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Sustainable Parking - NPA 2011 - Carl Walker, Inc.
 

Sustainable Parking - NPA 2011 - Carl Walker, Inc.

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Presented at the

Presented at the
2011 National Parking Association by
Gary Cudney, P.E.
President, Carl Walker, Inc.

gcudney@carlwalker.com



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    Sustainable Parking - NPA 2011 - Carl Walker, Inc. Sustainable Parking - NPA 2011 - Carl Walker, Inc. Presentation Transcript

    • Sustainable Parking Design
      • Gary Cudney
      • Carl Walker, Inc.
      • Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
      • LEED® Green Building Rating System
        • USGBC/LEED certifies occupied commercial buildings
      USGBC and LEED®
      • LEED® Green Building Rating System
        • Sustainable Sites
        • Water Efficiency
        • Energy & Atmosphere
        • Materials & Resources
        • Indoor Environmental Quality
      USGBC and LEED®
      • 2011 USGBC Ruling
        • “ Parking garages may not pursue LEED certification. More specifically, buildings that dedicate more than 75% of floor area (including areas not covered, enclosed, or conditioned) to the parking and circulation of motor vehicles are ineligible for LEED.”
      USGBC and LEED®
      • Green Parking Council (GPC)
        • Non-profit organization offering:
          • Certification and Credentialing Programs
            • Green Garage Demonstrator Sites
            • Individual education & professional credentials
          • Parking industry standards
          • Professional leadership, education and training
        • GPC works at the intersection of parking, green building, clean technology, renewable energy, smart grid infrastructure, urban planning and sustainable mobility.
      Green Parking Council (GPC)
      • greenparkingcouncil.org
      • Carl Walker Green Garage Demonstrator Sites
        • City of Ann Arbor South 5 th Avenue Underground
        • Colorado State University (CSU) Lake Street
      Green Parking Council (GPC)
      • Combined Effort of the National Parking Association’s PCC and IPI’s Consultants Committee
        • Environmental Impacts of Garages
        • Rating Systems
        • Energy Choices
        • Electric Vehicles
        • Automated Parking Structures
        • Lighting
        • Green Roofs
        • Green Operations & Management
        • TDM and TOD
      Sustainable Parking – Strategies & Practices Book
      • Reduced Operating and Life Cycle Costs
      • Increased Building Value & Marketability
      • Tax Incentives & Utility Rebates
      • Less Waste, Material Usage, and Pollution
      • Less Energy and Water Depletion
      Advantages of Building Green Parking
      • LEED® Green Building Rating System
        • Sustainable Sites
        • Water Efficiency
        • Energy & Atmosphere
        • Materials & Resources
        • Indoor Environmental Quality
      USGBC and LEED®
      • Green Roofs
        • Reduced heat island
        • Reduced and filtered storm water run off
        • Improved aesthetics
        • Useable outdoor space
      Sustainable Sites
      • Green Roofs
      Sustainable Sites
      • Green Roof & Intermodal
      Sustainable Sites
    • Green Roof Technology
      • Extensive Systems
        • Limited access, limited options, lower costs
        • Uses in parking include
          • Stair/Elevator Roofs
          • Canopies
      • Intensive Systems
        • Pedestrian friendly, vast options, higher costs
          • Grade-level park
          • Garden Roof
          • Playing Field
    • Benefits of Green Roofs
      • Owner Benefits
        • Improved public acceptance
        • Aesthetics
        • Facility branding
        • Stormwater management
        • Increased R-factor
        • Increased roofing longevity
        • Enhanced property value
        • LEED® points
    • Benefits of Green Roofs
      • Public Benefits
        • Reduction in Urban Heat Island
        • Storm Water Management
          • Capable of retaining in excess of 50% of annual rainfall volume per 2009 EPA Study
          • Reduces peak flow
          • Good for watersheds
        • Improved Air Quality
        • Urban habitats for birds, butterflies, bees and other insects
        • Attractive appearance
