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  • From a communications perspective:
  • Describe who you are by the objects that surround you
  • Common ground? The Holy Grail
  • NON-RATIONAL
  • However - imagery is of a world overrun with litter reinforcing damaging message that many people do litter
  • Framing Drawing different conclusions based on how data are presented (Petrified thieves, Add options, Take away, MPG illusion, Stairs)Loss Aversion The pain of loss twice as bad as the pleasure of gain (Ambient orb, Neighbourhood electricity, Prius)Social norms No one wants to be the weirdo (Opower, Ambient orb, B&Q, Iron Eyes Cody, LA food)

Oliver payne Oliver payne Presentation Transcript

  • Using Behavioural Theory to Promote Sustainable Living
    7th June 2010
    Oliver Payne,Founder, CEO, The Hunting Dynasty
    ,
  • A sustainable future requires people to change their behaviour
    | How do you create sustainable behaviour?
  •  change in purchase behaviour
    | How do you create sustainable behaviour?
  •  change in purchase behaviour
    change in lifestyle behaviour
    | How do you create sustainable behaviour?
  •  change in purchase behaviour
    change in lifestyle behaviour
    (or a combination of the two)
    | How do you create sustainable behaviour?
  • Familiar to comms industry
    • Mostly switching purchase habits
    • AIDA standard model
    • Not great for side/down-shifting
     change in purchase behaviour
    change in lifestyle behaviour
    | How do you create sustainable behaviour?
  •  change in purchase behaviour
    change in lifestyle behaviour
    | How do you create sustainable behaviour?
  • Less familiar to comms industry
    • Asking people to break with habitual patterns of behaviour
    • AIDA seems deficient
    (knowledge and awareness rarely enough to illicit action) *door knob
    • Not necessarily aspirational (injunctions ‘Don’t/Please/After/Stop’)
     change in purchase behaviour
    change in lifestyle behaviour
    | How do you create sustainable behaviour?
  •  change in purchase behaviour
    change in lifestyle behaviour
    | How do you create sustainable behaviour?
  •  change in purchase behaviour
    change in lifestyle behaviour
    There’s one thing we all have in common that spans purchase & lifestyle behaviour
    (or a combination of both)
    | How do you create sustainable behaviour?
  • “…despite being generally capable and smart, we are highly context dependent.”
    Jack Fuller, Australian research group Per Capita Research
     change in purchase behaviour
    change in lifestyle behaviour
    (or a combination of both)
    | How do you create sustainable behaviour?
  • Meaning?
    We are not purely rational beings
    Neither are we irrational – context dependency is measureable
     change in purchase behaviour
    change in lifestyle behaviour
    (or a combination of both)
    | How do you create sustainable behaviour?
  • 12. Irrational escalation: the tendency to make irrational decisions based upon rational decisions in the past, or to justify actions already taken. The dollar auction is a thought exercise demonstrating the concept.
    13. Loss aversion: the tendency to fear losses more than to value gains of equal size.
    14. Endowment effect: the tendency to demand much more to give up an object than you would be willing to pay to acquire it. The Duke University basketball ticket experiment (a combination of loss aversion and the endowment effect = Status quo bias)
    15. Neglect of probability: the tendency to disregard probabilities for absolutes when making a decision under uncertainty.
    16. ‘Not Invented Here’: the tendency to ignore an idea or solution because its source is seen as unfamiliar.
    17. Planning fallacy: the tendency to underestimate the time it takes to complete tasks.
    18. Post-purchase rationalisation: the tendency to rationalise your purchases as ‘good buys’ merely based on the fact that you purchased them – and the reason why a 110% money back guarantee works.
    19. Pseudo-certainty effect/Gambler’s fallacy: the tendency, when seeking positive outcomes, to make only risk-averse choices; but to make risk-seeking choices to avoid negative outcomes.
    20. Selective perception: the tendency for expectations to shape perceptions.
    21. Wishful thinking: the formation of beliefs according to what is pleasant to imagine rather than based on evidence or rationality.
    22. Zero-risk bias: the preference for reducing a small risk to zero over a greater reduction in a larger risk.
    23. Self-serving bias (Illusory superiority/better-than-average effect) occurs when people attribute their successes to internal or personal factors but attribute their failures to situational factors beyond their control.
    1. Aversion to extremes: the tendency to avoid extremes, to prefer a choice simply because it is the middle-ground option. Consumers Avoid Extremes In Soda Sizes
    2. Bandwagoning or herd instinct: the tendency to do (or believe) things simply because other people do.
    3. Choice-supportive bias: the tendency to remember your own choices as better than they actually were.
    4. Conservatism bias: the tendency to ignore the consequences and implications of new evidence.
    5. Contrast effect: the tendency to perceive measurements of an object differently when comparing them with a recently observed contrasting object.
    6. Distinction bias: the tendency to view two options as more dissimilar when viewing them together than when viewing them separately.
    7. Excessive temporal discounting/hyperbolic discounting: the tendency for people to have excessively stronger preferences for immediate gains relative to future gains.
    8. Exposure effect: the tendency for people to like things simply because they are familiar with them.
    9. Framing effects: the tendency to draw different conclusions based on how data are presented.
    Anchoring
    Mental accounting (current income, current wealth, future income – different marginal propensity to consume, eg: extra 1, spend 0.65)
    10. Scarcity value: When we perceive something to be scarce it has a greater value in our eyes. Conversely, when we perceive it to be plentiful its perceived value falls. When valuing things, circumstantial factors tend to crowd out factors that point towards absolute value.
    11. Social norms: the rules that a group uses for appropriate and inappropriate values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors. These rules may be explicit or implicit. Failure to follow the rules can result in severe punishments, including exclusion from the group.
    Meaning?
    We are not purely rational beings
    Neither are we irrational – context dependency is measureable
     change in purchase behaviour
    change in lifestyle behaviour
    (or a combination of both)
    | How do you create sustainable behaviour?
  • How do you use these universal quirks to create sustainable behaviour?
     change in purchase behaviour
    change in lifestyle behaviour
    (or a combination of both)
    | How do you create sustainable behaviour?
  • How do you use these universal quirks to create sustainable behaviour?
     change in purchase behaviour
    change in lifestyle behaviour
    In 19 ways…
    (or a combination of both)
    | How do you create sustainable behaviour?
  • 1. Simply ask
    2. Ask using the right words
    4. Ask using the right authority
    3. Ask using the right images
  • 1. Simply ask
  • 1. Simply ask
    What can I get you sir?
    Whilst queuing for food
    40% of students took a serving of fruit
    Yale University researcher Marlene Schwartz in a 2007 study
  • 1. Simply ask
    What can I get you sir?
    Whilst queuing for food
    40% of students took a serving of fruit
    When asked if they would ‘like fruit or fruit juice’
    70% of students took a serving of fruit
    Yale University researcher Marlene Schwartz in a 2007 study
  • 1. Simply ask
    Exposure effect
    What can I get you sir?
    Whilst queuing for food
    40% of students took a serving of fruit
    When asked if they would ‘like fruit or fruit juice’
    70% of students took a serving of fruit
    Yale University researcher Marlene Schwartz in a 2007 study
  • 2. Ask using the right words
  • 2. Ask using the right words
    ¼
    Petrified Thieves
    People steal bits of wood from Arizona’s Petrified Forest National Park.
     
