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Using Behavioural Theory to Promote Sustainable Living<br />7th June 2010<br />Oliver Payne,Founder, CEO, The Hunting Dyna...
A sustainable future requires people to change their behaviour<br />|    How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />
 change in purchase behaviour<br />|    How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />
 change in purchase behaviour<br />change in lifestyle behaviour<br />|    How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />
 change in purchase behaviour<br />change in lifestyle behaviour<br />(or a combination of the two)<br />|    How do you c...
Familiar to comms industry<br />• Mostly switching purchase habits <br />• AIDA standard model<br />• Not great for side/d...
 change in purchase behaviour<br />change in lifestyle behaviour<br />|    How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />
Less familiar to comms industry<br />• Asking people to break with habitual patterns of behaviour<br />• AIDA seems defici...
 change in purchase behaviour<br />change in lifestyle behaviour<br />|    How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />
 change in purchase behaviour<br />change in lifestyle behaviour<br />There’s one thing we all have in common that spans p...
“…despite being generally capable and smart, we are highly context dependent.”<br />		Jack Fuller, Australian research gro...
						  Meaning?<br />We are not purely rational beings<br />Neither are we irrational – context dependency is measureable...
12. Irrational escalation: the tendency to make irrational decisions based upon rational decisions in the past, or to just...
How do you use these universal quirks to create sustainable behaviour?<br /> change in purchase behaviour<br />change in l...
How do you use these universal quirks to create sustainable behaviour?<br /> change in purchase behaviour<br />change in l...
1. Simply ask <br />2. Ask using the right words<br />4. Ask using the right authority <br />3. Ask using the right images...
1. Simply ask <br />
1. Simply ask <br />What can I get you sir?<br />Whilst queuing for food<br />40% of students took a serving of fruit<br /...
1. Simply ask <br />What can I get you sir?<br />Whilst queuing for food<br />40% of students took a serving of fruit<br /...
1. Simply ask <br />Exposure effect<br />What can I get you sir?<br />Whilst queuing for food<br />40% of students took a ...
2. Ask using the right words<br />
2. Ask using the right words<br />¼<br />Petrified Thieves<br />People steal bits of wood from Arizona’s Petrified Forest ...
2. Ask using the right words<br />¼<br />Petrified Thieves<br />People steal bits of wood from Arizona’s Petrified Forest ...
2. Ask using the right words<br />¼<br />Petrified Thieves<br />People steal bits of wood from Arizona’s Petrified Forest ...
2. Ask using the right words<br />¼<br />Petrified Thieves<br />People steal bits of wood from Arizona’s Petrified Forest ...
2. Ask using the right words<br />¼<br />Framing effect<br />Social norms<br />Petrified Thieves<br />People steal bits of...
3. Ask using the right images <br />
3. Ask using the right images <br />Chief Iron Eyes Cody <br />"People Start Pollution. People can stop it."  YouTube<br />
3. Ask using the right images <br />Chief Iron Eyes Cody <br />Considered successful:<br /><ul><li>16th best television co...
2 Clio awards</li></ul>Crafting Normative Messages to Protect the Environment Robert B. Cialdini, Department of Psychology...
3. Ask using the right images <br />Social norms<br />Chief Iron Eyes Cody <br />“…small but conceptually meaningful modif...
4. Ask using the right authority <br />
4. Ask using the right authority <br />Insulating expectation<br /> <br />Sutton council worked with B&Q to made 6,000 rol...
4. Ask using the right authority <br />Authority effect<br />Social<br />norms<br />Insulating expectation<br /> <br />Sut...
1. Simply ask <br />2. Ask using the right words<br />4. Ask using the right authority <br />3. Ask using the right images...
5. Ask using the right  fakeauthority <br />6. Ask in the right order<br />7. Ask at the right time <br />8. Ask with the ...
5. Ask using the right    fakeauthority <br />
5. Ask using the right fake authority <br />b.	Expend very little energy<br />Can these fake approval and disapproval emot...
5. Ask using the right fake authority <br />Expend very little energy<br />Two groups given information about their neighb...