        • Useable public or education space
      Image Courtesy of Clean Air Partnership
    • Disadvantages of Green Roofs
      • Problems with Green Roofs
        • Increased structural loads
        • Higher Capital Costs
          • 20-year cost/benefit payback
        • Specialized maintenance
          • Plants
          • Irrigation
          • Waterproofing
          • Drainage
        • Difficulty locating leaks
    • Green Roof Costs
      • Rule of Thumbs +50%
      • Costs excluding the roof structure
        • Extensive $10 - $35/SF
        • Intensive $40 - $250/SF
        • Local or State subsidies where available can offset first costs
    • Green Roof Projects
      • Museum of Science & Industry, Chicago, IL
    • Green Roof Projects
      • Playfields
      • Green Walls
      Sustainable Sites
      • Green Walls
      Sustainable Sites
      • Parking Canopies
      Sustainable Sites Canopies reduce heat island effect & provide sun and hail protection Solar panels atop canopy
      • Alternative transportation – Bike parking, changing rooms and showers
      Sustainable Sites
      • Bike Rental Programs
      Sustainable Sites
      • Alternative transportation access
      • Preferred EV and HOV parking
      • Electric charging stations
      Sustainable Sites
      • Pervious concrete pavement
        • Reduces runoff
        • Naturally filters storm water
      Sustainable Sites
      • Pervious concrete pavement
        • Pervious concrete is recognized by the EPA and the USGBC’s LEED for its benefits of:
      Sustainable Sites
      • Water-pollution control
      • Recharging ground water
      • Storm water management
      • Reducing urban heat islands
      • Tree & plant irrigation
      • Drier and safer for pedestrians
      • Traffic grid and grass for temporary parking
      Sustainable Sites
      • Water Efficient Landscaping
      • Irrigate with Retained Storm Water
      • Natural Drainage Landscapes
      Water Efficiency
      • Optimize Energy Performance
        • Energy Efficient Lighting
        • Lighting Control Systems
      • Renewable Energy – Solar Power
      Energy & Atmosphere
    • Parking Lighting Used to be Easy!
      • High Pressure Sodium
      • “ Before”
      • Metal Halide “After”
    • Parking Lighting Used to be Easy!
      • High Pressure Sodium (HPS)“Before”
      • Metal Halide (MH)
      • “ After”
      • with painted ceiling
      • Parking Structure Lighting Options Today
      • Fluorescent – T8 or T5
      • Induction
      • LED
      • HPS & MH not used much
      Parking Lighting
      • Induction
      • LED
      • Fluorescent
      • LED
      • Improved Security & Less Crime
      • Enhanced Perception – More Revenue
      • Reduced Energy Costs (40%+ Savings)
      • Less Maintenance – Longer Lamp Life
      • Other Financial Incentives
        • Local & State Credits and Rebates
        • Utility Company Rebates (Database at dsireusa.org )
        • EPAct of 2005 Tax Deductions of 30¢-60¢/SF
        • Very Short Payback Period (2 – 4 Years) for Conversions
        • Manufacturers Finance or Lease for No Upfront Cost
      Benefits of New Lighting Options
      • IESNA RP-20-98 Garage Illuminance
        • Minimum Horizontal 1.0 fc on the floor
        • Non-Parking Ramps 2.0 fc day / 1.0 fc night
        • Entrance Areas 50.0 fc day / 1.0 fc night
        • Max/MinUniformity Ratio 10:1 (Horizontal)
      • 5.0 fc Average w/ 4:1 Avg/Min Ratio
      Lighting Design Criteria
      • Single Row Layout
      • Not Preferred
      • Double Row Layout
      • Preferred
      • HID No Longer the Light of Choice
      • A Lot of Interest in LED & Induction…BUT…
      • Fluorescent seems most popular
      • Install Demo Fixtures
      • Have Lighting Analysis Performed
      • Consider Wireless Control Technology
        • Time of Day
        • Photocell
        • Motion Detector
        • Instant On / Off
      Parking Structure Lighting Trends
    • Parking Structure Lighting
      • Induction Lighting
      • LED Lighting
    • Lighting 10-Year Life Cycle Cost Analysis
      • Solar Canopies
        • $1,100,000 Cost
        • 9,000 SF
        • $122/SF
        • ≈ 100 KW
      Energy & Atmosphere
      • Construction waste management – recycle & reuse
      • Recycled steel
        • Structural steel
