American Civil War: Peninsula Campaign, Second Bull Run, Shiloh, Stone's River
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American Civil War: Peninsula Campaign, Second Bull Run, Shiloh, Stone's River

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    American Civil War: Peninsula Campaign, Second Bull Run, Shiloh, Stone's River American Civil War: Peninsula Campaign, Second Bull Run, Shiloh, Stone's River Presentation Transcript

    • March- July, 1862
    • Leader Profiles: George McClellan  Brilliant organizer  Lacked killer instinct  Suffered from a God complex  Loved his men  Nicknames  “Little Mac”  “The Young Napoleon”
    • The Plan  McClellan’s plan is to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond after coming across the Virginia Peninsula  Takes ships up the York River who ferry him to land  He believes great Confederate forces await him, and the Union army advances slowly  The Union outnumbers 30,000 to 1,800 under John Magruder, who block his advance  McClellan takes Yorktown and ships up river  Union army advances up Peninsula and forms semi- circle around Richmond
    • Outcome  McClellan gets to within 5 miles of Richmond. He has 110,000 men and there are only 10,000 Confederates. Lee had taken the rest of his army to join Jackson and attack the Union Army  McClellan fears that it is a trap and refuses to attack unless he has more men  “We’re not retreating. We’re changing base.”  “We didn’t lose. We simply failed to win.”
    • Why did it fail?  Although he was a brilliant organizer and his men loved him, McClellan lacked the killer instinct, and the result was him and his men chasing the Confederates all over Virginia, embarrassing themselves in front of the nation  "I am tired of the sickening sight of the battlefield, with its mangled corpses and poor suffering wounded! Victory has no charms for me when purchased at such cost."
    • “If I gave McClellan all the men he asks for, they wouldn’t be able to lie down in camp. They’d have to sleep standing up.”- Abraham Lincoln
    • Lee takes command  The Battle of Seven Pines (or Fair Oaks) breaks out, and Confederate commander Joe Johnston is wounded  He is replaced by Robert E. Lee  McClellan closes in on Richmond but gets nervous and asks for more men
    • The Seven Days Battles  Lee did the unthinkable and divided his already small force and sent troops AWAY from Richmond to ATTACK McClellan, hoping to push him back  The end of the campaign resulted in battles at Mechanicsville, Beaver Dam Creek, Gaines’ Mill, Savage Station, White Oak Swamp, and Malvern Hill  The Confederates would emerge as the winners, and McClellan blames his loss on Lincoln for not giving him enough men.  Lincoln is so embarrassed that he replaces McClellan with John Pope.
    • Or Second Manassas August 28-30, 1862
    •  The Union Army now has 180,000 men. 100,000 are under McClellan, and 80,000 are under the new commander John Pope.  The Confederate Army only has 60,000 in total.
    • John Pope  Not many Generals cared for his personality  Gen. Fitz John Porter called him “a giant bag of wind”.
    • The Plan  Pope was to attack Richmond from the north, while McClellan would attack from the south  McClellan again asks for more men  Lincoln says he will give him all he has as long as he advances  McClellan says he must wait until the rainy season ends. Lincoln does not buy him and gives him an ultimatum of withdrawing him and putting him with Pope in the north  Lincoln then receives a letter from McClellan asking for 20,000 more men  Henry Halleck is asked to talk to McClellan  McClellan still complains and Lincoln withdraws him to the north (a mistake)
    •  McClellan is to take his men north by ships to commence attack on Richmond with Pope  Lee gets information from spies that he is being withdrawn  Decides to attack Pope before McClellan arrives  McClellan withdraws very slowly and does not reach Pope in time  Lee leaves 10,000 men at Richmond again in case the withdrawal was a faint  McClellan withdraws one brigade at a time  Uses a new excuse that they are sick with malaria
    • The battle begins  Pope eagerly waits for McClellan to arrive  Positions men on the Rappahannock River  Lee takes his men to the southern part of the river  Wants Pope to think he is going to make a frontal assault  Takes 10,000 men from Richmond after McClellan leaves  Makes Jeb Stuart ride up and down the river in plain sight of the Union army to make them think he is trying to find a place to cross  Confederate engineers pretend to build a bridge  Pope watches in awe and thinks there will be a frontal assault  Sends Jackson on a sixty miles march to capture Manassas Gap to take the railroad and supplies (40 hours)  Pope does not know, and only one regiment is guarding the supply line
    •  Pope lines three brigades and makes an assault towards Jackson’s line  Jackson crosses railroad and the two armies line up and begin to shoot at one another  2,700 of 3,000 Union soldiers fall  1,000 of 5,000 Confederate soldiers fall  Union retreats back and meets with Pope’s army, McClellan is still slowly coming up the Peninsula
    •  Pope gives the order to advance  One of McClellan’s brigades arrives under porter, the other under John Reynolds  Makes mistake of attacking one brigade at a time, alternating, not simultaneously  Had they attacked all at once, Jackson’s men could have not repelled them
    •  McClellan arrives in Washington as Pope’s men are retreating  Lincoln questions him and McClellan says Pope should have gotten out of it himself and not leave Washington unprotected  He sends only 20,000 men to battle and does not protect Pope  John Hay tells Lincoln that McClellan should be shot  Chase, Seward, and Stanton form committee to get rid of McClellan  Congress debates his removal
    •  Despite severely outnumbering their opponent (again), the Union Army loses the battle.  USA: 10,000 casualties  CSA: 8,300 casualties  Lincoln is so embarrassed that he has Pope replaced with…
    • He’s back!
    • The Battle of Harper’s Ferry  Union General Dixon Miles is in command of US military arsenal.  He has 12,000 men  Jackson is ordered to capture the arsenal, and surrounds it with 30,000 men  He forces Miles to surrender after only 3 days
    • Shiloh and Stone’s River
    • Ulysses S. Grant  Was a depressed alcoholic before the war  Quickly became one of the most dependent generals in the entire army  Won many great victories out west  Known for his very basic uniform  “Unconditional Surrender”
    • Shiloh (April 6-7, 1862)  Bloodiest battle in American history up until Antietam (Sept. 1862)  Fighting styles were much different out west, and less information is known about them  Little to no pictures taken
    • “The Hornet’s Nest”  A sunken road covered with trees occupied by the Union Army.  Confederates made 14 charges to capture it, but failed. They finally succeeded when they lined up 50 cannons and made so much damage that the Union officer there surrendered  CSA General Albert Sidney Johnston is killed
    •  This would be the Union’s first major victory of the war.  Even though they lost more men, they forced the Confederate Army from the field.  Casualties:  USA: 13,000  CSA: 11,000
    • Nathan Bedford Forrest (CSA)  “The Wizard of the Saddle”  Greatest cavalry commander in military history?  Historian Shelby Foote called him one of the war’s “two authentic geniuses”
    • Or Murfreesboro
    • Christmas in the Air  Battle fought between December 31, 1862 and January 2, 1863  The two armies were lined up on the banks of Stone’s River.  Even with orders to fight each other on New Year’s Eve, they refused because they did not want any killing on the holiday
    • Enormous Casualties  In the next two days, a total of 25,000 men would be killed or wounded out of a total of 75,000 participants.
    • Meet Braxton Bragg  Hated by his own men  Least liked man in the CSA Army  Gen. Breckinridge threatened to shoot him twice