5. Ask using the right fake authority <br />Expend very little energy<br />Two groups given information about their neighb...
5. Ask using the right fake authority <br />Loss aversion<br />Social norms<br />Expend very little energy<br />Two groups...
Opower<br />Smart measuring tech<br />Take a fee for collating and presenting supply data to existing utility companies’ c...
Popular interest<br />CEO's live interview on Fox Business<br />Finalist for Discovery Channel's 2010 Edison Awards<br />F...
Powerful interest<br />President Obama speaks at OPOWER, Arlington<br />Cameron, highlights OPOWER at TED2010<br />“I want...
6. Ask in the right order<br />
6. Ask in the right order<br />The mpg illusion<br /> Which trade-in saves the most fuel?<br />Trade-in A<br />Trade-in B<...
6. Ask in the right order<br />The mpg illusion<br />Now let’s show Miles-per-gallon as Gallons-per-(hundred)mile. Same an...
6. Ask in the right order<br />The mpg illusion<br />Now let’s show Miles-per-gallon as Gallons-per-(hundred)mile. Same an...
6. Ask in the right order<br />Framing<br />effect<br />The mpg illusion<br />10 	 mpg = 10 GPhM11 	 mpg =  9 GPhM<br />12...
5. Ask using the right  fakeauthority <br />6. Ask in the right order<br />7. Ask at the right time <br />8. Ask with the ...
10. Take away options <br />9. Add options <br />12. Ask a different question<br />11. Ask (but have a default option)<br />
11. Ask (but have a default option)<br />
11. Ask, but have a default option<br />Catering for a conference<br />A conference experimented with their default menu o...
11. Ask, but have a default option<br />Catering for a conference<br />A conference experimented with their default menu o...
11. Ask, but have a default option<br />Framing effect<br />Catering for a conference<br />A conference experimented with ...
12. Ask a different question<br />
12. Ask a completely different question<br />Few people use stairs when there’s an escalator on offer. <br />How do you cr...
12. Ask a completely different question<br />Few people use stairs when there’s an escalator on offer. <br />Piano stairs ...
12. Ask a completely different question<br />Do you want to take the stairs lose weight? <br />	These stairs in the Goodni...
12. Ask a completely different question<br />Framing effect<br />Do you want to…<br />
10. Take away options <br />9. Add options <br />12. Ask a different question<br />11. Ask (but have a default option)<br />
14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)<br />13. Let the feedback ask the question<br />16. Ask nothing – other than to go public<br />15. ...
13. Let the feedback ask the question<br />
13. Let the feedback ask the question<br />¾ <br />A ball of energy<br />Attempts by Southern California Edison to notify ...
13. Let the feedback ask the question<br />¾ <br />A ball of energy<br />They tried an Ambient Orb – a<br />personal energ...
It glows green when their use is modest.</li></ul>Chicago Tribune | A gentle prod to go green<br />
13. Let the feedback ask the question<br />¾ <br />Social norms<br />Loss aversion<br />A ball of energy<br />They tried a...
14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)<br />
14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)<br />Tax doesn’t have to be taxing (no, really)<br />In Australia, tax-payers were informed that th...
14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)<br />Social norms<br />Tax doesn’t have to be taxing (no, really)<br />In Australia, tax-payers wer...
14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)<br />13. Let the feedback ask the question<br />16. Ask nothing – other than to go public<br />15. ...
18. Ask kinetically<br />17. Ask for a commitment – in the future<br />19. Make the question irrelevant <br />
18. Ask kinetically<br />
18. Ask kinetically<br />Lights. Out.<br />Communicating ‘turn off the lights’ in a hotel is tricky – the guest derives no...
18. Ask kinetically<br />Framing<br />effect<br />Lights. Out.<br />Link to an action that is in the interests of the gues...
19. Make the question irrelevant <br />
19. Make the question irrelevant <br />As clear as day<br />How do you create energy efficiency in private homes?<br /> <b...
19. Make the question irrelevant <br />Social norms<br />As clear as day<br />How do you create energy efficiency in priva...
3 most common non-rational behaviours<br />Framing <br />Drawing different conclusions based on how data are presented<br ...
