Organic Agriculture and Organic Movement Challenges & Opportunities
Some confused concepts Pollution-free agriculture product 无公害 Ecological agriculture product 生态 Green product 绿色 Organic product 有机产品
Definition of organic agricultureFollowing the principles of sustainable development andcomply with fundamental organic standard.Organic agriculture prohibits or limits any input ofsynthetic fertilizer, pesticide, regulator or feed additive,and prohibits using any GMO products. The core oforganic agriculture is to establish and recover the bio-diversity and sound recycle of agro-ecology system.
Brief history of organic agriculture Original type of agriculture, and practiced for thousands of years; The industrial revolution introduced inorganic methods, some of which had serious side effects; Artificial fertilizers were created during the 18th century, initially with superphosphates and ammonia fertilizers; Chemical pesticides invented in the 1940s, led to the decades being referred to as the ‘pesticide era’;
Brief history of organic agriculture as a reaction to agricultures growing reliance on synthetic fertilizers and pesticide, the organic movement began in the early 1900s. The modern organic movement seeks to restore balance that was lost when technology grew rapidly in the 19th and 20th centuries. Increasing environmental awareness in the general population; Premium prices and governmental subsidy financially encourage organic movement.
Key points in organic agricultureProhibits or limits:• Synthetic chemical fertilizer• Pesticide (insecticide, herbicide, fungicide, regulator and additive)• GMO products (genetically modified organism)• embryo replant or radialization
About organic certification• a certification process for producers of organic food and other organic agricultural products. In general, any business directly involved in food production can be certified, including seed suppliers, farmers, [food] processors, retailers and restaurants.• Requirements generally involve a set of production standards for growing, storage, processing, packaging and shipping.
About organic certificationTo certify a farm, the farmer is typically required to engagein a number of new activities: – Study – Compliance – Documentation – Planning – Inspection – Fee – Record-keeping
About organic certificationAbout conversion period According to EU Regulations (EC)934-2007, conversion period is an interim from conventional production transfer to organic production.
About organic certificationEstablishing a traceability system建立可追朔体系• Traceability refers to the completeness of the information about every step in a process chain.• 可追朔是指整个流程链上的每个步骤的信息都是完整的
Organic certification organization• At present, there are more than 20 organizations who conducts Chinese national standard organic certification.• By the end of 2009, there are 4 organizations who are engaged in international standard organic certification, they are: – OCIA (organic crop improvement association), China Alliance 国际有机 作物协会 中国联盟 – ECO-CERT 北京爱科赛尔认证中心有限公司 – IMO (institute for marketecology) 南京英目认证有限公司 – BCS （organic guarantee-Germany）湖南欧格有机认证有限公司
International organic certification agencies in China
Organic standard3 levels United Nation level: made by FAO, WHO… International NGO level: made by IFOAM National level: made by specific region or countries such as EU, The United States and Japan…
Organic standard• EU Regulations (EC)934-2007 and EU Regulations (EC)889-2008• USDA, AMS 7 CFR Part 205, National Organic Program, Final rule• Japanese Agriculture Standard• Bio Suisse• Demeter• Naturland (Germany)
Geographic distribution of organic farmland Australia 12.02 Argentina 2.78 Brazil 1.77 US(2005) 1.64 China 1.55 Italy 1.15 India 1.03 Spain 0.99 Uraguay(2006) 0.93 Germany 0.87 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Million Hectares (By the end of 2007)
Global distribution of organic farmland 2.7% 6.8% 37.6% 大洋洲 欧洲 8.9% 拉丁美洲 亚洲 19.9% 北美洲 非洲 24.1% (The total amount of global organic farmland by the end of 2007: 32.2 mio. Ha)
Disadvantage, debate and dilemma of organic agriculture/movement• Results of conversion from conventional farming to organic farming – Decrease of yield output – Increase of labor work – Not so good-looking of the product• Consequences of marketed organic products – Price of certified organic product – Long-term thinking or short-term gains – Attitude of the government
Disadvantage, debate and dilemma of organic agriculture/movement• Safety and nutrition of organic food – Unquestioned safety – Nutritional test results are diverse and debated, i.e. secondary plant compound, Vitamin C and Nitrate• Are organic products really environmental friendly – Economic globalization requires long distance transportation – Higher Carbon Footprint in cross-continental transportation
Disadvantage, debate and dilemma of organic agriculture/movement• Direction flow of organic products trade: from undeveloped/developing countries to developed countries, where the main organic market is and where the standard and price are determined.• Obstacles in organic certification – Complexity of certification procedure – High expense to obtain and maintain certificate• Difficulty to keep organic purity of the whole process from seed to food