Sustainable   Parking Design <ul><li>Gary Cudney </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Walker, Inc. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design </li></ul><ul><li>LEED® Green Building Rating System  </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>LEED® Green Building Rating System  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable Sites  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Effi...
<ul><li>2011 USGBC Ruling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Parking garages may not pursue LEED certification. More specifically, bu...
<ul><li>Green Parking Council (GPC)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-profit organization offering:  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Carl Walker  Green Garage Demonstrator Sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>City of Ann Arbor South 5 th  Avenue Undergroun...
<ul><li>Combined Effort of the National Parking Association’s PCC and IPI’s Consultants Committee   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Reduced Operating and Life Cycle Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Building Value & Marketability </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>LEED® Green Building Rating System  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable Sites  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Effi...
<ul><li>Green Roofs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced heat island </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced and filtered storm water ...
<ul><li>Green Roofs </li></ul>Sustainable Sites
<ul><li>Green Roof & Intermodal </li></ul>Sustainable Sites
Green Roof Technology <ul><li>Extensive Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited access, limited options, lower costs </li></...
Benefits of Green Roofs <ul><li>Owner Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved public acceptance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Benefits of Green Roofs <ul><li>Public Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction in Urban Heat Island </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Disadvantages of Green Roofs <ul><li>Problems with Green Roofs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased structural loads </li></ul>...
Green Roof Costs <ul><li>Rule of Thumbs +50% </li></ul><ul><li>Costs excluding the roof structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex...
Green Roof Projects <ul><li>Museum of Science & Industry, Chicago, IL </li></ul>
Green Roof Projects <ul><li>Playfields </li></ul>
<ul><li>Green Walls </li></ul>Sustainable Sites
<ul><li>Green Walls </li></ul>Sustainable Sites
<ul><li>Parking Canopies </li></ul>Sustainable Sites Canopies reduce heat island effect & provide sun and hail protection ...
<ul><li>Alternative transportation – Bike parking, changing rooms and showers </li></ul>Sustainable Sites
<ul><li>Bike Rental Programs </li></ul>Sustainable Sites
<ul><li>Alternative transportation access  </li></ul><ul><li>Preferred EV and HOV parking  </li></ul><ul><li>Electric char...
<ul><li>Pervious concrete pavement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces runoff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturally filters storm...
<ul><li>Pervious concrete pavement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pervious concrete is recognized by the EPA and the USGBC’s LEED f...
<ul><li>Traffic grid and grass for temporary parking </li></ul>Sustainable Sites
<ul><li>Water Efficient Landscaping </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigate with Retained Storm Water </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Drainag...
<ul><li>Optimize Energy Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Efficient Lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighting Co...
Parking Lighting Used to be Easy! <ul><li>High Pressure Sodium </li></ul><ul><li>“ Before” </li></ul><ul><li>Metal Halide ...
Parking Lighting Used to be Easy! <ul><li>High Pressure Sodium (HPS)“Before” </li></ul><ul><li>Metal Halide (MH) </li></ul...
<ul><li>Parking Structure Lighting Options Today </li></ul><ul><li>Fluorescent – T8 or T5 </li></ul><ul><li>Induction </li...
<ul><li>Improved Security & Less Crime </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced Perception – More Revenue </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced Ener...
<ul><li>IESNA RP-20-98 Garage Illuminance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum Horizontal 1.0 fc on the floor </li></ul></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>HID No Longer the Light of Choice </li></ul><ul><li>A Lot of Interest in LED & Induction…BUT… </li></ul><ul><li>Fl...
Parking Structure Lighting <ul><li>Induction Lighting </li></ul><ul><li>LED Lighting </li></ul>
Lighting 10-Year Life Cycle Cost Analysis
<ul><li>Solar Canopies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$1,100,000 Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9,000 SF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Construction waste management – recycle & reuse </li></ul><ul><li>Recycled steel  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural...
<ul><li>Green Concrete </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycled Fly Ash, Slag, and Silica Fume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycled S...
<ul><li>Maximize natural ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>CO Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Promote natural lighting </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Sustainable Parking Control Equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI) </li></ul></ul>...
<ul><li>Carl Walker  Green Garage Demonstrator Sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colorado State University (CSU) Lake Street </l...
<ul><li>CSU Lake Street  Green Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional materials (...
<ul><li>Carl Walker  Green Garage Demonstrator Sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>City of Ann Arbor South 5 th  Avenue Undergroun...
<ul><li>Carl Walker  Green Garage Demonstrator Sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>City of Ann Arbor South 5 th  Avenue Undergroun...
<ul><li>5 th  Avenue Underground  Green Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional materials (concrete)  </li></ul></ul><ul><...