“…despite being generally capable and smart, we are highly context dependent.”<br />		Jack Fuller, Australian research gro...
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Oliver payne

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  • From a communications perspective:
  • Describe who you are by the objects that surround you
  • Common ground? The Holy Grail
  • NON-RATIONAL
  • However - imagery is of a world overrun with litter reinforcing damaging message that many people do litter
  • Framing Drawing different conclusions based on how data are presented (Petrified thieves, Add options, Take away, MPG illusion, Stairs)Loss Aversion The pain of loss twice as bad as the pleasure of gain (Ambient orb, Neighbourhood electricity, Prius)Social norms No one wants to be the weirdo (Opower, Ambient orb, B&amp;Q, Iron Eyes Cody, LA food)
  • Transcript of "Oliver payne"

    1. 1. Using Behavioural Theory to Promote Sustainable Living<br />7th June 2010<br />Oliver Payne,Founder, CEO, The Hunting Dynasty<br />, <br />
    2. 2. A sustainable future requires people to change their behaviour<br />| How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />
    3. 3.  change in purchase behaviour<br />| How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />
    4. 4.  change in purchase behaviour<br />change in lifestyle behaviour<br />| How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />
    5. 5.  change in purchase behaviour<br />change in lifestyle behaviour<br />(or a combination of the two)<br />| How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />
    6. 6. Familiar to comms industry<br />• Mostly switching purchase habits <br />• AIDA standard model<br />• Not great for side/down-shifting<br /> change in purchase behaviour<br />change in lifestyle behaviour<br />| How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />
    7. 7.  change in purchase behaviour<br />change in lifestyle behaviour<br />| How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />
    8. 8. Less familiar to comms industry<br />• Asking people to break with habitual patterns of behaviour<br />• AIDA seems deficient <br />(knowledge and awareness rarely enough to illicit action) *door knob<br />• Not necessarily aspirational (injunctions ‘Don’t/Please/After/Stop’)<br /> change in purchase behaviour<br />change in lifestyle behaviour<br />| How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />
    9. 9.  change in purchase behaviour<br />change in lifestyle behaviour<br />| How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />
    10. 10.  change in purchase behaviour<br />change in lifestyle behaviour<br />There’s one thing we all have in common that spans purchase & lifestyle behaviour<br />(or a combination of both)<br />| How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />
    11. 11. “…despite being generally capable and smart, we are highly context dependent.”<br /> Jack Fuller, Australian research group Per Capita Research<br /> change in purchase behaviour<br />change in lifestyle behaviour<br />(or a combination of both)<br />| How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />
    12. 12. Meaning?<br />We are not purely rational beings<br />Neither are we irrational – context dependency is measureable<br /> change in purchase behaviour<br />change in lifestyle behaviour<br />(or a combination of both)<br />| How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />
    13. 13. 12. Irrational escalation: the tendency to make irrational decisions based upon rational decisions in the past, or to justify actions already taken. The dollar auction is a thought exercise demonstrating the concept.<br />13. Loss aversion: the tendency to fear losses more than to value gains of equal size. <br />14. Endowment effect: the tendency to demand much more to give up an object than you would be willing to pay to acquire it. The Duke University basketball ticket experiment (a combination of loss aversion and the endowment effect = Status quo bias)<br />15. Neglect of probability: the tendency to disregard probabilities for absolutes when making a decision under uncertainty.<br />16. ‘Not Invented Here’: the tendency to ignore an idea or solution because its source is seen as unfamiliar.<br />17. Planning fallacy: the tendency to underestimate the time it takes to complete tasks.