance. (Cut two bears of different colors and splice them together using a toothpick.) In this way, there is a good visual example of how the co-dominant gummy has obvious traits from each color. After students have grasped the concept of Mendelian and Non-Mendelian genetic inheritance and the role of the Punnett Square to help predict different genotypic and subsequent phenotypic ratios, it will be beneficial to approach the subject of changes in the genetic code. Changes to the genetic code can be in the form of a variant (polymorphism) or can cause the gene to become faulty (mutation). Many mutations are harmful, if not lethal, to the embryo, so they rarely are transferred from parent to offspring. Those that are transferred are most often in the form of a recessive characteristic, and as such, only appear when they there are homozygous recessive alleles. The most common types of mutations are deletion (base is left out of the copied DNA strand), insertion (an extra base is added), and substitution (where bases are switched). In some cases our bodies can detect the mutation and fix it, however, often times mutations linger within a DNA sequence waiting to be activated. Many types of mutations are caused by random errors during DNA replication or transcription. Some mutations are caused by specific physical or chemical agents. These agents are known as mutagens. Some examples of mutagens include high- energy radiation from X-rays, ultraviolet radiation, asbestos (and other small particulate) exposure and chemicals in cigarette smoke. Work environments, home locations and lifestyle choices are play a part in the potential for genetic mutations to occur. To increase student understanding of impact of mutagens on the inheritance of genetic traits, have students complete a triarama about potential genetically related health issues and lifestyle choices. (attachment 7) Day 7-9 Extension 3- The following website provides several links to genetics activities. There are several activities focused around genetics and Spongebob Squarepants that allow students to review genotype, phenotype, Punnett squares as well as dominant and recessive traits. http://sciencespot.net/Pages/classbio.html#Anchor-genetics 26
  • 27. Names __________________________ & __________________________ Determining Traits Coin Activity Allow one person in the group to toss one coin. Heads indicates the offspring is a female, tails indicates a male. Each person should toss a coin to see which trait pairs your offspring will have. Put a check mark in the appropriate column Once all traits have been determined, draw your offspring on a blank piece of paper. Trait dominant hybrid recessive (both heads) (1 heads, 1 tails) (both tails) EXAMPLE: RR Rr rr shape of face cleft in chin hair widow's peak spacing of eyes shape of eyes position of eyes size of eyes length of eyelashes shape of eyebrows position of eyebrows size of nose shape of lips size of ears size of mouth freckles dimples Include the following as the heading for your drawing: Parent(s) names: ______________________ & ______________________ Sex of Offspring: _______________ Name of Offspring: ________________ Date of birth: ___________________________ (Attachment 1) (adapted from Prentice Hall) 27
  • 28. Prentice Hall- attachment 2 28
  • 29. Prentice Hall- attachment 2 continued 29
  • 30. 30
  • 31. Name ___________________________________ Date ____________ Vocabulary Review Chart Write a sentence describing what these words have in common. Column 1 down- Column 2 down- Column 3 down- Row 1 across- Row 2 across- Row 3 across- (Attachment 4) Template adapted from Teacher Academy 31
  • 32. (Attachment 5) 32
  • 33. (Attachment 5 continued) 33
  • 34. (Attachment 5 continued) Pop Bead Lab 34
  • 35. Male Female Homologous Pairs Purpose: To understand how genetic recombination occurs in the cell by using pop beads to simulate chromosomes. Materials: Pop beads of at least two different colors (four colors would be better) so that each pair of students can construct four chromosomes of at least six beads from two different colors. Procedure: Introduce the concept of genetic recombination by briefly explaining that during meiosis each germ cell contains ½ of the genetic material of the parent. During the initial stages of meiosis, the homologous chromosomes (one pair from the father and one from the mother) connect with each other, and often genes from the different chromosomes switch places. This event is called crossing over. When crossing over occurs, portions of the chromosome that was entirely from one gender now become a combination of each parent. (Attachment 6) 35
