Several bands that share the same language and have the same
Several small family groups that live and work together.
A way of life shared by a group of people
Hard to find.
A set of beliefs about God or gods.
A large group of tribes that join together to help one another.
A person who moves from place to place and has no permanent
A Native American religious leader and healer
To work at one kind of job and do it well.
A cone-shaped shelter used by Native Americans
A group of leaders who make decisions.
Mud mixed with a small amount of straw or grass.
Use of canals, ditches or pipes to carry water to dry places.
The Karankawas were found mostly
between the cities of Galveston and
Corpus Christi along the coast.
The hot and humid climate made life
difficult for these native people. They
had sandy, wet soil that was not good for
They also had holy men and women
These natives didn’t build much of a house, because
they were always moving in search of food. That
meant they were Nomads.
They mainly lived in brush lodges and lean-tos.
They spent much of their time moving from
place to place to find food.
They traveled in small groups of 30 to 40
people. A single leader headed each group.
Mostly they ate fish, alligators, and other
animals found in the marshes and swamps and
wild fruits and berries, roots, nuts.
When the season changed and the coast didn’t
provide enough food for the bands, they would
move inland and hunt for food, such as opossum,
raccoon, rabbits, deer.
The men mainly wore
Women wore short skirts made
of soft skins. Some had
shawls made of Spanish Moss.
Fiber sandals and also had
cloaks made of coyote hides or
blankets from rabbit skins.
These Indians were nomadic hunters.
They spoke many different languages because
they weren’t one tribe, but many grouped
They got their name from the location where
many of the bands or groups were found.
Many of these Indians moved to the Spanish
missions for survival from the Spanish moving
in the south and the Apache coming from the
This group constantly was moving and
looking/hunting for food.
There weren’t any large game in the area so
they relied on small game such as rabbits,
small rodents, reptiles, birds, bugs and
plants cacti, mesquite beans, nuts, sotol, and
Besides the small game that the
Coahuiltecans ate, they ate ant eggs,
spiders, worms, lizards, snakes (including
rattlesnakes), dirt, rotten wood, and deer
Coahuiltecans used brush lodges
sometimes when weather and hunting
were good in one place.
When they camped at one place for
only a day or two they might build
simple windbreaks or lean-tos of brush
and tree limbs.
Usually they lived and slept in the open.
The climate in South Texas is fairly
warm year round so living without a
shelter is practical.
Before the Spanish built missions,
the Coahuiltecan didn’t wear much
clothing because of the climate.
The men mainly wore the
breechcloths and fiber sandals.
In cold weather they would wear
cloaks made out of rabbit hides or
whatever they could find.
Once in the missions, the indians
would wear clothing given to them
Before Spanish built
After Spanish built
The name Caddo comes from the Indian
word Kadohadacho, which means "true
The Caddo Nation is a confederation of
several Southeastern Native American
tribes the USA.
The Caddo lived in the Piney Woods of
The Caddo were very intelligent
They became farmers and learned
to trade for those items they
They farmed maize, squash,
beans, nuts, and berries
The Caddos hunted for the game
found in the Piney Woods area.
Since the Caddo didn’t travel much for
food, they lived in tall cone shaped grass
To build a hut, they made a wood frame
and covered it with cut cane and long
These huts were nicely furnished inside
with furniture and were quite comfortable.
The inside of the huts had woven grass and
split cane mats on the floors.
Mats were hung up as partitions inside the
hut for other families.
Caddo Indian men wore breechcloths,
sometimes with leather leggings to
protect their legs. Caddo men did not
usually wear shirts, but in cold
weather they wore cloaks.
Caddo women wore wraparound
skirts and poncho tops made of woven
fiber and deerskin.
Both genders wore earrings and
Both men and women wore buffalo
The Plains Indians – Lipan Apache
There were lots of plains natives.
They are the most famous of all the
natives because they were fierce
warriors and hunters. One tribe
was called the Lipan Apache.
All plains tribes were Nomadic.
They traveled around in search of
Lipan Apache Clothing
Breechcloth and deerskin
moccasins and deerskin shirts,
Women wore dresses, kneehigh leggings and moccasins.
Decorated with elk teeth,
bones, shells and porcupine
Robes worn in winter.
Lipan Apache. Pushed onto the Edwards Plateau
by Comanche, the Lipan sought protection
temporarily in Spanish missions. Friendly at first
to settlers, they became feared raiders as more
Anglos moved onto the Plateau
Lipan Apache Shelter
Apaches lived in tipis so they could take them up
and down quickly to chase after the buffalo.
The women put them up in only 20 minutes!!
The tipis were made from buffalo or deer hides
and wrapped around long poles made from trees.
The Comanche were once part of the Shoshone
By around 1740 they first showed up in the Texas
The Comanche were fierce warriors who lived on
the Southern Plains. In order to settle they had to
run off the current Apache, Jumano and some other
The Comanche were organized as bands. They are
not really a tribe. They would come together in 2 to
3 bands to create a tribe when they would need to
fight an enemy.
The men hunted buffalo as their
main source of food they also
trapped deer, antelope, quail and
The women gathered fruits, nuts,
berries, bananas and the pricklypear cactus.
The traditional cooking pouch was
made from the lining of a buffalo's
Prickly Pear Tunas
Because the Comanche were always on the move
and nomadic, they lived in tepees.
These dwellings offered a wonderful combination
of utility and portability. Tipis could be raised and
lowered within minutes.
Two women alone could erect a tipi in less than
an hour. Tipis were more desirable as shelter than
Everyday clothing for
men included a
breechcloth, leggings, and
In the winter they wore
• The women wore buckskin
boots of buffalo hide that
dresses with fringe on the
reached to the knee.
sleeves and hems and
Men’s shirts worn in cold beaded designs.
weather were made from • The blouse was made like a
deer or antelope skins.
pouch and was high necked
The buffalo robe was also with beading across the
an important item.
shoulders to the sleeves.
The horse was a key element in
Comanche culture, who are thought to
have been the first of the Plains Indians to
have horses. The horses were introduced
to the Comanche by the Spanish.
With horses, they became more daring
and aggressive and were soon considered
as the best buffalo hunters on the plains.
The horse trade quickly became a large
part of their culture, breeding, stealing,
and trading horses to other plains Indians,
allowing them also to become more
productive buffalo hunters.
The Jumanos lived in the desert part of the
Mountains and Basins Region by West Texas
and New Mexico.
The Rio Grande branch of the Jumanos
were Puebloan Indians and they lived in
Puebloan style villages.
Each Jumano village had its own leader and
Shelter – Adobe Homes
• Since the Jumano were
farmers, they had homes that
were immovable and made
with thick walls of mud.
• They were called adobe homes.
• The walls kept the house cool
in the summer and warm in the
• They had many floors and the
ladders could be pulled up
when they were attacked so
they could hide inside.
The Puebloan Jumanos were farmers
and were able to grow corn, squash and
beans in the hot, dry climate.
They irrigated their crops with water
The Jumano also traded goods with
other tribes. They traded dried
vegetables for buffalo hides, meat,
cloth, salt, shells, and other goods they
could not make or grow.
They even traded with tribes as far as
the Caddo in Eastern Texas.
Jumano also grew cotton on their
land and tried to weave cotton
into cloth for clothing and
Jumano men wore breechcloths
during the hot climate and
usually tattooed their upper
Women wore deerskin ponchos
and skirts with cloaks of cattle