<br />18. Post-purchase rationalisation: the tendency to rationalise your purchases as ‘good buys’ merely based on the fact that you purchased them – and the reason why a 110% money back guarantee works.<br />19. Pseudo-certainty effect/Gambler’s fallacy: the tendency, when seeking positive outcomes, to make only risk-averse choices; but to make risk-seeking choices to avoid negative outcomes.<br />20. Selective perception: the tendency for expectations to shape perceptions.<br />21. Wishful thinking: the formation of beliefs according to what is pleasant to imagine rather than based on evidence or rationality.<br />22. Zero-risk bias: the preference for reducing a small risk to zero over a greater reduction in a larger risk. <br />23. Self-serving bias (Illusory superiority/better-than-average effect) occurs when people attribute their successes to internal or personal factors but attribute their failures to situational factors beyond their control.<br />1. Aversion to extremes: the tendency to avoid extremes, to prefer a choice simply because it is the middle-ground option. Consumers Avoid Extremes In Soda Sizes<br />2. Bandwagoning or herd instinct: the tendency to do (or believe) things simply because other people do.<br />3. Choice-supportive bias: the tendency to remember your own choices as better than they actually were.<br />4. Conservatism bias: the tendency to ignore the consequences and implications of new evidence.<br />5. Contrast effect: the tendency to perceive measurements of an object differently when comparing them with a recently observed contrasting object.<br />6. Distinction bias: the tendency to view two options as more dissimilar when viewing them together than when viewing them separately.<br />7. Excessive temporal discounting/hyperbolic discounting: the tendency for people to have excessively stronger preferences for immediate gains relative to future gains.<br />8. Exposure effect: the tendency for people to like things simply because they are familiar with them.<br />9. Framing effects: the tendency to draw different conclusions based on how data are presented. <br />Anchoring<br />Mental accounting (current income, current wealth, future income – different marginal propensity to consume, eg: extra 1, spend 0.65)<br />10. Scarcity value: When we perceive something to be scarce it has a greater value in our eyes. Conversely, when we perceive it to be plentiful its perceived value falls. When valuing things, circumstantial factors tend to crowd out factors that point towards absolute value. <br />11. Social norms: the rules that a group uses for appropriate and inappropriate values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors. These rules may be explicit or implicit. Failure to follow the rules can result in severe punishments, including exclusion from the group.<br /> Meaning?<br />We are not purely rational beings<br />Neither are we irrational – context dependency is measureable<br /> change in purchase behaviour<br />change in lifestyle behaviour<br />(or a combination of both)<br />| How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />
    14. 14. How do you use these universal quirks to create sustainable behaviour?<br /> change in purchase behaviour<br />change in lifestyle behaviour<br />(or a combination of both)<br />| How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />
    15. 15. How do you use these universal quirks to create sustainable behaviour?<br /> change in purchase behaviour<br />change in lifestyle behaviour<br />In 19 ways…<br />(or a combination of both)<br />| How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />
    16. 16.
    17. 17. 1. Simply ask <br />2. Ask using the right words<br />4. Ask using the right authority <br />3. Ask using the right images <br />
    18. 18. 1. Simply ask <br />
    19. 19. 1. Simply ask <br />What can I get you sir?<br />Whilst queuing for food<br />40% of students took a serving of fruit<br />Yale University researcher Marlene Schwartz in a 2007 study<br />
    20. 20. 1. Simply ask <br />What can I get you sir?<br />Whilst queuing for food<br />40% of students took a serving of fruit<br />When asked if they would ‘like fruit or fruit juice’<br />70% of students took a serving of fruit<br />Yale University researcher Marlene Schwartz in a 2007 study<br />
