Gr9 lesson1

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Gr9 lesson1

  1. 1. INJURIES AND FIRST AID
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION: <ul><li>What are injuries? </li></ul><ul><li>Injury prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Types of injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Basic first aid for common injuries </li></ul>
  3. 3. What are injuries? <ul><li>Injury or bodily injury is damage or harm caused to the structure or function of the body caused by an outside factor or force, which may be physical or chemical, and either by accident or intentional. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Sports injuries&quot; are injuries that happen when playing sports or exercising. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Injury Prevention <ul><li>You should always be careful and aware of your surroundings. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid dangerous situations or activities </li></ul><ul><li>In sports and exercising, use proper training techniques and equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>When something does happen, remain calm to prevent further injury to yourself or others. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of injuries <ul><li>Acute and chronic injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Minor and major injuries </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types of injuries contd. <ul><li>Injuries can result from play, sport, overuse, and numerous other causes. </li></ul><ul><li>Our main focus will be on common and sports injuries and the treatment of such injuries. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Types of injuries contd. <ul><li>Common injuries are those that occur in any situation and include such things as cuts, scratches, scrapes, bruises, burns, broken bones, choking, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Sport injuries are those that are directly due to participation in a sport or exercise, and include many of the common injuries as well as dislocations, swellings, knee injuries, tendon injuries and so on. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>There are two kinds of sports injuries: acute and chronic. Acute injuries occur suddenly when playing or exercising. Sprained ankles, strained backs, and fractured hands are acute injuries. Signs of an acute injury include: </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden, severe pain </li></ul><ul><li>Swelling </li></ul><ul><li>Not being able to place weight on a leg, knee, ankle, or foot </li></ul><ul><li>An arm, elbow, wrist, hand, or finger that is very tender </li></ul><ul><li>Not being able to move a joint as normal </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme leg or arm weakness </li></ul><ul><li>A bone or joint that is visibly out of place. </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic injuries happen after you play a sport or exercise for a long time. Signs of a chronic injury include: </li></ul><ul><li>Pain when you play </li></ul><ul><li>Pain when you exercise </li></ul><ul><li>A dull ache when you rest </li></ul><ul><li>Swelling. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Types of injuries contd. <ul><li>The most common sports injuries are: </li></ul><ul><li>Sprains and strains </li></ul><ul><li>Knee injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Swollen muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Achilles tendon injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Pain along the shin bone </li></ul><ul><li>Fractures </li></ul><ul><li>Dislocations. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Basic First Aid <ul><li>We’ll be looking at some of the basic first aid techniques which are fairly easy to learn and perform. Some of these include: </li></ul><ul><li>The RICE treatment </li></ul><ul><li>CPR </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with minor injuries like cuts and scrapes, strains and sprains </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with major injuries like broken bones, fractures, concussions, unconsciousness and shock </li></ul>
  11. 11. The RICE treatment is the general treatment for most acute soft tissue injuries (bruises, strains, sprains, tears) as it helps to prevent, stop and reduce swelling. When soft tissue is damaged it swells or possibly bleeds internally. This swelling causes pain and loss of motion, which limits use of the muscles. Other treatments can include: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), Immobilization (Slings, splints, casts), Rehabilitation or Physiotherapy.
  12. 12. R.I.C.E. (Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation) Rest. Reduce your regular activities. If you've injured your foot, ankle, or knee, take weight off of it. A crutch can help. If your right foot or ankle is injured, use the crutch on the left side. If your left foot or ankle is injured, use the crutch on the right side. Ice. Put an ice pack to the injured area for 20 minutes, four to eight times a day. You can use a cold pack or ice bag. You can also use a plastic bag filled with crushed ice and wrapped in a towel. Take the ice off after 20 minutes to avoid cold injury. Compression. Put even pressure (compression) on the injured area to help reduce swelling. You can use an elastic wrap, special boot, air cast, or splint. Ask your doctor which one is best for your injury. Elevation. Put the injured area on a pillow, at a level above your heart, to help reduce swelling.
  13. 14. Top first aid misconceptions <ul><li>You should put butter or cream on a burn. The only thing you should put on a burn is cold water - keep the butter for cooking. Put the affected area under cold running water for at least 10 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>2) If you can’t move a limb, it must be broken/ If you can move a limb, it can’t be broken. The only accurate way to diagnose a broken limb is to x-ray it. </li></ul><ul><li>3) The best way to treat bleeding is to put the wound under a tap. If you put a bleeding wound under a tap you wash away the body's clotting agents and make it bleed more, instead push on the wound. </li></ul><ul><li>4) Nosebleeds are best treated by putting the head back. If you put the head back during a nosebleed, all the blood goes down the back of the airway. Instead advise them to tilt their head forwards to allow the blood to drain out of the nostrils. Ask the person to pinch the end of their nose and breathe through their mouth. </li></ul>
  14. 15. 5) If someone has swallowed a poison you should make them sick. If you make someone sick by putting your fingers in their mouth, the vomit may block their airway. Also if the poison burnt on the way down, it will burn on the way up. Get medical advice and if possible find out what poison was taken, at what time and how much. 6) If you perform CPR on someone who has a pulse you can damage their heart . The evidence is that it isn’t dangerous to do chest compressions on a casualty with a pulse. 7) You need lots of training to do first aid . You don’t - what you mostly need is common sense. You can learn enough first aid in a few minutes to save someone's life. 8)You need lots of expensive equipment to do first aid . You don’t need any equipment to do first aid, there are lots of ways to improvise anything you need. Remember: anyone can save a life

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