  • 36. Crossing Over Have the students construct at least 4 pop bead chromosomes from at least two colors. It is often best to construct chromosomes of different sizes, so that distinctive pairs can be more easily differentiated. One size represents chromosome pair #1, while the other represents pair #2. Initially have the students mix the 4 chromosomes of similar size together, and then randomly separate the chromosomes until there are 4 separate chromosomes. Do the same with the chromosomes that are of a different size, and place each separate chromosome from the second set next to a chromosome from the first set. Each group, two chromosomes of different sizes, represent germ cells. Have the students note how some cells have chromosomes that are all from male relatives, or female or a combination of each. Students should also move around the room to observe how other groups separated their chromosomes. By using pop beads of different colors to represent different genders, it becomes obvious how a particular germ cell is a combination of both parents, and how the composition of each germ cell will be different. It is important for the teacher to point out that each human germ cell contains 23 chromosomes – not just two. With twenty-three chromosomes in each germ cell, the possible permutations of parts from the mother compared to the father are intimidating. Repeat the experiment, but this time have the students remove two beads from two of the chromosomes and switch their positions. The students will be simulating crossing over. Have the students repeat crossing over with the other group of different sized chromosomes. After this point, have the students finish making 4 germ cells. The crossing over effect will be blatantly obvious. Remind the students of how individual genes give direction for specific structures and functions in the body. Therefore, even the slightest bit of crossing over can create a large mosaic effect within children of the same parents. In addition, remind the students that the lab only simulates what occurs with the germ cells of one parent. It takes both egg and sperm to produce a zygote, and each person receives a different combination of genes from their parents, so its no wonder that children from the same parents may be similar or completely different in their appearance. (Attachment 6- continued) Name __________________________________ 36
  • 37. Side 1- Write an explanation of the different types of mutations. Side 2- Describe at least three environmental factors that influence mutation. Side 3- Describe lifestyle or work choices that foster the formation of mutations. 1. Cut paper to create a perfect square. 2. Fold the top right corner of the square down to the lower left corner, making a half X. 3. Repeat step 2, making the folded marks of a completed X. 4. Cut one side of a triangle to the center. 5. Add your information to the inside or outside and then staple the unused flap to form a pyramid. 6. Add a picture or drawing to each side to enhance the information. Foldable adapted from creative teaching press (Attachment 7) I. Grade Level/Unit Number: 7th grade 37
  • 38. II. Unit Title: Genetics and Heredity- Pedigrees III. Unit Length: 7 days IV. Objectives Included: 5.01, 5.02, 5.03, 5.04, 5.05, 5.06 V. Materials Needed: Handouts, computer access, research materials VI. Notes to Teacher: The link to the song “I Am My Own Grandpa” is provided along with the words in case it is unavailable. Additional resources, websites and interactive links are found at the end of the unit. Day 1 Engage- As a review of the information learned thus far ask students to orally answer the following heredity scenarios: 1. Carolyn has a colorblind father. Her mother is not colorblind and does not carry the colorblind gene. What is the chance that she will be colorblind? (none- because it is recessive. She could only have a chance of colorblindness if the mother were a carrier) 38 Language Objectives: The student will… • Read, write, and speak the vocabulary needed to talk about familial relationships (mother, father, sister in law, etc.) • Use vocabulary related to familial relationships to discuss pedigree and genetics. LEP Modification: • The following question-answer activities will be more accessible to LEP students if questions are discussed in pairs or groups. If possible the group should include bilingual students. The pair/group discussion may be in the native language, but the report back to the class should be in English. • Allow LEP students to use pictures and diagrams to help them remember vocabulary (i.e. free earlobes, rolling tongue, dimples).