    21. 21. 1. Simply ask <br />Exposure effect<br />What can I get you sir?<br />Whilst queuing for food<br />40% of students took a serving of fruit<br />When asked if they would ‘like fruit or fruit juice’<br />70% of students took a serving of fruit<br />Yale University researcher Marlene Schwartz in a 2007 study<br />
    22. 22. 2. Ask using the right words<br />
    23. 23. 2. Ask using the right words<br />¼<br />Petrified Thieves<br />People steal bits of wood from Arizona’s Petrified Forest National Park. <br /> <br />Many past visitors have removed petrified wood from the Park, changing the natural state <br />of the Petrified Forest<br />Please don’t remove the <br />petrified wood from the Park, <br />in order to preserve <br />the natural state<br />of the Petrified Forest <br />[nothing]<br />The signs above were tested to stop the theft: Some were more successful than others…<br />Yes! 50 secrets from the science of persuasion | Goldstein, Martin, Cialdini | 2007 | pp20<br />
    24. 24. 2. Ask using the right words<br />¼<br />Petrified Thieves<br />People steal bits of wood from Arizona’s Petrified Forest National Park. <br /> <br />Many past visitors have removed petrified wood from the Park, changing the natural state <br />of the Petrified Forest<br />Please don’t remove the <br />petrified wood from the Park, <br />in order to preserve <br />the natural state<br />of the Petrified Forest <br />[nothing]<br />8% theft<br />Yes! 50 secrets from the science of persuasion | Goldstein, Martin, Cialdini | 2007 | pp20<br />
    25. 25. 2. Ask using the right words<br />¼<br />Petrified Thieves<br />People steal bits of wood from Arizona’s Petrified Forest National Park. <br /> <br />Many past visitors have removed petrified wood from the Park, changing the natural state <br />of the Petrified Forest<br />Please don’t remove the <br />petrified wood from the Park, <br />in order to preserve <br />the natural state<br />of the Petrified Forest <br />[nothing]<br />8% theft<br />3% theft<br />Yes! 50 secrets from the science of persuasion | Goldstein, Martin, Cialdini | 2007 | pp20<br />
    26. 26. 2. Ask using the right words<br />¼<br />Petrified Thieves<br />People steal bits of wood from Arizona’s Petrified Forest National Park. <br /> <br />Many past visitors have removed petrified wood from the Park, changing the natural state <br />of the Petrified Forest<br />Please don’t remove the <br />petrified wood from the Park, <br />in order to preserve <br />the natural state<br />of the Petrified Forest <br />[nothing]<br />8% theft<br />1.7% theft<br />3% theft<br />Yes! 50 secrets from the science of persuasion | Goldstein, Martin, Cialdini | 2007 | pp20<br />
    27. 27. 2. Ask using the right words<br />¼<br />Framing effect<br />Social norms<br />Petrified Thieves<br />People steal bits of wood from Arizona’s Petrified Forest National Park. <br /> <br />Many past visitors have removed petrified wood from the Park, changing the natural state <br />of the Petrified Forest<br />Please don’t remove the <br />petrified wood from the Park, <br />in order to preserve <br />the natural state<br />of the Petrified Forest <br />[nothing]<br />8% theft<br />1.7% theft<br />3% theft<br />“…a message that focuses recipients on the injunctive norm will be superior to messages that focus recipients on the descriptive norm.” (Cialdini et al., 2003)<br />Yes! 50 secrets from the science of persuasion | Goldstein, Martin, Cialdini | 2007 | pp20<br />
    28. 28. 3. Ask using the right images <br />
    29. 29. 3. Ask using the right images <br />Chief Iron Eyes Cody <br />"People Start Pollution. People can stop it."  YouTube<br />
    30. 30. 3. Ask using the right images <br />Chief Iron Eyes Cody <br />Considered successful:<br /><ul><li>16th best television commercial of all time by </li></ul> TV Guide magazine (“The Fifty Greatest,” 1999)<br /><ul><li>Top 100 advertising campaigns of the 20th Century by Ad Age Magazine
    31. 31. 2 Clio awards</li></ul>Crafting Normative Messages to Protect the Environment Robert B. Cialdini, Department of Psychology, Arizona State University<br />
    32. 32. 3. Ask using the right images <br />Social norms<br />Chief Iron Eyes Cody <br />“…small but conceptually meaningful modification of… changing the perceived descriptive norm regarding littering.” <br />However - reinforcing damaging message that many people do litter<br />Crafting Normative Messages to Protect the Environment Robert B. Cialdini, Department of Psychology, Arizona State University<br />
