Early Battles of the Texas Revolution


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Early Battles of the Texas Revolution

  2. 2. VOCABULARY • Faction: a group of people who share a viewpoint on an issue. • Siege: lengthy military attack on a fortified place. • Provisional Government: a group of people who make laws and provide services on a temporary basis.
  3. 3. MEXICAN TROOPS RETURN TO TEXAS • Texans soon realized that they disagreed with Santa Anna. – Santa Anna took over control of Mexico and changed all governments to military control. – Santa Anna sent General Martin Perfecto de Cos to command troops in Texas in 1835 • De Cos’ mission was to support Santa Anna and squelch any rebellion. – De Cos also sent Antonio Tenoria to Anahuac to start collecting customs duties again.
  4. 4. MEXICAN TROOPS RETURN • In Anahuac, two Texans were arrested for not showing respect to Tenorio. – Some Texans met and figured out that Santa Anna had overthrown their state government in Texas. – Then they decided to force Tenorio out of Anahuac. – They named William B. Travis as the leader to force Tenorio out. – Many were unhappy with Travis being so aggressive removing Tenorio.
  5. 5. CENTRALIST REACTION • When Tenorio was “escorted” into San Antonio, Cos wanted Travis arrested for what he did. –Cos also wanted to arrest Lorenzo de Zavala….he was a Mexican who disagreed with Santa Anna…he fled to Texas for safety. –At the time Stephen F. Austin returned to Texas after being in prison, disputes between Cos and the Texans continued.
  6. 6. WAR AND PEACE PARTIES • Texans still couldn’t decide what they wanted to support….Santa Anna/centralism (Central government controls everything or states’ rights. • Some Texans were part of the “War party” – Wanted to fight for Texas’ Independence • Three-Legged Willie Williamson • William B. Travis • Henry Smith
  7. 7. WAR AND PEACE PARTIES • There was also a group of people who weren’t ready to fight yet…they wanted to wait and see what happened with Santa Anna –They were known as the “Peace party” –Stephen F. Austin originally was part of this party. • These factions were not political parties but just had different opinions about how to deal with government
  8. 8. A TIME FOR CHANGE • After being in prison, Austin realized that the only thing Texans could do was to fight the Mexicans • Cos wanted to arrest more Texans but then he was reminded that the Texans had a cannon in the town of Gonzales –(Empresario Green De Witt had it to protect people from Indians)
  9. 9. THE BATTLE OF GONZALES • General Cos ordered a small troop to retrieve the cannon from Gonzales in late September of 1835. – When Mexicans reached Gonzales, the alcalde would not give up the cannon without written orders; the Mexicans waited across the Guadalupe River for the written orders to come in. – In the meantime, the Texans buried the cannon! – When word got out that the Mexicans were going to take the cannon, about 160 settlers joined the fight • They elected JH Moore as their leader • They dug up the cannon and flew a banner over it that said “Come and Take It”!
  10. 10. BATTLE OF GONZALES • October 2, 1835 –Texans refused to return the cannon and hung a flag on it that said, “Come and Take It”. – Texans attacked in the early dawn hours. – Fighting briefly stopped and Castaneda tried to negotiate, but Texans said “No.” – Fighting continued until one soldier was shot. Mexicans surrendered and returned to San Antonio. • That was known as the Battle of Gonzales, the first battle of the Texas Revolution.
  11. 11. THE ARMY OF THE PEOPLE • When other Texans heard about the Battle of Gonzales, the quickly came to Gonzales ready to fight. • In the meantime, Cos sent 30 soldiers to Goliad to guard the Mexican fort there. • But, about 50 Texans led by George Collingsworth attacked the fort. • The Texans won.
  12. 12. THE ARMY OF THE PEOPLE • October 13, 1935 –Austin was elected commander of the Army of the People. • Austin and 300 Texans decided to go to San Antonio to force General Cos to leave Texas. • Austin sent Bowie and Fannin to find a closer campsite to Bexar. – Instead of them returning as ordered, they sent a messenger with directions. – Austin became angry and stated any other officers refusing to obey orders will be court martialed.
  13. 13. THE ARMY OF THE PEOPLE • As the Army of the People moved to take San Antonio from Mexicans, more settlers joined…about 600 in all. • When the Texans reached San Antonio, a brief fight broke out near Mission Concepcion. – Mexican soldiers retreated further into San Antonio. – Texans began a month long siege of the city. – Cold weather and illness caused many volunteers to leave and return home without permission. – The Greys (volunteers from US) and companies of Texans became impatient with the siege. – Austin decided to resign as commander and became a commissioner to the US for additional help.
  14. 14. ATTACK ON SAN ANTONIO • Edward Burleson took over after Austin left. • Texans were getting impatient and bored and Burleson suggested a retreat until Spring. – Ben Milam asked the Texans “Who will go into San Antonio with old Ben Milam?” – About 300 of the remaining 500 men did and attacked on the Mexican soldiers – Hendrick Arnold (mixed-race free man) led Milam’s men into battle – Ben Milam was shot crossing from one house to the next.
  15. 15. ATTACK ON SAN ANTONIO • The fighting was fierce; lasted 5 days. • Fighting stopped when Cos surrendered. – He agreed to give Texans all of the money, supplies, arms, and property held by the Mexicans in San Antonio. – He agreed to support the Constitution of 1824. – In exchange, Cos was allowed to take his remaining soldiers out of San Antonio on December 9, 1935. • Texans then thought that the problems were solved…but Santa Anna started gathering an army south of the Rio Grande River to deal with the Texas Revolutionaries