  • 39. 2. Amber’s dad has free earlobes. Her mother has attached lobes. Is Amber more likely to have free or attached earlobes? (free earlobes because it is the dominant trait) 3. Brian’s mother can roll her tongue. Will he be more likely to be a tongue roller or a non-tongue roller? (he will be a tongue roller because it is dominant) 4. Hope’s mother has blonde hair and dimples. Her father has dark hair and no dimples. Which traits will hope most likely have? (dark hair and dimples because both are dominant) 5. Garrett’s mother has freckles, but his father does not. Is there a chance that he will have freckles? (yes because they are dominant) 6. Bob’s parents both have long eyelashes. Is he likely to have long eyelashes also? (yes because they are dominant) Most human traits are determined by multiple genes and are influenced by environmental factors and lifestyle choices. “Four Corners” Post four pertinent questions in the corners of the room. Have the students count off by 4, join cooperative groups and decide the answer to their question(s). Each group will share their response with the whole group. Questions might include: (1) How can someone find out if they are at risk for a genetic disease? (2) Name 3 genetic diseases. (2) How is it possible for 2 healthy parents to have a child with a genetic disorder? (4) How may genetic risk factors be reduced or neutralized? (5) If you cloned a “Bill Gates”, would the clone have the same IQ and photographic memory as the original? Justify your answer (6) If the clone were to receive a heart or liver from his “twin” would the body recognize the new organ as a foreign body or would it accept it as its own? (7) How hard would it be to clone a human? (8) Do you think the cloning of humans should be legal? Justify your answer. 39
  • 40. Ask: What are genetic disorders? (A genetic disorder is a disease caused by abnormalities in an individual’s genetic material. The normal function of a gene is to encode a protein, not to cause an illness. Disease occurs when genes are unable to work properly.) What are some common examples of genetic disorders? (sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, down syndrome, hemophilia) Day 2 Explore- Ask: What is a pedigree? (It is a diagram used to track a particular trait through a family to show possible carriers and those who are affected with the condition.) Show students a sample pedigree and walk them through how to interpret it. When you visit the doctor he/she might ask you questions about your family and create a pedigree chart. This is how genetic traits and disorders can be tracked through a family tree. The chart is made up of circles, squares and connecting lines. Circles indicate females, while squares indicate males. If the circle or square is shaded in, it indicates the person is affected with the condition. Allow students to study the pedigree below. 40
  • 41. http://ghs.gresham.k12.or.us/science/ps/sci/soph/genetics/notes/pedigrees.htm The following link has an interactive pedigree chart, which may assist with further explaining. http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/HowTheBodyWorks/Autosomal-Dominant- Inheritance-Sample-Pedigree.aspx?articleID=10204&categoryID=XG- nh6-01b Provide students with the sample pedigree chart and allow them to interpret it and answer the questions. (attachment 1) Answers to pedigree review, attachment 1: 1. Gordon, Richard, Tim 2. 3- 3 are female 3. Gordon, Cheryl 4. Richard Jr, Zack 5. Add Robert beside Juliet and draw a line underneath to add Elizabeth Draw a line connecting to Richard Jr. at the top and add a brother Roger Draw a line beside Zack and add his wife Jean, and add their son Craig Day 3-4 Explain- Many factors contribute to the transmittance of diseases – lifestyle, inheritance, and environment. When people make key lifestyle choices, they are in essence running the risk of developing disease. Smoking and obesity are ranked as the two highest factors in preventable deaths. Therefore, choosing to maintain a healthy body, both in weight and in lifestyle choice, reduces the risk of heart disease, diabetes, stroke, and cancer. Ask: What is a healthy body weight? A healthy body BMI (body mass index) is between 18.5 -24.9. Obesity is over 30. Allow students to determine their own BMI: What is your Body Mass Index? BMI = (weight in pounds x 703) / (height in inches)2 Table: BMI Weight Status Categories BMI Weight Status Below 18.5 Underweight 18.5 -24.9 Normal 25 - 29.9 Overweight 30 & Above Obese http://www.whathealth.com/bmi/formula.html 41
