Public Realm asSustainable Design HMD Design . www.hmddesign-china.com . 12 April 2012
The Public Realm is:• Any place, space or facility accessible to all members of the community whether publicly or privately owned.• It includes parks, public plazas, civic buildings, sporting venues, town squares and roads and streets.
Historical Perspective • Between the 1860’s and 1930’s public open space became integral to city planning as a reaction to the squalor of cities of the era • Foundations laid in America by Olmstead and other landscape architects after the Civil War • Public open space was seen as ‘hygienic’ and available to all; not just the wealthy • Practicality and beauty were key considerations• It was a social and democratic ideal founded on social reform
Sustainable design is:•Socially stable•Economically successful•Environmentally responsible economic social environment • A different perspective…
Social Sustainability• Equal access for all• Serves the relevant demographic profile• Community participation• Community identity• Human contact and activities• Healthy lifestyle• Represents local culture and history• Safe, friendly environment
Economic Sustainability • Higher property values • Higher tax revenues • Higher standard of living • Lower social costs• People care about their community • Lifestyle attracts higher level jobs and industries • Lower maintenance and capital costs
Environmental Sustainability • Water • Energy • Ecosystems • Waste • Conservation • Preservation
•640-hectare site Homebush Bay•Ideal for picnics & bike riding•Numerous parks•Bicentennial Park: oLake Belvedere oBBQ facilities oChildrens playgrounds oBoardwalk o8 kilometres of paths and cycle ways oWalk your dog oBird watching oBike hire•Sydney Olympic Park: oThe Sydney Royal Easter Show oSydney Festival oBig Day Out oRugby Union oNational Rugby League oAustralian Football League oAustralian Rugby League oGames at ANZ Stadium oAthletics and Swimming events
Athletes Village - Newington• Purpose built 90 hectare new town with retail, office and residential zones• Residential was athletes village and is now housing• Each home with 12 PV panels on the roof sufficient to power all 2,000 homes• Passive energy saving through orientation and landscaping• Proximity to public transport• Dual water source – one potable and one reuse with wetland recycling• Construction recycling of 90% of hard waste and 60% of soft waste
Environmental Remediation•Restored and protected more than 15 miles of continuous waterfront alongthe Parramatta River and Homebush Bay•Produced over 4,600 mega liters of recycled water over 7 years, providingirrigation and grey water for the parklands.•Treats contaminated soils. Roughly 35 mega liters of leachate have beencollected and transferred to a waste treatment facility. Groundwatercontaminated with 750kg of hydrocarbons, including 430kg of benzene, hasbeen successfully degraded by microorganisms•Provides habitat for more than 180 native species of birds. The once-endangered Green and Golden Bell Frog population in the parklands is nowone of the largest populations•Provides venues for 2.5 million people annually, primarily those fromSydney’s western suburbs. Visitation grew from 750,000 in 2002 to 2.3million in 2007.•Provides educational opportunities for nearly 20,000 children annually,with 18,600 students participating environmental education programs
Tianjin, ChinaSustainability Goals:• Public open space• Education• Economic growth• Green space• Cultural relevance• Health and fitness activities
Tianjin, ChinaProject Program• Underground retail mall and above ground public park• Performance space• Multi-purpose open lawn• Fitness trail• Botanic gardens• Landscape connects to and extends existing park open space• Capture storm water on site
General Techniques• Use a recognized rating system• Locally source materials• Water efficient design• Energy efficient lighting design• Heat island effect reduction• Reflective paving materials• Rain and waste water capture• Increase in water quality• Low maintenance design• Landscape improves air quality• Incorporate local context into planning and design
Systems•USGBC LEED•UK BREEAM•Green Globes•China 3 Star•Energy Star•Japan CASBEE•Hong Kong BEAM•New Zealand NZGBC•Australia GBCA Green Star•LEED Brazil•And so on….
Advanced GuidelinesPrinciples of Public Realm DesignAbu Dhabi Public Realm Design Manual•Livability•Identity•Access•Connectivity•Place making•Environment Stewardship•Inclusive•Activated
Advanced GuidelinesCommunity Rating SystemAbu Dhabi Estidama Pearl RatingSystem• Integrated Development Process 10• Natural Systems 14• Livable Communities 38• Precious Water 37• Resourceful Energy 42• Stewarding Materials 18• Innovative Practice 3*All projects must meet at least the 1 Pearl Standard
Advanced GuidelinesGreen Infrastructure GuideCambridgeshire Council, UK•Green corridors, such as hedgerows, ditches, riversand watercourses, disused railway lines and verges•Commons, village greens, churchyards andcemeteries•Natural and semi-natural habitats for wildlife•Country parks and playing fields•Woodlands and hedgerows•Historic parks and gardens, historic landscapes andancient monuments•Local Nature Reserves and County Wildlife Sites•Sites of Special Scientific Interest•Wetlands, including flooded quarries•Allotments•Public rights of way, cycle ways and otherrecreational routes
Rating System Positive Elements•Assess the environmental impacts•Provide rating tools for differentland uses and building types•Relate ratings to global, local andinternal environments•Allow regional variations•Optimize performance•Minimizing environmentalimpact•Credible standards•Global application•Improves facility managementpractices
Rating System Weaknesses•Complicated and convoluted•“Points driven” ratings•No accounting for social,cultural or historical elements•Expensive to implement•Wide variations between socalled ‘equivalent’ systems•Large gaps coverage•No globally accepted minimum•Most are voluntary notmandatory•Difficult to compare acrosssystems
Conclusions• The Public Realm adds significant social, financial and environmental benefits to modern society• Equal access to public green space is a right and not a privilege• The educational potential of sustainable design is significant• Sustainable design methods should override compliance with any rating standard• Public green space enhances quality of life for all and builds community• Use common sense in design
An observation…. What we• Recommend 20 SM of open need space per person What we• Shanghai population is about have 23 million• At 20 SM per person, Shanghai needs 460 million SM of open space.• Shanghai has less than 7 SM per person poorly distributed• Deficit of 300 million SM of open space…do you wonder why the parks are so crowded?