GREEN ECONOMY IN THE ARAB REGION Fareed Bushehri, Regional DTIE Officer, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Regional Office for West Asia (ROWA) Greener & Smarter ICT 16-17 MAY 2012 KINGDOM OF BAHRAIN
Current Consumption Rates Patterns Two planets are needed by 2050 1900 2002 2050 2100
UNEP’s Working Definition of a Green EconomyA system of economic activities related to theproduction, distribution and consumption of goodsand services that result in improved human well-being over the long term, while not exposing futuregenerations to significant environmental risks andecological scarcities UNEP – GREEN ECONOMY INITIATIVE
4 SOME DEFINITIONS OF GREEN ECONOMY CONCEPTS A low carbon economy: part of a GE measured by the carbon level of economic activities Green growth: GDP growth subject to green conditions as well as focusing on green sectors as new growth engines - growth in a GE is green growth Green jobs: jobs in green sectors, also known as green collar jobs
ON A BUSINESS AS USUAL PATHBy 2030 Global energy demand up by 45% ENERGY EMISSIONS Other Oil price up to US$180 per barrel (IEA) energy related Transport 5% GHG emissions up 45% Buildings 14% Power 24% Global average temperature up 6°C 8% Land use Industry 14% Sustained losses equivalent to 5-10% of 18% global GDP Waste Poor countries will suffer costs in Agriculture 3% NON-ENERGY 14% excess of 10% of their GDP (Stern) Source: Prepared by Stern Review, from data frown from EMISSIONS World Resources Institute Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) on-line database version 3,0
Shifting to a Green EconomyWhy Now?• Global economic, food, fuel and climate crises provide an opportunity to reconsider traditional development and business models• Significant international momentum for transition to a green economy – United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in 2012 (Rio+20) will include theme on “green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication” – G20 reaffirmed their commitment to “move toward greener, more sustainable growth” (Sept 2009) – CSD 18th and 19th sessions will examine priorities and needs for shifting to sustainable consumption and production UNEP – GREEN ECONOMY INITIATIVE
What does a Green Economy Offer for Developing Countries? Green economy policies can help developing countries attain economic and social gains on several fronts, e.g. deployment of cleaner energy technologies and improved access to energy services; improved resource efficiency through investments in cleaner production approaches; increased food security through the use of more sustainable agricultural methods; and access to emerging new markets for their green goods and services. Improvements in resource efficiency and diversifying the energy matrix can reduce import bills and protect a country from price volatility in energy markets, while reducing the environmental footprint and associated health costs of economic activity. There are a number of ongoing developing country initiatives that are demonstrating a positive benefit stream from specific green investments and policies, and if scaled up and integrated into a comprehensive strategy, could offer an alternative sustainable development pathway, one that is pro-growth, pro- jobs and pro-poor.
Action Indicators of a Green Economy• Number of policies and officially approved plans to promote green economy• Green private investment as a % of total private investment• Green government expenditure as a % of total expenditure• Green stimulus as a % of total stimulus and GDP• Amount of credit available and utilized for green sectors as a % of total available and utilized credit.• Etc.
GEI ObjectiveAdvise countries in greening their economies byworking with a wide range of partners to providecutting edge economic analysis and research products UNEP – GREEN ECONOMY INITIATIVE UNEP – GREEN ECONOMY INITIATIVE
12 WHAT IS GOOD ABOUT THE GEI It focuses on the positive links between being “green” and economic growth/decent job creation/poverty reduction It promotes green sectors as new growth engines and enables developing countries to leapfrog into modern economies It has the potential to address multiple challenges facing the humankind
13 WHAT YOU CAN DO? Government official: Share with UNEP thoughts on how the GEI can help your country in both development and environmental terms. Adopt green procurement policies to encourage the growth of green sectors Business: Operate and share your experience in practicing green investments and green businesses Researcher: Contribute your analytical inputs, including data and information on economic, social, and environmental contributions from investing in green economies and from implementing the enabling policy reforms
14 WHAT YOU CAN DO? (CONT’D) Civil society: communicate the GEI to your constituencies, get feedbacks, and help UNEP ensure that the GEI adequately captures the particular concerns of your constituencies Media: Publicise the GEI and encourage debates on the various streams of the GEI Educator or student: a) promote and take green economy related courses and training; b) advocate green economic practices in your campuses; and c) influence those around you to prepare them mentally for a shift towards a green economy
15 WHAT YOU CAN DO? (CONT’D)• Shareholder: Demand environmental information disclosure from the companies you invest in and adjust your portfolio towards green assets that are likely to provide a steady stream of income.• Consumer/Producer: adopt green consumption and production behaviours and life styles. a) Use environmental as well as health labels for consumer products; b) Give preference to products and services provided in an environmentally friendly manner; and c) Minimise and recycle waste.
Challenges• Volumes – Increasing sales of EEE, decreasing lifetimes – ~40M tons e-waste generated worldwide – EU in 2007: ~2.5M tones recycled, 8.3 - 9.1M tons generated (EMPA)• Material Content – Valuable and energy-intensive precious metals – Toxic materials
Material Occurrence in E-waste Health and Environmental ImpactBeryllium copper-beryllium alloys, springs, beryllium sensitization/chronic beryllium(OECD 2003, Taylor et relays and connections; diseaseal. 2003) human carcinogens released as beryllium oxide dust or fume during high temperature metal processingCadmium Contacts, switches, nickel- persistent and mobile in aquatic cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries, environments (ATSDR 2000) printer inks and toners damage to the kidneys and bone toxicity, released if plastic is burned or during high temperature metal processingLead Circuit boards/ cathode ray tubes Risk for small children and fetuses CTR (1 – 3 kg per CRT); Damage to the nervous system, red blood cells, kidneys and potential increases in high blood pressure; Incineration can result in release to the airMercury Lighting devices that illuminate Impacts the central nervous system flat screen displays, switches and Land filling and incineration of flat panel relays displays results in the release to the environmentPCBs (polychlorinated Insulating fluids for transformers Suppression of the immune system, liverbiphenyls) and capacitors, flame-retardant damage, cancer promotion, damage to plasticizers the nervous system Damage to reproductive systems
Some Facts• One ton of recycled cell phones can generate up to 230 grams of gold• More than 70% of a mobile phone can be recycled.• Current mass of phones being recycled is only about 0.001-0.003% of the total weight of waste electronic equipment each year.
Desk Study on E-Waste Management in the Arab Region Commissioned by: UNEP & CEDARE (Centre for environment & Development in Arab Region & Europe)5/23/2012 20
Aim and Scope of the Study • The aim of this mapping study was to identify all actors and activities in the ICT E-waste field in the Arab region. • The main actors were the governmental organizations, the companies producing or selling ICT devices or deliver ICT services and the non-governmental organizations addressing different issues in the E-waste field. • The study aimed at giving an overview of all available information and the current situation and practices in the target region. • Outline the available legislation and regulations, the state of E- waste Management, and detail profile of the key stakeholders.5/23/2012 21
E-Waste Challenges • The growing quantity • Hazardous substances in electronic products • The need of E-waste Technology, Inventory and Knowledge • The need for E-waste policies and regulations • E-waste Export from Arab States5/23/2012 22
E-waste Opportunities • Refurbishment and Material Recovery • Creating Jobs and Improving Job Quality • Reduction of the Environmental Impact • Recycling Friendly Design5/23/2012 23
What is needed in the Arab Region?• Long-term environmental management strategies• Powerful and effective environmental agencies• Clear political and legislative mandates• Environmental research, education and media