  • 42. Genetic disorders may also be caused by chromosomal abnormalities. They are diseases caused by a different form of a gene called a variation, or an alteration of a gene called a mutation. Some genetic diseases, including many cancers, are caused by a mutation in a gene or group of genes in a person's cells. These mutations can occur randomly or because of an environmental exposure such as cigarette smoke. Other genetic disorders are inherited. A mutated gene is passed down through a family and each generation of children can inherit the gene that causes the disease. Still other genetic disorders are due to problems with the number of packages of genes called chromosomes. In Down syndrome, for example, there is an extra copy of chromosome 21. (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/geneticdisorders.html) Schedule a time for students to visit the media center to investigate a genetic disease and create an informational poster explaining its affects. Diseases to choose from: Sickle Cell Anemia, Cystic Fibrosis, Down Syndrome, Turner Syndrome, Klinefelter Syndrome, Cri du chat Syndrome, Williams Syndrome, Reciprocal Translocation, Philadelphia Chromosome, Robertsonian Translocation, Hemochromatosis, Hemophilia, PKU, Huntington Disease, Marfan Syndrome, Tay-Sachs Disease, Alzheimer Disease, Polycystic Kidney Disease Poster guidelines: The poster must: Explain what genetic diseases are and provide several examples. List the chosen disease and explain the affects it has on the body. Include an illustration that supports or enhances the description. Show proper citations for the sources used in research. The poster must answer the following questions: Which organs or parts of the body are most affected by the disorder? How can the disorder be treated to minimize affects on the carrier? What is genetic testing and when do doctors use it? 42 LEP Modification: Modified Poster guidelines for LEP students: The poster must: Explain what genetic diseases are. List the chosen disease and list or illustrate the affects it has on the body. Include an illustration that supports or enhances the description. Show proper citations for the sources used in research. The poster must answer the following questions in writing or in pictures: Which organs or parts of the body are most affected by the disorder? How can the disorder be treated to minimize affects on the carrier? What is genetic testing and when do doctors use it? •
  • 43. The following links offer information on several genetic diseases: Your genes your health- multimedia guide http://www.ygyh.org/ MedlinePlus genetic disorders http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/geneticdisorders.html Day 5-6 Elaborate- While the length and quality of human life may be influenced by many factors (sanitation, diet, medical care, sex, genes, personal health behaviors), occasionally abnormalities occur. Break students into pairs, present the following topics and allow them to choose a research topic, or randomly assign topics to groups. After sufficient computer or media center research time, students can combine with like topics and strengthen their answers. Allow groups to present to the class. Students or groups can create a PowerPoint presentation if time allows. Research topic A – To extend life until a human organ can be found, heart transplants from simians to humans have been used. QUESTION: How is it possible for the human body to accept an organ from another species? 43 LEP Modification: • Provide specific websites or other research materials for students to use during research. • Give students with very limited English proficiency a job to do in the group that requires less language (i.e. collecting the pictures for the PowerPoint or typing research notes into the PowerPoint) • Provide an alternate assignment, such as creating a poster that will allow the students to show the higher order thinking required for the project while reducing the amount of language needed to do the project. (Example, topic C could be done in two columns on a poster… one side with pictures of the benefits of genetics research, the other with pictures of ethical problems with doing or using such research.)
