Gr11 lesson2


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Gr11 lesson2

  1. 1. Stress and Depression Common Causes Common Signs and Symptoms Coping Strategies Caring & Treatment Tips
  2. 2. What Is Stress? <ul><li>Stress is the way your body relates to life’s pressures. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What Are Some Common Sources of Stress? <ul><li>Situations in the home </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents’ separation or divorce, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A new stepparent, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A new brother or sister, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A single parent household, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little or no emotional support, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neglect (personal needs not met), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abuse (physical or sexual)… </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. What Are Some Common Sources of Stress? <ul><li>Situations in life: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Death of a loved one or friend, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving to a new town or new school, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illness or hospitalization, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violence in the neighborhood, community, world, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural disasters or other emergencies… </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. What Are Some Common Sources of Stress? <ul><li>Situations at school: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems with friends, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gangs, threats from others, bullies, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popularity, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homework, grades, pressures to excel, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No support for school work… </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Reactions to Stress <ul><li>Reactions to stress can be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme and life threatening </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reactions to stress can affect a person’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social activity </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What Are Some Common Symptoms of Stress? <ul><li>Thoughts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty communicating or listening, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of concentration, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory problems, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty making decisions, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorientation and confusion, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of objectivity… </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. What Are Some Common Symptoms of Stress? <ul><li>Feelings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent crying, show of emotions, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyper-vigilance or excessive worry, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irritability, outbursts of anger, frequent arguments, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apathy, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denial, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety or fear, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guilt, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grief… </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. What Are Some Common Symptoms of Stress? <ul><li>Physical Changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-term physical reactions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extra oxygen reaches the brain because the bronchioles dilate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endorphins </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adrenaline </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extra blood reaches the organs because the heart rate increases </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. What Are Some Common Symptoms of Stress? <ul><li>Physical Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects on the Body: Long Term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Damage to the cardiovascular, immune, and nervous systems, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People develop patterns of response, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These responses may indicate need for corrective action to limit their impact. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. What Are Some Common Symptoms of Stress? <ul><li>Change in behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase or decrease in activity level, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substance use or abuse (alcohol or drugs), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline in school performance, absenteeism, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidance of activities or places (isolation), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Becoming accident prone, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to rest or relax, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blaming, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty in giving or accepting support or help, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to experience pleasure or have fun… </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. What Is Depression? <ul><li>Depression is a common and serious medical condition characterized by extreme sadness and loss of pleasure in life. </li></ul>
  13. 13. What Is Depression? <ul><ul><li>Depression can lead to suicide. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression can happen in anyone’s life. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Any race </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Any social standing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Any age – 1 in 8 adolescents have some symptoms </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. What Causes Depression? <ul><li>Precise causes are not known. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological - genetic factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psycho - social factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: continued distress from any of the previously identified “stressors”, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: distorted, negative thinking patterns… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Contributing Factors for Depression in Teens: <ul><li>Stressors such as fear of not meeting expectations of parents, teachers, others… </li></ul><ul><li>When things go wrong at school or at home teens may feel unsure of abilities or question how they fit in… </li></ul><ul><li>Facing choices about friendship, sex, alcohol, and drugs… </li></ul><ul><li>Facing conflicting messages from parents, teachers, friends and society… </li></ul>
  16. 16. Danger Signs in Depressed Teens <ul><li>When students…… </li></ul><ul><li>Experience a humiliating or anxiety provoking situation, </li></ul><ul><li>Show more than five major signs of depression for over two weeks (see student handout: Signs of Depression ), </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate or verbalize suicidal thoughts, </li></ul><ul><li>Increase risk-taking behavior, </li></ul><ul><li>Show signs of personality changes, </li></ul><ul><li>Seriously neglect self-care… </li></ul>
  17. 17. Stress and Depression <ul><li>Continued stress can lead to depression. </li></ul><ul><li>Continued depression can lead to suicide. </li></ul><ul><li>Managing stress can prevent or reduce depression and suicide. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to manage both stress and depression. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Stress & Depression: Comparing Physical Symptoms <ul><li>Stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gastrointestinal problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Headaches, other aches and pains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic fatigue or sleep disturbances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight loss or gain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweating or chills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tremors or muscle twitching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being easily startled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immune system disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual disturbances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stomachaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Headaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleeping problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appetite changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint or backaches </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Stress & Depression: Comparing Thoughts <ul><li>Stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty making decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorientation and confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of objectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty concentrating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty making decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems completing school work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems maintaining grades </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Stress & Depression: Comparing Feelings <ul><li>Stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apathy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety or fear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guilt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grief </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sadness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of enjoyment of everyday pleasures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hopelessness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worthlessness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emptiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guilt </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Stress & Depression: Comparing Actions <ul><li>Stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blaming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty in giving or accepting support or help </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to experience pleasure or have fun </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not wanting to go to school – cutting classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanting to be alone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty getting along </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dropping out of sports, hobbies, activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drinking, drug use </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Coping Strategies <ul><li>Coping with Stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are many resources for stress management. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of signs and symptoms of stress: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Take practical action to reduce the stress as soon as possible. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify ways to manage / reduce source of symptoms: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: relaxation and meditation techniques to help with physical symptoms of stress, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: discuss your thoughts and feelings with a responsible adult… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Coping Strategies <ul><li>Coping with Depression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize the signs of depression. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember that depression is not a sign of weakness nor is it something you can “snap out of”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression is a serious condition that needs medical attention. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression can be successfully treated and the emotional pain can be relieved. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Caring and Treatment Tips <ul><li>Stress – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer to listen, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggest a responsible person / resource to go to for help, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Depression – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer to listen - show concern, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust your instincts - alert an adult to your concern about a depressed person. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Extreme Stress <ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic or traumatic stress is potentially very destructive and can deprive [youth] of physical and mental health. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If stress is extreme and not managed, some individuals may experience post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PTSD is a psychiatric disorder that can occur following the experience or witnessing of life-threatening events. </li></ul></ul></ul>