    Many past visitors have removed petrified wood from the Park, changing the natural state
    of the Petrified Forest
    Please don’t remove the
    petrified wood from the Park,
    in order to preserve
    the natural state
    of the Petrified Forest
    [nothing]
    The signs above were tested to stop the theft: Some were more successful than others…
    Yes! 50 secrets from the science of persuasion | Goldstein, Martin, Cialdini | 2007 | pp20
  • 2. Ask using the right words
    ¼
    Petrified Thieves
    People steal bits of wood from Arizona’s Petrified Forest National Park.
     
    Many past visitors have removed petrified wood from the Park, changing the natural state
    of the Petrified Forest
    Please don’t remove the
    petrified wood from the Park,
    in order to preserve
    the natural state
    of the Petrified Forest
    [nothing]
    8% theft
    Yes! 50 secrets from the science of persuasion | Goldstein, Martin, Cialdini | 2007 | pp20
  • 2. Ask using the right words
    ¼
    Petrified Thieves
    People steal bits of wood from Arizona’s Petrified Forest National Park.
     
    Many past visitors have removed petrified wood from the Park, changing the natural state
    of the Petrified Forest
    Please don’t remove the
    petrified wood from the Park,
    in order to preserve
    the natural state
    of the Petrified Forest
    [nothing]
    8% theft
    3% theft
    Yes! 50 secrets from the science of persuasion | Goldstein, Martin, Cialdini | 2007 | pp20
  • 2. Ask using the right words
    ¼
    Petrified Thieves
    People steal bits of wood from Arizona’s Petrified Forest National Park.
     