  • 44. Consider: ethics involved in transplants; the right to take the life of animals to keep a human alive; survival rate with transplants; problems that may occur; pioneers in the field. Research topic B – Medical technologies boast many advances including the ability to receive medications right through the skin using patches to using holographic images to replace the standard X-ray. QUESTION: Where do you see the technologies going in the next twenty years? Consider: cost of advances as well as cost of medical insurance per individual; only the wealthy being able to afford the best health care. Research topic C – In the field of genetics there have also been advances. The identification of DNA has assisted in the fight against crime. Many researchers are seeking ways to cure disease and disabilities before birth. QUESTION: How has genetics research benefited humans? Consider: is it ethical to tamper with the natural development of the unborn child?; is there a cost-effective way of practicing preventative medicine? What about genetic engineering? You may also contact the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and request a class set of the free book: You and Your Genes- Making it in a Tough Environment- Publication # 98-4367 www.niehs.nih.gov The book explains what genes are and how many we have in our body. It introduces genetic disorders and the affect they can have on a body. Day 7 Evaluate- Remind students that a pedigree is a diagram that traces the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family. Ask students: Is it possible for someone to be their own grandpa? Provide students with the words and allow them to listen to the song I am my own grandpa (attachment 2) Follow along with the words and provide an explanation if the students have trouble following along. Challenge students to come up with their own pedigree as the song is being played or while looking at the lyrics. 44
  • 45. Allow students to see a copy of the pedigree (attachment 3) Play the song again and follow along with the pedigree above. Remind them that squares represent males and circles represent females. Ask: What do the lines connecting squares and circles indicate? (marriage) What do lines coming from a square and circle indicate? (offspring) What does the square with the line through it indicate? (deceased husband) How many children did the narrator’s wife have with her first husband? (one- female) Is it possible to be your own grandpa? (yes- by marriage) Extension- To review vocabulary, allow your students to play the mind reader game. It can be used to begin each class or to summarize a unit. Be a mind reader: Post the key vocabulary terms on the board, bulletin board or word wall. Tell the students to number a piece of paper 1-5. The first clue is always “This is a word on the word wall.” The students are to guess which word you are thinking of and write it down. Then give clue # 2. (This clue is a little more specific) Allow students to record a word that fits the clue. The next 3 clues are gradually more specific until the last clue practically gives the answer away. Allow students to share the word they chose. As a variation you can allow students to create their own clues and practice quizzing the rest of the class. 45 LEP Modification: • Make some of the clues into picture cards that can be shown to the students during the game. • Help students narrow choices by giving clues like “it starts with the letter ‘p,’” when appropriate. LEP Modification: • Following the song may be difficult for some LEP students. Partner students with more fluent students so that they can follow the song and fill out the diagram together. Assess Language Objectives: • Use the pedigree activity to measure the student’s ability to identify and classify familial relationships in writing.
  • 46. Possible key words to use on a word wall or provide with students while they play genetics heredity genes dominant traits recessive traits traits allele hybrid punnett square phenotype genotype DNA Mendel chromosome Read these mind reader examples to your class: Clue 1- It is a word on the word wall Clue 2- It is two words Clue 3- Examples are tongue rollers, windows peak and long eyelashes Clue 4- It can be passed down by one of your parents Clue 5- It is the allele that over rides or covers up the weaker allele Word: Dominant traits Clue 1- It is a word on the word wall Clue 2- Each parent provides these Clue 3- An example is a or A Clue 4- They come in pairs Clue 5- The pair can be dominant, recessive or hybrid Word: Allele Clue 1- It is a word on the word wall Clue 2- It illustrates probability Clue 3- It is a genetic cross Clue 4- It shows allele combinations Clue 5- It is a chart with 4 squares Word: Punnett Square Clue 1- It is a word on the word wall Clue 2- A branch of science Clue 3- The study of heredity Clue 4- Started with the study of pea plants Clue 5- Explains how traits are passed down from parents Word: Genetics Clue 1- It is a word on the word wall Clue 2- It is found in every cell 46
