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PM 2.5
PM 2.5
PM 2.5
PM 2.5
PM 2.5
PM 2.5
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PM 2.5

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A presentation comprising of the research work done by Ph.D student Roeland Jansen while at Fudan University, Shanghai.

A presentation comprising of the research work done by Ph.D student Roeland Jansen while at Fudan University, Shanghai.

Published in: Education, News & Politics
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  • 1. Introduc)on  in  PM2.5  measurements  in     Urban  China   (中国城市空气颗粒物PM2.5监测简介)   Roeland  Jansen   PhD  Student,  Fudan  University   Green  Drinks  China,  Shanghai,  August  9,  2012  
  • 2. My  presenta)on    •  Introduc)on  in  PM2.5   •  Why  people  talk  about  it?     – (为什么人们开始讨论?)   •  How  to  characterize  PM2.5?   – (PM2.5的特征是什么?)   •  Where  PM2.5  comes  from  and  where  it  goes?   – (PM2.5的来源和转化?)   •  Why  some  days  are  nice  and  most  days  are  not  so  nice?   – (为什么空气质量时好时坏?)   •  What  can  we  do  with  our  measurements?   – (我们如何进行监测?)  
  • 3. Why  people  talk  about  PM2.5  and   what  are  they  talking  about?  (为什么人们开始讨论研究PM2.5     关于它的关键问题是什么?)
  • 4. Effect  on  humans  (对人类的影响)  •  Most  harmful  for:     •  Elderly,     •  Children  (0-­‐7  years)  and     •  People  with  Asthma   •  People  with  heart  disease  •  Most  harmful  are  the   human  body  unknown  species  such  as   trace  elements  (=heavy  metals)  and  elemental  carbon  which  are   inside  PM2.5    •  Don t  do  any  physical  ac)vi)es  with  high  PM,  don t  go  running.   Instead  go  aXer  a  rain  period  or  period  with  strong  wind.  
  • 5. Effect  on  the  Environment     (对环境的影响)  •  Dry  deposi)on:  gravity,  wind,  buildings,  trees  •  Wet  deposi)on:  rain,  snow,  etc.  
  • 6. Global  warming  effect.  
  • 7. What  does  PM  look  like?   (PM的结构?)   Aerodynamic  diameter   dp   PM10  dp  ≤  10  μm  (about  1/6  of  a  human  hair)   PM2.5  dp  ≤  2.5  μm  (about  1/24  of  a  human  hair)   Expressed  in  μg/m3   d  =  1  cm   I  =  1  cm3   Inside  are  up  to   10000  par)cles   This  means  that  every  breath  you   take  contains  about  5000000   par)cles  
  • 8. What  does  PM  look  like?   Reprinted  from  Fu  et  al.,  2012  
  • 9. Names  and  standards(命名和标准)  •  PM  =  par)culate  maber  •  PM  =  Aerosols  =  Par)cles  =  solid/liquid  dispersed   in  the  atmosphere  •  Standard  comes  from  Ministry  of  Environmental   Protec)on  (MEP)  and  is     •  Annual  Average  =  35  μg/m3  (2010  BJ:  75  and  SH:  50)1   •  Compare  Annual  Average  set  by  USA  MEP  is  15  μg/m3    1  Ministry  of  Environmental    Protec)on  and  Shanghai  Environmental  Monitoring  Center  
  • 10. Where  does  PM2.5  come  from?   The  “Natural”  sources  (来源)  Sea:  NaCl   Desert:   SiO2  (=sand)   Vulcano:   Sulfate   Calcium   Aluminium  
  • 11. Where  does  PM2.5  come  from?  The  human  or  “Anthropogenic”  sources  (=harmful)   NOx   SO2   VOC   OH   NH3  
  • 12. Local  sources  and  transport  from   point  sources   Beijing   Xiamen  
  • 13. Nice  day!  (晴空万里)     That s  why  some  days   are  nice  and  most  are   not  so  nice!  Not  so  nice  day!(天气阴霾)   Reprinted  from    Jacob  
  • 14. Where  does  PM2.5  go?  (沉降过程)  •  Dry  deposi)on:  gravity,  wind,  buildings,  trees  •  Wet  deposi)on:  rain,  snow,  etc.  •  Chemical  conversion  by  oxida)on  •  Transport  in  the  Environment  
  • 15. Transport  in  the  Environment   在 环 境 中 的 迁 移Picture  taken  at  278  km  height   Reprinted  from  NASA  (Science  vol.  300:  1103-­‐1104,  1996)  
  • 16. Situa)on  in  China  