THANK YOU! <ul><li>QUESTIONS? </li></ul>Gary Cudney, P.E., President Carl Walker, Inc. [email_address] carlwalker.com
High Pressure Sodium Lighting High Pressure Sodium Advantages High Pressure Sodium Disadvantages Lower First Cost Nearing ...
Metal Halide Lighting Metal Halide Advantages Metal Halide Disadvantages Lower First Cost Nearing Obsolescence in Parking ...
Fluorescent Lighting Fluorescent Advantages Fluorescent Disadvantages Lowest First Cost Perception of Lower Quality – Some...
LED Lighting LED Advantages LED Disadvantages Low Energy Consumption Highest First Cost Long Life…But, a Moving Target Rep...
Induction Lighting Induction Advantages Induction Disadvantages Low Energy Consumption Higher First Cost than Fluorescent ...
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Sustainable Parking - NPA 2011 - Carl Walker, Inc.

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2011 National Parking Association by
Gary Cudney, P.E.
President, Carl Walker, Inc.

gcudney@carlwalker.com



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Sustainable Parking - NPA 2011 - Carl Walker, Inc.

  1. 1. Sustainable Parking Design <ul><li>Gary Cudney </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Walker, Inc. </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design </li></ul><ul><li>LEED® Green Building Rating System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USGBC/LEED certifies occupied commercial buildings </li></ul></ul>USGBC and LEED®
  3. 3. <ul><li>LEED® Green Building Rating System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable Sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy & Atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials & Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indoor Environmental Quality </li></ul></ul>USGBC and LEED®
  4. 4. <ul><li>2011 USGBC Ruling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Parking garages may not pursue LEED certification. More specifically, buildings that dedicate more than 75% of floor area (including areas not covered, enclosed, or conditioned) to the parking and circulation of motor vehicles are ineligible for LEED.” </li></ul></ul>USGBC and LEED®
  5. 5. <ul><li>Green Parking Council (GPC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-profit organization offering: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Certification and Credentialing Programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Green Garage Demonstrator Sites </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individual education & professional credentials </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parking industry standards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Professional leadership, education and training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GPC works at the intersection of parking, green building, clean technology, renewable energy, smart grid infrastructure, urban planning and sustainable mobility. </li></ul></ul>Green Parking Council (GPC) <ul><li>greenparkingcouncil.org </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Carl Walker Green Garage Demonstrator Sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>City of Ann Arbor South 5 th Avenue Underground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colorado State University (CSU) Lake Street </li></ul></ul>Green Parking Council (GPC)
  7. 7. <ul><li>Combined Effort of the National Parking Association’s PCC and IPI’s Consultants Committee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Impacts of Garages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rating Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electric Vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated Parking Structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Roofs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Operations & Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TDM and TOD </li></ul></ul>Sustainable Parking – Strategies & Practices Book
  8. 8. <ul><li>Reduced Operating and Life Cycle Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Building Value & Marketability </li></ul><ul><li>Tax Incentives & Utility Rebates </li></ul><ul><li>Less Waste, Material Usage, and Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Less Energy and Water Depletion </li></ul>Advantages of Building Green Parking
  9. 9. <ul><li>LEED® Green Building Rating System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable Sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy & Atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials & Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indoor Environmental Quality </li></ul></ul>USGBC and LEED®
  10. 10. <ul><li>Green Roofs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced heat island </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced and filtered storm water run off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved aesthetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Useable outdoor space </li></ul></ul>Sustainable Sites
  11. 11. <ul><li>Green Roofs </li></ul>Sustainable Sites
  12. 12. <ul><li>Green Roof & Intermodal </li></ul>Sustainable Sites
  13. 13. Green Roof Technology <ul><li>Extensive Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited access, limited options, lower costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses in parking include </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stair/Elevator Roofs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Canopies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Intensive Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedestrian friendly, vast options, higher costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grade-level park </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Garden Roof </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Playing Field </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Benefits of Green Roofs <ul><li>Owner Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved public acceptance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facility branding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stormwater management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased R-factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased roofing longevity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced property value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LEED® points </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Benefits of Green Roofs <ul><li>Public Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction in Urban Heat Island </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storm Water Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capable of retaining in excess of 50% of annual rainfall volume per 2009 EPA Study </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces peak flow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good for watersheds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved Air Quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban habitats for birds, butterflies, bees and other insects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attractive appearance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Useable public or education space </li></ul></ul>Image Courtesy of Clean Air Partnership