  • 47. Clue 3- It is made of DNA Clue 4- 23 are found in sperm and 23 in an egg Clue 5- Contains instructions to control how cells work Word: Chromosome (Attachment 1) 47
  • 48. (Attachment 1) Activity taken from Prentice Hall, Inc I Am My Own Grandpa This story is a song written by Dwight Latham and Moe Jaffe (1947, General Music Publishing Company, Inc.) Http://www.geocities.com/researchtriangle/forum/2288/song.html (Attachment 2) Pedigree solution: I am my own grandpa Below is a link to the song that can be played in class: http://www.ziplo.com/grandpa.htm 48
  • 49. Play the song again and follow along with the pedigree above. Squares represent males and circles represent females. Lines connecting squares and circles indicate marriage. Lines coming from a square and circle indicate offspring. Ask: What does the square with the line through it indicate? (deceased husband) How many children did the narrator’s wife have with her first husband? (one- female) Is it possible to be your own grandpa? (yes- by marriage) (Attachment 3) Genetics & Heredity Assessment Questions 5.01 Explain the significance of genes to inherited characteristics – RBT Tag A2 1. “We are the product of our parents.” How does this statement relate to the role of genes in regard to inherited characteristics? a. Our genes are identical to those of our parents. b. Each parent provides ½ of our genetic material. c. All parental genes are passed to the offspring. d. The genetic material we contain carries the same information as our parents. 2. How did Mendel’s research prove that characteristics of the parents were transferred to the offspring? a. Dominant traits appear more often in a population. b. Red flowers crossed with white flowers produced pink flowers. c. Recessive traits from the parents appear in the F2 generation. d. Parents with dominant traits produce more offspring than parent with recessive traits. 49
  • 50. 5.02 Explain the significance of reproduction – RBT Tag B2 1. Jessica looks like her paternal grandmother yet has a body shape similar to her own mother can be best explained by: a. mutation b. crossing over c. polymorphism d. DNA Fingerprinting 2. What process helps best explain why children in a particular family (no matter which gender) tend to resemble each other? a. genetic recombination b. polymorphism c. deletion of genetic material d. insertion of genetic material 5.03 Identify examples and patterns of human genetic traits – RBT Tag A2, B4 1. Which of the following would provide the best evidence for a dominant trait? a. A population of organisms where ¾ of the individuals possess the same genetic trait. b. A population of organisms where ½ of the offspring are male. c. An F1 generation where all the offspring had a phenotypic characteristic that was the same as one of the parents. d. An F1 generation where all the offspring are identical to both parents. 2. In order for any offspring to display a recessive trait, what must be true of the parents? a. Both parents must also show the same recessive trait. b. One parent carries the recessive gene, but the other parent does not carry the recessive gene. c. Both parents are dominant for the trait. d. Both parents carry the recessive gene. 5.04 Analyze the role of probability in the study of heredity – RBT Tag C3, C4 1. When setting up a Punnett Square to determine the probability that a particular allele will occur in a population, it is important that a. parental alleles are paired on the outside of the square. 50
  • 51. b. at least 2 alleles are represented outside each row and column of the Punnett Square. c. each pair of parent alleles are divided and placed outside the rows and columns of the Punnett Square. d. each side of the square contains one allele from the mother and one from the father. 2. A darkened square in a pedigree chart indicates a. a female that has a certain trait. b. a male that has the allele for a certain trait. c. a female that does not carry a certain trait. d. a female that is a carrier for a certain trait. 5.05 Summarize the genetic transmittance of disease – RBT Tag A3 1. Which of the following distinguish sex-linked disorders from other Mendelian disorders? a. Females are only “carriers” of sex-linked disorders. b. Disorders only affect the reproductive organs of the offspring. c. Sex-linked disorders are passed on from fathers to sons d. Males more often have sex-linked disorders than females. 2. Which of the following best describes the genetic transmittance of disease? a. Diseases most often appear as recessive alleles. b. Genetic diseases most often appear in individuals who are heterozygous for a particular allele. c. Genetic diseases are primarily passed from mothers to children. d. Genetic diseases are only caused by environmental mutagens. 