    Many past visitors have removed petrified wood from the Park, changing the natural state
    of the Petrified Forest
    Please don’t remove the
    petrified wood from the Park,
    in order to preserve
    the natural state
    of the Petrified Forest
    [nothing]
    8% theft
    1.7% theft
    3% theft
    Yes! 50 secrets from the science of persuasion | Goldstein, Martin, Cialdini | 2007 | pp20
  • 2. Ask using the right words
    ¼
    Framing effect
    Social norms
    Petrified Thieves
    People steal bits of wood from Arizona’s Petrified Forest National Park.
     
    Many past visitors have removed petrified wood from the Park, changing the natural state
    of the Petrified Forest
    Please don’t remove the
    petrified wood from the Park,
    in order to preserve
    the natural state
    of the Petrified Forest
    [nothing]
    8% theft
    1.7% theft
    3% theft
    “…a message that focuses recipients on the injunctive norm will be superior to messages that focus recipients on the descriptive norm.” (Cialdini et al., 2003)
    Yes! 50 secrets from the science of persuasion | Goldstein, Martin, Cialdini | 2007 | pp20
  • 3. Ask using the right images
  • 3. Ask using the right images
    Chief Iron Eyes Cody
    "People Start Pollution. People can stop it."  YouTube
  • 3. Ask using the right images
    Chief Iron Eyes Cody
    Considered successful:
    • 16th best television commercial of all time by
    TV Guide magazine (“The Fifty Greatest,” 1999)
    • Top 100 advertising campaigns of the 20th Century by Ad Age Magazine
    • 2 Clio awards
    Crafting Normative Messages to Protect the Environment Robert B. Cialdini, Department of Psychology, Arizona State University
  • 3. Ask using the right images
    Social norms
    Chief Iron Eyes Cody
    “…small but conceptually meaningful modification of… changing the perceived descriptive norm regarding littering.”
    However - reinforcing damaging message that many people do litter
    Crafting Normative Messages to Protect the Environment Robert B. Cialdini, Department of Psychology, Arizona State University
  • 4. Ask using the right authority
  • 4. Ask using the right authority
    Insulating expectation
     
    Sutton council worked with B&Q to made 6,000 rolls of loft insulation available at massively reduced prices
    “[A] very simple step to make their homes more carbon efficient and to save on their bills”
    Daniel Ratchford -Strategic Director, Environment & Leisure, Sutton Council
  • 4. Ask using the right authority
    Authority effect
    Social
    norms
    Insulating expectation
     