    33. 33. 4. Ask using the right authority <br />
    34. 34. 4. Ask using the right authority <br />Insulating expectation<br /> <br />Sutton council worked with B&Q to made 6,000 rolls of loft insulation available at massively reduced prices<br />“[A] very simple step to make their homes more carbon efficient and to save on their bills”<br />Daniel Ratchford -Strategic Director, Environment & Leisure, Sutton Council <br />
    35. 35. 4. Ask using the right authority <br />Authority effect<br />Social<br />norms<br />Insulating expectation<br /> <br />Sutton council worked with B&Q to made 6,000 rolls of loft insulation available at massively reduced prices<br />“[A] very simple step to make their homes more carbon efficient and to save on their bills”<br />Daniel Ratchford -Strategic Director, Environment & Leisure, Sutton Council <br />
    36. 36. 1. Simply ask <br />2. Ask using the right words<br />4. Ask using the right authority <br />3. Ask using the right images <br />
    37. 37. 5. Ask using the right fakeauthority <br />6. Ask in the right order<br />7. Ask at the right time <br />8. Ask with the right incentive <br />
    38. 38. 5. Ask using the right fakeauthority <br />
    39. 39. 5. Ask using the right fake authority <br />b. Expend very little energy<br />Can these fake approval and disapproval emoticons change behaviour?<br />Making buildings more efficient: It helps to understand human behavior | Grist.org<br />
    40. 40. 5. Ask using the right fake authority <br />Expend very little energy<br />Two groups given information about their neighbourhood energy use<br />Group A<br />Group B<br />10 mpg<br />25 mpg<br />Straight info and smiley/sad face<br />Straight info about energy use<br />Making buildings more efficient: It helps to understand human behavior | Grist.org<br />
    41. 41. 5. Ask using the right fake authority <br />Expend very little energy<br />Two groups given information about their neighbourhood energy use<br />Group A<br />Group B<br />10 mpg<br />25 mpg<br />High users reduced consumption<br />Low users increased consumption<br />High users reduced consumption<br />Low users consistent consumption<br />Making buildings more efficient: It helps to understand human behavior | Grist.org<br />
    42. 42. 5. Ask using the right fake authority <br />Loss aversion<br />Social norms<br />Expend very little energy<br />Two groups given information about their neighbourhood energy use<br />Group A<br />Group B<br />10 mpg<br />25 mpg<br />High users reduced consumption<br />Low users increased consumption<br />High users reduced consumption<br />Low users consistent consumption<br />40% more energy saved<br />Making buildings more efficient: It helps to understand human behavior | Grist.org<br />
    43. 43. Opower<br />Smart measuring tech<br />Take a fee for collating and presenting supply data to existing utility companies’ customers<br />Making buildings more efficient: It helps to understand human behavior | Grist.org<br />
    44. 44. Popular interest<br />CEO's live interview on Fox Business<br />Finalist for Discovery Channel's 2010 Edison Awards<br />Featured in USA Today<br />In Washington Post as "best example of climate psychology in action"<br />Making buildings more efficient: It helps to understand human behavior | Grist.org<br />
    45. 45. Powerful interest<br />President Obama speaks at OPOWER, Arlington<br />Cameron, highlights OPOWER at TED2010<br />“I want companies like OPOWER… all across America. It’s good for consumers. It’s good for our economy. It’s good for our environment.”<br />“…BE can transform people's behaviour in a way that all the bullying and badgering from a Government cannot possibly achieve.”<br />Making buildings more efficient: It helps to understand human behavior | Grist.org<br />
    46. 46. 6. Ask in the right order<br />
    47. 47. 6. Ask in the right order<br />The mpg illusion<br /> Which trade-in saves the most fuel?<br />Trade-in A<br />Trade-in B<br />10 mpg<br />25 mpg<br />50 mpg<br />12.5 mpg<br />The MPG Illusion | Professors Richard Larrick, Jack Soll | Duke University<br />