        • Concrete rebar
        • Handrails, grilles, bollards, etc.
      • Thin brick façade panels
      • Recycled rubber
      Materials & Resources
      • Green Concrete
        • Recycled Fly Ash, Slag, and Silica Fume
        • Recycled Sand and Aggregate
        • Local / Regional Materials
        • Reuse Formwork
      • 75 Year Design Life
      Materials & Resources
      • Maximize natural ventilation
      • CO Monitoring
      • Promote natural lighting
      • Use low VOC products
        • Paint
        • Silane Sealer
        • Deck Coating
      Indoor Environmental Quality
      • Sustainable Parking Control Equipment
        • Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI)
        • Pay-On-Foot Automated System
        • Parking Space Guidance System
          • Spaces Available
          • Individual Space Monitoring
          • Online Reservations
      Indoor Environmental Quality
      • Carl Walker Green Garage Demonstrator Sites
        • Colorado State University (CSU) Lake Street
      Green Parking Council (GPC)
      • CSU Lake Street Green Features
        • Solar Energy
        • Regional materials (concrete, sandstone)
        • Recycled content (fly ash, steel)
        • Heat island reduction (concrete, white EPDM)
        • Water use reduction (landscaping, plumbing fixtures)
        • Storm water management (bioswales)
        • Preferential parking for FEVs & ZEVs (5% of total)
        • Low energy lighting (induction, photocell control, day lighting)
      Green Parking Council (GPC)
      • Carl Walker Green Garage Demonstrator Sites
        • City of Ann Arbor South 5 th Avenue Underground
      Green Parking Council (GPC)
      • Carl Walker Green Garage Demonstrator Sites
        • City of Ann Arbor South 5 th Avenue Underground
      Green Parking Council (GPC)
      • 5 th Avenue Underground Green Features
        • Regional materials (concrete)
        • Recycled content (16,300 trucks of excavated soil, paving, slag, steel)
        • Storm water management (large detention tank)
        • Water use reduction (landscaping)
        • Preferential parking for alternate fuel vehicles
        • 22 Electric charging stations
        • Low energy lighting (fluorescent w/ occupancy and time of day control)
        • LED street lighting
      Green Parking Council (GPC)
    • THANK YOU!
      • QUESTIONS?
      Gary Cudney, P.E., President Carl Walker, Inc. [email_address] carlwalker.com
    • High Pressure Sodium Lighting High Pressure Sodium Advantages High Pressure Sodium Disadvantages Lower First Cost Nearing Obsolescence in Parking Match Existing Facilities…If Not Retrofitted Already Yellowish Light Color Lower Operating Cost Than Metal Halide Shorter Lamp Life than Newer Technology Higher Lamp Cost than Fluorescent Higher Energy Consumption Higher Life Cycle Operating Cost
    • Metal Halide Lighting Metal Halide Advantages Metal Halide Disadvantages Lower First Cost Nearing Obsolescence in Parking (TBD) Match Existing Facilities…If Not Retrofitted Already Highest Energy Consumption White Light Higher Life Cycle Operating Cost Shorter Lamp Life than Newer Technology Higher Lamp Cost than Fluorescent
    • Fluorescent Lighting Fluorescent Advantages Fluorescent Disadvantages Lowest First Cost Perception of Lower Quality – Some Poor Quality Fixtures on the Market Lowest life Cycle Operating Cost Reduced Illuminance in Cold Weather White Light Disposal of Lamps with Mercury Low Energy Consumption More Maintenance (Cleaning, Gasket) Lowest Lamp Cost Long Lamp Life Instant On / Off For Lighting Management
    • LED Lighting LED Advantages LED Disadvantages Low Energy Consumption Highest First Cost Long Life…But, a Moving Target Replace Entire Fixture When LED’s Fail White Light Some Poor Quality Foreign LED’s No Mercury Disposal Light Distribution: Glare, Little Up Light, Less Uniform Great in Cold Climates Little History…Rapid Change Instant On / Off For Lighting Management Lumens per Watt is too Low
    • Induction Lighting Induction Advantages Induction Disadvantages Low Energy Consumption Higher First Cost than Fluorescent Long Lamp Life More Fixtures Required Due to Low Light Output White Light Lumens per Watt is too Low Great in Cold Climates Some Poor Quality Foreign Lamps Instant On / Off For Lighting Management Good Light Distribution