5.06 Evaluate evidence that human characteristics are a product of inheritance, environmental factors and lifestyle choices – RBT Tag B3 1. Sam is 13 and has lived solely with his mother his entire life. Sam is a pretty average kid, but he is unique in that Sam’s blood type is AB- , the rarest type. Sam’s mother has recently died, and a number of men have come forward to claim Sam as their son along with the fortune from his mother’s life insurance policy. Sam knows that his mother’s blood type was A- , and he has recently learned about blood typing in his science class. Sam thinks that he can probably figure out which man could be his father, or at least eliminate those who could not be related to him. Based on your understanding of genetics, which of the following men could be Sam’s father? 51
  • 52. a. A man with type A+ blood. b. A man with type O- blood. c. A man with A- blood. d. A man with B- blood. 2. Julie’s house is built over an ancient landfill that contains many radioactive chemicals many of which are known genetic mutagens. Which of the following is probably a result of living over this landfill? a. Julie’s house has a funny smell to it. b. Significantly more people on Julie’s street have cancer than in other places in the same city. c. More twins are born on Julie’s street than on streets on either side of her. d. More people have dogs in Julie’s neighborhood than cats. 52
  • 53. Genetics & Heredity Assessment Questions LEP MODIFIED ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS 5.01 Explain the significance of genes to inherited characteristics – RBT Tag A2 1. “We are the product of our parents.” How does this statement relate to the role of genes in regard to inherited characteristics? a. Our genes are identical to those of our parents. b. Each parent provides ½ of our genetic material. c. All parental genes are passed to the offspring. 2. How did Mendel’s research prove that characteristics of the parents were transferred to the offspring? a. Dominant traits appear more often in a population. b. Red flowers crossed with white flowers produced pink flowers. c. Recessive traits from the parents appear in the F2 generation. 5.02 Explain the significance of reproduction – RBT Tag B2 1. Jessica looks like her paternal grandmother yet has a body shape similar to her own mother. What explains the way Jessica looks? a. mutation b. crossing over c. DNA Fingerprinting 2. What process explains why children in the same family look alike? a. genetic recombination b. polymorphism c. deletion of genetic material 5.03 Identify examples and patterns of human genetic traits – RBT Tag A2, B4 1. What is the best evidence for a dominant trait? a. A population of organisms where ¾ of the individuals possess the same genetic trait. b. A population of organisms where ½ of the offspring are male. c. An F1 generation where all the offspring are identical to both parents. 53
  • 54. 2. When will a baby show a recessive trait? a. When one parent carries the recessive gene, but the other parent does not carry the recessive gene. b. When both parents are dominant for the trait. c. When both parents carry the recessive gene. 5.04 Analyze the role of probability in the study of heredity – RBT Tag C3, C4 1. How do you set up a Punnett Square? a. parental alleles are paired on the outside of the square. b. at least 2 alleles are represented outside each row and column of the Punnett Square. c. each pair of parent alleles are divided and placed outside the rows and columns of the Punnett Square. 2. A darkened square in a pedigree chart indicates a. a female that has a certain trait. b. a male that has the allele for a certain trait. c. a female that does not carry a certain trait. 5.05 Summarize the genetic transmittance of disease – RBT Tag A3 1. What distinguishes sex-linked disorders from other Mendelian disorders? a. Females are only “carriers” of sex-linked disorders. b. Disorders only affect the reproductive organs of the offspring. c. Males more often have sex-linked disorders than females. 2. Which of the following best describes the genetic transmittance of disease? a. Diseases most often appear as recessive alleles. b. Genetic diseases are primarily passed from mothers to children. c. Genetic diseases are only caused by environmental mutagens. 5.06 Evaluate evidence that human characteristics are a product of inheritance, environmental factors and lifestyle choices – RBT Tag B3 54