  16. 16. Disadvantages of Green Roofs <ul><li>Problems with Green Roofs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased structural loads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher Capital Costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20-year cost/benefit payback </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waterproofing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drainage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty locating leaks </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Green Roof Costs <ul><li>Rule of Thumbs +50% </li></ul><ul><li>Costs excluding the roof structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive $10 - $35/SF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensive $40 - $250/SF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local or State subsidies where available can offset first costs </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Green Roof Projects <ul><li>Museum of Science & Industry, Chicago, IL </li></ul>
  19. 19. Green Roof Projects <ul><li>Playfields </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Green Walls </li></ul>Sustainable Sites
  21. 21. <ul><li>Green Walls </li></ul>Sustainable Sites
  22. 22. <ul><li>Parking Canopies </li></ul>Sustainable Sites Canopies reduce heat island effect & provide sun and hail protection Solar panels atop canopy
  23. 23. <ul><li>Alternative transportation – Bike parking, changing rooms and showers </li></ul>Sustainable Sites
  24. 24. <ul><li>Bike Rental Programs </li></ul>Sustainable Sites
  25. 25. <ul><li>Alternative transportation access </li></ul><ul><li>Preferred EV and HOV parking </li></ul><ul><li>Electric charging stations </li></ul>Sustainable Sites
  26. 26. <ul><li>Pervious concrete pavement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces runoff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturally filters storm water </li></ul></ul>Sustainable Sites
  27. 27. <ul><li>Pervious concrete pavement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pervious concrete is recognized by the EPA and the USGBC’s LEED for its benefits of: </li></ul></ul>Sustainable Sites <ul><li>Water-pollution control </li></ul><ul><li>Recharging ground water </li></ul><ul><li>Storm water management </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing urban heat islands </li></ul><ul><li>Tree & plant irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Drier and safer for pedestrians </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Traffic grid and grass for temporary parking </li></ul>Sustainable Sites
  29. 29. <ul><li>Water Efficient Landscaping </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigate with Retained Storm Water </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Drainage Landscapes </li></ul>Water Efficiency
  30. 30. <ul><li>Optimize Energy Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Efficient Lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighting Control Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Renewable Energy – Solar Power </li></ul>Energy & Atmosphere
  31. 31. Parking Lighting Used to be Easy! <ul><li>High Pressure Sodium </li></ul><ul><li>“ Before” </li></ul><ul><li>Metal Halide “After” </li></ul>
  32. 32. Parking Lighting Used to be Easy! <ul><li>High Pressure Sodium (HPS)“Before” </li></ul><ul><li>Metal Halide (MH) </li></ul><ul><li>“ After” </li></ul><ul><li>with painted ceiling </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Parking Structure Lighting Options Today </li></ul><ul><li>Fluorescent – T8 or T5 </li></ul><ul><li>Induction </li></ul><ul><li>LED </li></ul><ul><li>HPS & MH not used much </li></ul>Parking Lighting <ul><li>Induction </li></ul><ul><li>LED </li></ul><ul><li>Fluorescent </li></ul><ul><li>LED </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Improved Security & Less Crime </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced Perception – More Revenue </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced Energy Costs (40%+ Savings) </li></ul><ul><li>Less Maintenance – Longer Lamp Life </li></ul><ul><li>Other Financial Incentives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local & State Credits and Rebates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility Company Rebates (Database at dsireusa.org ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EPAct of 2005 Tax Deductions of 30¢-60¢/SF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very Short Payback Period (2 – 4 Years) for Conversions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturers Finance or Lease for No Upfront Cost </li></ul></ul>Benefits of New Lighting Options
  35. 35. <ul><li>IESNA RP-20-98 Garage Illuminance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum Horizontal 1.0 fc on the floor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Parking Ramps 2.0 fc day / 1.0 fc night </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entrance Areas 50.0 fc day / 1.0 fc night </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Max/MinUniformity Ratio 10:1 (Horizontal) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5.0 fc Average w/ 4:1 Avg/Min Ratio </li></ul>Lighting Design Criteria <ul><li>Single Row Layout </li></ul><ul><li>Not Preferred </li></ul><ul><li>Double Row Layout </li></ul><ul><li>Preferred </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>HID No Longer the Light of Choice </li></ul><ul><li>A Lot of Interest in LED & Induction…BUT… </li></ul><ul><li>Fluorescent seems most popular </li></ul><ul><li>Install Demo Fixtures </li></ul><ul><li>Have Lighting Analysis Performed </li></ul><ul><li>Consider Wireless Control Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time of Day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photocell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion Detector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instant On / Off </li></ul></ul>Parking Structure Lighting Trends