    48. 48. 6. Ask in the right order<br />The mpg illusion<br />Now let’s show Miles-per-gallon as Gallons-per-(hundred)mile. Same answer?<br />Trade-in A<br />Trade-in B<br />10 mpg = 10 GPhM<br />25 mpg = 4 GPhM<br />50 mpg = 2 GPhM<br />12.5 mpg = 8 GPhM<br />The MPG Illusion | Professors Richard Larrick, Jack Soll | Duke University<br />
    49. 49. 6. Ask in the right order<br />The mpg illusion<br />Now let’s show Miles-per-gallon as Gallons-per-(hundred)mile. Same answer?<br />Trade-in A<br />Trade-in B<br />10 mpg = 10 GPhM<br />25 mpg = 4 GPhM<br />50 mpg = 2 GPhM<br />12.5 mpg = 8 GPhM<br />MPG makes you<br />undervalue<br />improvements in<br />inefficient cars<br />MPG makes you<br />overvalue<br />improvements in<br />efficient cars<br />The MPG Illusion | Professors Richard Larrick, Jack Soll | Duke University<br />
    50. 50. 6. Ask in the right order<br />Framing<br />effect<br />The mpg illusion<br />10 mpg = 10 GPhM11 mpg = 9 GPhM<br />12.5 mpg = 8 GPhM<br />14 mpg = 7 GPhM<br />16.5 mpg = 6 GPhM<br />20 mpg = 5 GPhM<br />25 mpg = 4 GPhM<br />33 mpg = 3 GPhM50 mpg = 2 GPhM<br />100 mpg = 1 GPhM<br />“The New York Senate Environmental Conservation Committee has passed a new fuel efficiency bill… vehicle manufacturers [must] list "gallons per 1,000 miles….”<br />Rick Larrick, The MPG Illusion, Feb 2010<br />The MPG Illusion | Professors Richard Larrick, Jack Soll | Duke University<br />
    51. 51. 5. Ask using the right fakeauthority <br />6. Ask in the right order<br />7. Ask at the right time <br />8. Ask with the right incentive <br />
    52. 52. 10. Take away options <br />9. Add options <br />12. Ask a different question<br />11. Ask (but have a default option)<br />
    53. 53. 11. Ask (but have a default option)<br />
    54. 54. 11. Ask, but have a default option<br />Catering for a conference<br />A conference experimented with their default menu options: one year they offered meat as default, the next year vegetarian<br />Vegetarian<br />Meat <br />When Behavioral Economics Meets Climate Change, Guess What's Coming for Dinner? | Marc Gunther | climatebiz.com<br />
    55. 55. 11. Ask, but have a default option<br />Catering for a conference<br />A conference experimented with their default menu options: one year they offered meat as default, the next year vegetarian<br />83%<br />17%<br />Vegetarian = option<br />Meat = default <br />When Behavioral Economics Meets Climate Change, Guess What's Coming for Dinner? | Marc Gunther | climatebiz.com<br />
    56. 56. 11. Ask, but have a default option<br />Framing effect<br />Catering for a conference<br />A conference experimented with their default menu options: one year they offered meat as default, the next year vegetarian<br />80%<br />20%<br />Vegetarian = default <br />Meat = option <br />When Behavioral Economics Meets Climate Change, Guess What's Coming for Dinner? | Marc Gunther | climatebiz.com<br />
    57. 57. 12. Ask a different question<br />
    58. 58. 12. Ask a completely different question<br />Few people use stairs when there’s an escalator on offer. <br />How do you create the desire to use the stairs?<br />?<br />Funtheory.com | Piano Staircase<br />
    59. 59. 12. Ask a completely different question<br />Few people use stairs when there’s an escalator on offer. <br />Piano stairs increased stair use by 66%<br />Funtheory.com | Piano Staircase<br />
    60. 60. 12. Ask a completely different question<br />Do you want to take the stairs lose weight? <br /> These stairs in the Goodnight<br /> Hostel in Lisbon appeal to the<br /> calorie conscious. <br />FREAK Shots: Nudging the Calorie Counters | Freakonomics Blog | New York Times<br />
    61. 61. 12. Ask a completely different question<br />Framing effect<br />Do you want to…<br />
    62. 62. 10. Take away options <br />9. Add options <br />12. Ask a different question<br />11. Ask (but have a default option)<br />
    63. 63. 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)<br />13. Let the feedback ask the question<br />16. Ask nothing – other than to go public<br />15. Ask nothing, except measurement<br />
    64. 64. 13. Let the feedback ask the question<br />
    65. 65. 13. Let the feedback ask the question<br />¾ <br />A ball of energy<br />Attempts by Southern California Edison to notify people of their energy use with e-mails and text messages did no good. <br /> <br />Chicago Tribune | A gentle prod to go green<br />