    Sutton council worked with B&Q to made 6,000 rolls of loft insulation available at massively reduced prices
    “[A] very simple step to make their homes more carbon efficient and to save on their bills”
    Daniel Ratchford -Strategic Director, Environment & Leisure, Sutton Council
  • 1. Simply ask
    2. Ask using the right words
    4. Ask using the right authority
    3. Ask using the right images
  • 5. Ask using the right fakeauthority
    6. Ask in the right order
    7. Ask at the right time
    8. Ask with the right incentive
  • 5. Ask using the right fakeauthority
  • 5. Ask using the right fake authority
    b. Expend very little energy
    Can these fake approval and disapproval emoticons change behaviour?
    Making buildings more efficient: It helps to understand human behavior | Grist.org
  • 5. Ask using the right fake authority
    Expend very little energy
    Two groups given information about their neighbourhood energy use
    Group A
    Group B
    10 mpg
    25 mpg
    Straight info and smiley/sad face
    Straight info about energy use
    Making buildings more efficient: It helps to understand human behavior | Grist.org
  • 5. Ask using the right fake authority
    Expend very little energy
    Two groups given information about their neighbourhood energy use
    Group A
    Group B
    10 mpg
    25 mpg
    High users reduced consumption
    Low users increased consumption
    High users reduced consumption
    Low users consistent consumption
    Making buildings more efficient: It helps to understand human behavior | Grist.org
  • 5. Ask using the right fake authority
    Loss aversion
    Social norms
    Expend very little energy
    Two groups given information about their neighbourhood energy use
    Group A
    Group B
    10 mpg
    25 mpg
    High users reduced consumption
    Low users increased consumption
    High users reduced consumption
    Low users consistent consumption
    40% more energy saved
    Making buildings more efficient: It helps to understand human behavior | Grist.org
  • Opower
    Smart measuring tech
    Take a fee for collating and presenting supply data to existing utility companies’ customers
    Making buildings more efficient: It helps to understand human behavior | Grist.org
  • Popular interest
    CEO's live interview on Fox Business
    Finalist for Discovery Channel's 2010 Edison Awards
    Featured in USA Today
    In Washington Post as "best example of climate psychology in action"
    Making buildings more efficient: It helps to understand human behavior | Grist.org
  • Powerful interest
    President Obama speaks at OPOWER, Arlington
    Cameron, highlights OPOWER at TED2010
    “I want companies like OPOWER… all across America. It’s good for consumers. It’s good for our economy. It’s good for our environment.”
    “…BE can transform people's behaviour in a way that all the bullying and badgering from a Government cannot possibly achieve.”
    Making buildings more efficient: It helps to understand human behavior | Grist.org
  • 6. Ask in the right order
  • 6. Ask in the right order
    The mpg illusion
    Which trade-in saves the most fuel?
    Trade-in A
    Trade-in B
    10 mpg
    25 mpg
    50 mpg
    12.5 mpg
    The MPG Illusion | Professors Richard Larrick, Jack Soll | Duke University
  • 6. Ask in the right order
    The mpg illusion
    Now let’s show Miles-per-gallon as Gallons-per-(hundred)mile. Same answer?
    Trade-in A
    Trade-in B
    10 mpg = 10 GPhM
    25 mpg = 4 GPhM
    50 mpg = 2 GPhM
    12.5 mpg = 8 GPhM
    The MPG Illusion | Professors Richard Larrick, Jack Soll | Duke University
  • 6. Ask in the right order
    The mpg illusion
    Now let’s show Miles-per-gallon as Gallons-per-(hundred)mile. Same answer?
    Trade-in A
    Trade-in B
    10 mpg = 10 GPhM
    25 mpg = 4 GPhM
    50 mpg = 2 GPhM
    12.5 mpg = 8 GPhM
    MPG makes you
    undervalue
    improvements in
    inefficient cars
    MPG makes you
    overvalue
    improvements in
    efficient cars
    The MPG Illusion | Professors Richard Larrick, Jack Soll | Duke University
  • 6. Ask in the right order
    Framing
    effect
    The mpg illusion
    10 mpg = 10 GPhM11 mpg = 9 GPhM
    12.5 mpg = 8 GPhM
    14 mpg = 7 GPhM
    16.5 mpg = 6 GPhM
    20 mpg = 5 GPhM
    25 mpg = 4 GPhM
    33 mpg = 3 GPhM50 mpg = 2 GPhM
    100 mpg = 1 GPhM
    “The New York Senate Environmental Conservation Committee has passed a new fuel efficiency bill… vehicle manufacturers [must] list "gallons per 1,000 miles….”
    Rick Larrick, The MPG Illusion, Feb 2010
    The MPG Illusion | Professors Richard Larrick, Jack Soll | Duke University
  • 5. Ask using the right fakeauthority
    6. Ask in the right order
    7. Ask at the right time
    8. Ask with the right incentive
  • 10. Take away options
    9. Add options
    12. Ask a different question
    11. Ask (but have a default option)
  • 11. Ask (but have a default option)
  • 11. Ask, but have a default option
    Catering for a conference
    A conference experimented with their default menu options: one year they offered meat as default, the next year vegetarian
    Vegetarian
    Meat
    When Behavioral Economics Meets Climate Change, Guess What's Coming for Dinner? | Marc Gunther | climatebiz.com
  • 11. Ask, but have a default option
    Catering for a conference
    A conference experimented with their default menu options: one year they offered meat as default, the next year vegetarian
    83%
    17%
    Vegetarian = option
    Meat = default
    When Behavioral Economics Meets Climate Change, Guess What's Coming for Dinner? | Marc Gunther | climatebiz.com
  • 11. Ask, but have a default option
    Framing effect
    Catering for a conference
    A conference experimented with their default menu options: one year they offered meat as default, the next year vegetarian
    80%
    20%
    Vegetarian = default
    Meat = option
    When Behavioral Economics Meets Climate Change, Guess What's Coming for Dinner? | Marc Gunther | climatebiz.com
  • 12. Ask a different question
  • 12. Ask a completely different question
    Few people use stairs when there’s an escalator on offer.
    How do you create the desire to use the stairs?
    ?
    Funtheory.com | Piano Staircase
  • 12. Ask a completely different question
    Few people use stairs when there’s an escalator on offer.
    Piano stairs increased stair use by 66%
    Funtheory.com | Piano Staircase
  • 12. Ask a completely different question
    Do you want to take the stairs lose weight?
    These stairs in the Goodnight
    Hostel in Lisbon appeal to the
    calorie conscious.
    FREAK Shots: Nudging the Calorie Counters | Freakonomics Blog | New York Times
  • 12. Ask a completely different question
    Framing effect
    Do you want to…
  • 10. Take away options
    9. Add options
    12. Ask a different question
    11. Ask (but have a default option)
  • 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)
    13. Let the feedback ask the question
    16. Ask nothing – other than to go public
    15. Ask nothing, except measurement
  • 13. Let the feedback ask the question
  • 13. Let the feedback ask the question
    ¾
    A ball of energy
    Attempts by Southern California Edison to notify people of their energy use with e-mails and text messages did no good.
     