  • 17. Energy  use  (1.000  TWh)  1990  30  25  20  15  10   5   0   China   US   EU   Data  from  OECD,  IEA  
  • 18. Energy  use  (1.000  TWh)  1990-­‐2008  30  25  20  15  10   5   0   1990   2008   1990   2008   1990   2008   China   US   EU   Data  from  OECD,  IEA  
  • 19. Energy  use  (1.000  TWh)  1990-­‐2008  30   160   140  25   146   120  20   100  15   80   60  10   40   5   20   0   20   7   0   1990   2008   1990   2008   1990   2008   China   US   EU   Data  from  OECD,  IEA  
  • 20. PopulaGon  Growth  from  1990-­‐2008  (million)  and  in  %   100  1400   90  1200   80   70  1000   60   800   50   600   40   30   400   20   200   17   22   10   0   5   0   1990   2008   1990   2008   1990   2008   China   US   EU   Data  from  OECD/World  Bank  
  • 21. Energy  use  (kWh)  per  capita  1990-­‐2008  in  %  90000   130  80000   Effect  with  Increasing  wealth     110  70000   111   90  60000   70  50000  40000   50  30000   30  20000   10  10000   -­‐2   1   0   -­‐10   1990   2008   1990   2008   1990   2008   China   US   EU   Data  from  OECD,  IEA  and  World  Bank  
  • 22. Economics  and  rela)on  with  the   Environment  •  Increase  in  Energy  needs  is  supplied  by  Coal   factories(煤矿厂供应了不断增加的能量需求):   •  Burning  Coal  is  a  major  contribu)on  to  Air  Pollu)on   •  70%  of  the  Energy  in  China  is  from  Coal   •  Every  7  to  10  days  a  new  Coal  factory  opens   •  30%  of  the  world  (2003)  •  Increase  in  traffic  •  Increase  in  Agriculture  •  All  have  a  big  impact  on  the  environment  
  • 23. Why  China  is/was  so  bad?   (为什么中国污染这么严重?)  •  Lack  of  Environmental  awareness  for  decades;   –  (数十年来缺少环保意识)  •  Low  efficiency  of  Coal  factories;   –  (煤矿工厂能效利用率低下)  •  High-­‐pollu)ng  vehicles;   –  (车辆尾气污染严重)  •  Economic  growth  more  important  than  the  Environment?   –  (经济发展利益高于环境利益)  •  But  things  are  changing…   –  (然而情况正在改变…….)  
  • 24. Sample  and  analyze  PM2.5   (PM2.5的采样和分析)  
  • 25. Filter  measurements  (过滤器监测)   PM2.5 Inlet MassConc=  Mass  before-­‐  Mass  aXer   (Mass  24hr-­‐Mass  t0)  /  airflow   Eg:   3020  ug  –  1100  ug  /  1  m3/hr     =  80  ug/m3  Collected  aerosol  mass  M  on  filter  (eg  24  hrs) Flow control Air Pump
  • 26. What’s  inside  a  PM2.5?     (PM2.5的组成)  
  • 27. Filter     PM2.5 Inlet Collected  aerosol  mass  M  on  filter  (eg  24  hrs) Flow control Air Pump
  • 28. Filter   PM2.5 Inlet Very  Harmful!!  Collected  aerosol  mass  M  on  filter  (eg  24  hrs) General  composi)on   Flow control Air Pump
  • 29. Measurements  in  Shanghai   (PM2.5在上海的监测情况)  •  24  sta)ons  to  monitor  PM2.5   – (有24所监测站)  •  Scien)sts  es)mate  that  ~50%  of  PM2.5  comes  from   vehicle  exhaust.   – (据科学家估计有约50%的PM2.5来自于汽车尾气)  •  Each  sta)on  costs  about  80.000  –  380.000  RMB   – (每所监测站的平均费用在80.000  –  380.000  元)  •  Hourly  data  (available  for  public)   – (实时数据(对公众开放))  
  • 30. Towards  a  solu)on?  What  does  the  government  do  (政府有何措施?):  •  liminate  150.000  high-­‐pollu)ng  cars  by  2014;   E ( – 到2014年淘汰150000辆重污染型汽车)  • mprove  fuel  oil,  gasoline  and  diesel  quality;     I ( – 提升燃油,汽油,柴油的质量)  •  ower  the  amount  of  sulfur  in  gasoline;   L ( – 减少汽油中的含硫量)  •  ontrol  of  dust  in  construc)on  sites;   C ( – 有效控制建筑工地的扬尘)  •  oal-­‐fired  boilers  replaced  with  cleaner  energy  hea)ng;   C ( – 用清洁能源代替燃烧煤矿资源)  
  • 31. Fudan:  4th  Teaching  building  
  • 32. Our  current  research:  Visibility  
  • 33. Reprinted  from  Malm,  1999.  
  • 34. Hangzhou  site  in  ZheJiang  Uni  
  • 35. App  •  hbp://air.fresh-­‐ideas.cc/en/  
  • 36. SCIENCE:   Thank  you!   And  special  thanks   to  Annie  (刘佳)    

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