    66. 66. 13. Let the feedback ask the question<br />¾ <br />A ball of energy<br />They tried an Ambient Orb – a<br />personal energy meter in the<br />shape of a little ball:<br /><ul><li>It glows red when people are using lots of energy
    67. 67. It glows green when their use is modest.</li></ul>Chicago Tribune | A gentle prod to go green<br />
    68. 68. 13. Let the feedback ask the question<br />¾ <br />Social norms<br />Loss aversion<br />A ball of energy<br />They tried an Ambient Orb – a<br />personal energy meter in the<br />shape of a little ball:<br />Within weeks users of the orb<br />reduced their energy consumption<br />during peak times by 40%<br />Chicago Tribune | A gentle prod to go green<br />
    69. 69. 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)<br />
    70. 70. 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)<br />Tax doesn’t have to be taxing (no, really)<br />In Australia, tax-payers were informed that that normal practice was honesty in tax returns<br />HEADS, YOU DIE: Bad decisions, choice architecture, and how to mitigate predictable irrationality | Jack Fuller | Per Capita research<br />
    71. 71. 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)<br />Social norms<br />Tax doesn’t have to be taxing (no, really)<br />In Australia, tax-payers were informed that that normal practice was honesty in tax returns <br />Deductions plunged by 47%<br />(over $800 million Aus$ extra revenue)<br />HEADS, YOU DIE: Bad decisions, choice architecture, and how to mitigate predictable irrationality | Jack Fuller | Per Capita research<br />
    72. 72. 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)<br />13. Let the feedback ask the question<br />16. Ask nothing – other than to go public<br />15. Ask nothing, except measurement<br />
    73. 73. 18. Ask kinetically<br />17. Ask for a commitment – in the future<br />19. Make the question irrelevant <br />
    74. 74. 18. Ask kinetically<br />
    75. 75. 18. Ask kinetically<br />Lights. Out.<br />Communicating ‘turn off the lights’ in a hotel is tricky – the guest derives no personal benefit<br />What do you do?<br />?<br />A gentle prod to go green: Turning wishes into actions a matter of showing people the way | Chicago Tribune | Thaler, Sunstein | 2008<br />
    76. 76. 18. Ask kinetically<br />Framing<br />effect<br />Lights. Out.<br />Link to an action that is in the interests of the guest:<br />“When they leave the room and take their key [from the slot], the lights and AC are automatically turned off.”<br /> Chicago Tribune <br />A gentle prod to go green: Turning wishes into actions a matter of showing people the way | Chicago Tribune | Thaler, Sunstein | 2008<br />
    77. 77. 19. Make the question irrelevant <br />
    78. 78. 19. Make the question irrelevant <br />As clear as day<br />How do you create energy efficiency in private homes?<br /> <br />
    79. 79. 19. Make the question irrelevant <br />Social norms<br />As clear as day<br />How do you create energy efficiency in private homes?<br /> <br />In 1916 Germany was the first European nation to move the clocks forwards and backwards as a way to conserve coal during WWI<br />We all followed suit<br />Daylight savings time | Nudge pp 51 <br />
    80. 80.
    81. 81. 3 most common non-rational behaviours<br />Framing <br />Drawing different conclusions based on how data are presented<br /> (Petrified thieves, Add options, Take away, MPG illusion, Stairs)<br />Loss Aversion <br />The pain of loss twice as bad as the pleasure of gain<br /> (Ambient orb, Neighbourhood electricity, Prius)<br />Social norms <br />No one wants to be the weirdo<br /> (Opower, Ambient orb, B&Q, Iron Eyes Cody, LA food) <br />Overt or Covert<br />
    82. 82. “…despite being generally capable and smart, we are highly context dependent.”<br /> Jack Fuller, Australian research group Per Capita Research<br /> change in purchase behaviour<br />change in lifestyle behaviour<br />(or a combination of both)<br />| How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />
    83. 83. Create:<br /> change in purchase behaviour<br />change in lifestyle behaviour<br />(or a combination of the two)<br />| How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />
    84. 84. Thank you<br />
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