  37. 37. Parking Structure Lighting <ul><li>Induction Lighting </li></ul><ul><li>LED Lighting </li></ul>
  38. 38. Lighting 10-Year Life Cycle Cost Analysis
  39. 39. <ul><li>Solar Canopies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$1,100,000 Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9,000 SF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$122/SF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>≈ 100 KW </li></ul></ul>Energy & Atmosphere
  40. 40. <ul><li>Construction waste management – recycle & reuse </li></ul><ul><li>Recycled steel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural steel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete rebar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handrails, grilles, bollards, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thin brick façade panels </li></ul><ul><li>Recycled rubber </li></ul>Materials & Resources
  41. 41. <ul><li>Green Concrete </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycled Fly Ash, Slag, and Silica Fume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycled Sand and Aggregate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local / Regional Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reuse Formwork </li></ul></ul><ul><li>75 Year Design Life </li></ul>Materials & Resources
  42. 42. <ul><li>Maximize natural ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>CO Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Promote natural lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Use low VOC products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silane Sealer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deck Coating </li></ul></ul>Indoor Environmental Quality
  43. 43. <ul><li>Sustainable Parking Control Equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay-On-Foot Automated System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parking Space Guidance System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spaces Available </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individual Space Monitoring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Online Reservations </li></ul></ul></ul>Indoor Environmental Quality
  44. 44. <ul><li>Carl Walker Green Garage Demonstrator Sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colorado State University (CSU) Lake Street </li></ul></ul>Green Parking Council (GPC)
  45. 45. <ul><li>CSU Lake Street Green Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional materials (concrete, sandstone) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycled content (fly ash, steel) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat island reduction (concrete, white EPDM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water use reduction (landscaping, plumbing fixtures) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storm water management (bioswales) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preferential parking for FEVs & ZEVs (5% of total) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low energy lighting (induction, photocell control, day lighting) </li></ul></ul>Green Parking Council (GPC)
  46. 46. <ul><li>Carl Walker Green Garage Demonstrator Sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>City of Ann Arbor South 5 th Avenue Underground </li></ul></ul>Green Parking Council (GPC)
  47. 47. <ul><li>Carl Walker Green Garage Demonstrator Sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>City of Ann Arbor South 5 th Avenue Underground </li></ul></ul>Green Parking Council (GPC)
  48. 48. <ul><li>5 th Avenue Underground Green Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional materials (concrete) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycled content (16,300 trucks of excavated soil, paving, slag, steel) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storm water management (large detention tank) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water use reduction (landscaping) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preferential parking for alternate fuel vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>22 Electric charging stations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low energy lighting (fluorescent w/ occupancy and time of day control) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LED street lighting </li></ul></ul>Green Parking Council (GPC)
  49. 49. THANK YOU! <ul><li>QUESTIONS? </li></ul>Gary Cudney, P.E., President Carl Walker, Inc. [email_address] carlwalker.com
  50. 50. High Pressure Sodium Lighting High Pressure Sodium Advantages High Pressure Sodium Disadvantages Lower First Cost Nearing Obsolescence in Parking Match Existing Facilities…If Not Retrofitted Already Yellowish Light Color Lower Operating Cost Than Metal Halide Shorter Lamp Life than Newer Technology Higher Lamp Cost than Fluorescent Higher Energy Consumption Higher Life Cycle Operating Cost
  51. 51. Metal Halide Lighting Metal Halide Advantages Metal Halide Disadvantages Lower First Cost Nearing Obsolescence in Parking (TBD) Match Existing Facilities…If Not Retrofitted Already Highest Energy Consumption White Light Higher Life Cycle Operating Cost Shorter Lamp Life than Newer Technology Higher Lamp Cost than Fluorescent
  52. 52. Fluorescent Lighting Fluorescent Advantages Fluorescent Disadvantages Lowest First Cost Perception of Lower Quality – Some Poor Quality Fixtures on the Market Lowest life Cycle Operating Cost Reduced Illuminance in Cold Weather White Light Disposal of Lamps with Mercury Low Energy Consumption More Maintenance (Cleaning, Gasket) Lowest Lamp Cost Long Lamp Life Instant On / Off For Lighting Management
  53. 53. LED Lighting LED Advantages LED Disadvantages Low Energy Consumption Highest First Cost Long Life…But, a Moving Target Replace Entire Fixture When LED’s Fail White Light Some Poor Quality Foreign LED’s No Mercury Disposal Light Distribution: Glare, Little Up Light, Less Uniform Great in Cold Climates Little History…Rapid Change Instant On / Off For Lighting Management Lumens per Watt is too Low
  54. 54. Induction Lighting Induction Advantages Induction Disadvantages Low Energy Consumption Higher First Cost than Fluorescent Long Lamp Life More Fixtures Required Due to Low Light Output White Light Lumens per Watt is too Low Great in Cold Climates Some Poor Quality Foreign Lamps Instant On / Off For Lighting Management Good Light Distribution
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