  • 55. 1. Sam’s blood type is AB- , the rarest type. Sam knows that his mother’s blood type was A- . Based on your understanding of genetics, which of the following men could be Sam’s father? a. A man with type A+ blood. b. A man with type O- blood. c. A man with B- blood. 2. Julie’s house is built over an ancient landfill that has a lot of radioactive chemicals. Many of the chemicals are known genetic mutagens. Which of the following is probably a result of living over this landfill? a. Julie’s house funny smells bad. b. A lot more people on Julie’s street have cancer than in other places in the same city. c. More people have dogs in Julie’s neighborhood than cats. 55
  • 56. United Streaming Videos These may have to be purchased! Life Science: Genetics (20) http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com/search/assetDetail.cfm? guidAssetID=8620ce1d-8714-46ad-ae42- 7b8b379f380a&tabDisplay=myContent Mystery of Twins, The (25) http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com/search/assetDetail.cfm? guidAssetID=4a58f0b5-22b6-435b-9923- 3ee4939b23b6&tabDisplay=myContent Genes, Genetics and DNA (24) http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com/search/assetDetail.cfm? guidAssetID=7570e857-9bae-4732-920f- cf79eaca9201&tabDisplay=myContent Human Genome (50) http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com/search/assetDetail.cfm? guidAssetID=d3dd813f-d547-4bff-907a- 10a9dac62000&tabDisplay=myContent Genetic Diseases (7) http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com/search/assetDetail.cfm? guidAssetID=a5e5489f-12de-47c0-bb3a- 393146b866ad&tabDisplay=myContent Cloning and the Tasmanian Tiger (7) http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com/search/assetDetail.cfm? guidAssetID=4cdb02cd-6421-42b4-af9d- b940e1393f19&tabDisplay=myContent Video links How stuff works- Gregor Mendel http://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/6013-genetics-the-genetic-work-of- gregor-mendel-video.htm http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/genome/program.html NOVA online- cracking the code of life video (9) 56
  • 57. Resources http://glencoe.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/0078617340/student_view0/chapter5/section1/self- check_quiz-eng_.html Genetics on-line quiz Cartoon guide to genetics http://history.nih.gov/exhibits/genetics/kids.htm Cloning of Dolly http://www.synapses.co.uk/science/clone.html Genetic diseases http://www.kumc.edu/gec/support/index.html genetic disorders http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/units/disorders/whataregd/ Genetic science learning center http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/ Genetics dictionary http://helios.bto.ed.ac.uk/bto/glossary/ Genetics facts- glaxo smith kline http://www.genetics.gsk.com/kids/factoids_kids/ Genetics information http://www.dnaftb.org/dnaftb/1/concept/ Genetics kid style http://library.thinkquest.org/3696/index2.htm Genetics tutorials http://www.biology.arizona.edu/human_bio/human_bio.html learn genetics http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/ National health museum (sites) http://www.accessexcellence.org/ PBS- Gene Hunters http://www.pbs.org/saf/1202/features/genelinks.htm 57
  • 58. Pedigree Tutorial- More about heredity-gsk http://www.genetics.gsk.com/kids/heredity02.htm The New Genetics http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/thenewgenetics/ Tutorial heredity & genetics http://www.cccoe.net/genetics/heredity.html Understanding genetics http://www.thetech.org/exhibits/online/ugenetics/ What does genetic mean? http://www.athro.com/evo/gen/geframe.html What is a gene? http://www.kidshealth.org/kid/talk/qa/what_is_gene.html The Science Spot http://sciencespot.net/Pages/classbio.html#Anchor-genetics Games and Interactives cells alive http://www.cellsalive.com/ Click & Clone Mimi the mouse http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/units/cloning/clickandclone/ Genetic experiments/labs http://library.thinkquest.org/28599/experiments.htm Genetics for kids/ interactive http://genetics.gsk.com/kids/dna01.htm Punnett practice problems http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio105/geneprob.htm Punnett sqaures & peas simulation http://library.thinkquest.org/20465/g_punnet.html Punnett square practice problems 2 http://www.athro.com/evo/gen/punexam.html 58
  • 59. Sherlock bones and the case of the disappearing dinosaurs http://www.vilenski.org/science/dinosaur/index2.html Welcome to phantom manor http://www.vilenski.org/science/notebook/unit2/genetics_evolution/index.ht ml Who's your daddy genetics http://www.cccoe.net/genetics/daddyhome.html Genetics games http://library.thinkquest.org/28599/games.htm Heredity Learning acitivity -gsk http://www.genetics.gsk.com/kids/heredity02.htm I am my own grandpa song http://www.ziplo.com/grandpa.htm punnett square game http://www.genetics.gsk.com/kids/heredity02.htm heredity quiz http://glencoe.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/0078617340/student_view0/chapter5/chapter_review_quizzes- eng_.html 59
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