    Chicago Tribune | A gentle prod to go green
  • 13. Let the feedback ask the question
    ¾
    A ball of energy
    They tried an Ambient Orb – a
    personal energy meter in the
    shape of a little ball:
    • It glows red when people are using lots of energy
    • It glows green when their use is modest.
    Chicago Tribune | A gentle prod to go green
  • 13. Let the feedback ask the question
    ¾
    Social norms
    Loss aversion
    A ball of energy
    They tried an Ambient Orb – a
    personal energy meter in the
    shape of a little ball:
    Within weeks users of the orb
    reduced their energy consumption
    during peak times by 40%
    Chicago Tribune | A gentle prod to go green
  • 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)
  • 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)
    Tax doesn’t have to be taxing (no, really)
    In Australia, tax-payers were informed that that normal practice was honesty in tax returns
    HEADS, YOU DIE: Bad decisions, choice architecture, and how to mitigate predictable irrationality | Jack Fuller | Per Capita research
  • 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)
    Social norms
    Tax doesn’t have to be taxing (no, really)
    In Australia, tax-payers were informed that that normal practice was honesty in tax returns
    Deductions plunged by 47%
    (over $800 million Aus$ extra revenue)
    HEADS, YOU DIE: Bad decisions, choice architecture, and how to mitigate predictable irrationality | Jack Fuller | Per Capita research
  • 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)
    13. Let the feedback ask the question
    16. Ask nothing – other than to go public
    15. Ask nothing, except measurement
  • 18. Ask kinetically
    17. Ask for a commitment – in the future
    19. Make the question irrelevant
  • 18. Ask kinetically
  • 18. Ask kinetically
    Lights. Out.
    Communicating ‘turn off the lights’ in a hotel is tricky – the guest derives no personal benefit
    What do you do?
    ?
    A gentle prod to go green: Turning wishes into actions a matter of showing people the way | Chicago Tribune | Thaler, Sunstein | 2008
  • 18. Ask kinetically
    Framing
    effect
    Lights. Out.
    Link to an action that is in the interests of the guest:
    “When they leave the room and take their key [from the slot], the lights and AC are automatically turned off.”
    Chicago Tribune
    A gentle prod to go green: Turning wishes into actions a matter of showing people the way | Chicago Tribune | Thaler, Sunstein | 2008
  • 19. Make the question irrelevant
  • 19. Make the question irrelevant
    As clear as day
    How do you create energy efficiency in private homes?
     
  • 19. Make the question irrelevant
    Social norms
    As clear as day
    How do you create energy efficiency in private homes?
     
    In 1916 Germany was the first European nation to move the clocks forwards and backwards as a way to conserve coal during WWI
    We all followed suit
    Daylight savings time | Nudge pp 51
  • 3 most common non-rational behaviours
    Framing
    Drawing different conclusions based on how data are presented
    (Petrified thieves, Add options, Take away, MPG illusion, Stairs)
    Loss Aversion
    The pain of loss twice as bad as the pleasure of gain
    (Ambient orb, Neighbourhood electricity, Prius)
    Social norms
    No one wants to be the weirdo
    (Opower, Ambient orb, B&Q, Iron Eyes Cody, LA food)
    Overt or Covert
  • “…despite being generally capable and smart, we are highly context dependent.”
    Jack Fuller, Australian research group Per Capita Research
     change in purchase behaviour
    change in lifestyle behaviour
    (or a combination of both)
    | How do you create sustainable behaviour?
  • Create:
     change in purchase behaviour
    change in lifestyle behaviour
    (or a combination of the two)
    | How do you create sustainable behaviour?
  • Thank you