Green biz lca workshop

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Green biz lca workshop

  1. 1. Life Cycle Assessment A Tutorial GreenBizTuesday, February 19, 2013 1:30-4:30PM Tom Gloria, Ph.D.Industrial Ecology Consultants
  2. 2. Agenda Introductions General Introduction to LCA Concepts Interface Case Study The Importance of the Goal & Scope Definition Step Life Cycle Inventory Analysis Break Life Cycle Impact Assessment Interpretation Hands on exercise Practical Guidance Q&A Industrial Ecology Consultants 2
  3. 3. Industrial Ecology Consultants• Industrial Ecology is an interdisciplinary field that focuses on the sustainable combination of Business, Environment & Technology• Corporate Sustainability Strategy• Life Cycle Assessment – Conduct Studies – Capacity Building – Expert Review• Green Marketing and Eco-Labeling – PCR/EPD development – Expert Review• Carbon Management• Design For X (DfE, DfR, DfD, DfS)• www.industrial-ecology.com & www.life-cycle.org Industrial Ecology Consultants 3
  4. 4. Background – Client Base Industrial Ecology Consultants 4
  5. 5. Background – Affiliations Industrial Ecology Consultants 5
  6. 6. Agenda Introductions General Introduction to LCA Concepts Interface Case Study The Importance of the Goal & Scope Definition Step Life Cycle Inventory Analysis Break Life Cycle Impact Assessment Interpretation Hands on exercise Practical Guidance Q&A Industrial Ecology Consultants 6
  7. 7. The “Grand Objectives” of SustainabilityΩ1 Maintaining the existence of the human speciesΩ2 Maintaining the capacity for sustainable developmentΩ3 Maintaining the diversity of lifeΩ4 Maintaining the aesthetic richness of the planet Agenda 21 http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?documentid=52
  8. 8. Ω1 Societal Concerns Human species Global climate change extinction Human organism damage Water availability and quality Resource depletion: fossil fuels Industrial Ecology Consultants 8
  9. 9. Ω2 Societal Concerns Sustainable Water availability and Development quality Resource depletion of fossil fuels Soil depletion Optimal land use Additional resource depletion (minerals, metals, species extinction) Industrial Ecology Consultants 9
  10. 10. Ω3 Societal Concerns Biodiversity of living Global climate change things Stratospheric ozone depletion Water availability and quality Acid deposition Thermal pollution Industrial Ecology Consultants 10
  11. 11. Ω4 Societal ConcernsAesthetic Richness Smog Aesthetic degradation Habitat protection and open space Oil Spills Odor Industrial Ecology Consultants 11
  12. 12. Focus on Crucial Concerns• Human Health• Global Climate Change• Water availability and quality• Loss of biodiversity• Depletion of fossil fuel resources• Stratospheric ozone depletion Industrial Ecology Consultants 12
  13. 13. Targeted Activities in Connection withEnvironmental Concerns • Fossil fuel combustion • Cement manufacture • Rice cultivation • Coal mining • Ruminant populations Global • Waste treatment • Climate Biomass Burning • Emissions of CFCs, HFCs, N2O Change • • • • • • Industrial Ecology Consultants 13
  14. 14. Key is to identify specificrecommendations related to targetedactivities • Practice modular product design • Develop Energy Star Products • Utilize recycled materials • Use energy efficient equipment • Energy Use • (Fossil Fuel • Combustion) • • • • • Industrial Ecology Consultants 14
  15. 15. Conceptual Sequence Grand Objectives Concerns Activities RecommendationsCompanyCommunity Societal Environmental Design forNational Consesus Science EnvironmentGlobal Graedel and Allenby (2010): Industrial Ecology and Sustainable Engineering Industrial Ecology Consultants 15
  16. 16. Life cycle perspectiveRaw Materials Product Manufacture Materials Manufacture TransportationEnd Disposition Recycling Use & Distribution Industrial Ecology Consultants 16
  17. 17. Why LCA is a useful tool?1. Whole system consideration2. Framework based on Function and Business Value3. Examine tradeoffs among multiple human health and environmental issues4. Presentation of tradeoffs for design decision-making5. Support communication and marketing, branding, etc.6. Support policy initiatives Industrial Ecology Consultants 17
  18. 18. Why LCA is a useful tool?1. Whole system consideration2. Framework based on Function and Business Value3. Examine tradeoffs among multiple human health and environmental issues4. Presentation of tradeoffs for design decision-making5. Support communication and marketing, branding, etc.6. Support policy initiatives Industrial Ecology Consultants 18
  19. 19. LCA Background• LCA is a technique for assessing the environmental and human health aspects and potential impacts associated with a product, where we: 1. Define goal, function & boundary to assess 2. Compile inventory of relevant inputs and outputs of a product system, 3. Evaluate impacts to the environment and human health 4. Interpret the results of the inventory analysis and impacts in the context of the objectives of the study – state what has been proven. Industrial Ecology Consultants 19
  20. 20. How to do LCA according to ISO• Goal & Scope Definition: ISO 14040 and ISO 14044 – Determination of scope and system boundaries Life cycle assessment framework• Life Cycle Inventory: Goal and – Data collection, modeling & Scope Definition analysis• Impact Assessment: Inventory Interpretation – Analysis of inputs and outputs Analysis using category indicators• Interpretation: Impact – Draw conclusions Assessment – Checks for: completeness, contribution, sensitivity ISO 14040:2006 Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - Principles and framework analysis, consistency w/ goal and scope, analysis, etc. ISO 14044:2006 Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - Requirements and guidelines Industrial Ecology Consultants 20
  21. 21. ISO Standards• ISO 14020 (1998) Environmental labels and declarations - General Principles• ISO 14021 (1999) Environmental labels and declarations - Self-declared environmental claims (Type II environmental Labelling)• ISO 14024 (1999) Environmental labels and declarations - Type I environmental labelling - Principles and procedures• ISO 14025 (2006) Environmental labels and declarations - Type III environmental declarations - Principles and procedures• ISO 14031 (1999) Environmental Management - Environmental Performance Evaluation - Guidelines• ISO 14040 (2006) Environmental Management - Life Cycle Assessment - Principles and Framework• ISO 14044 (2006) Environmental Management - Life Cycle Assessment - Requirements and guidelines• ISO 14046 () Environmental Management - Water Footprint - Requirements and guidelines• ISO/TS 14048 (2002) Environmental Management - Life Cycle Assessment - Life Cycle Assessment Data Documentation Format• ISO/TR 14049 (2000) Environmental Management - Life Cycle Assessment - Examples of Application of ISO 14041 to Goal and Scope Definition and Inventory Analysis• ISO/WD 14067-1 (2009) Carbon footprint of products -- Part 1: Quantification• ISO/WD 14067-2 (2009) Carbon footprint of products -- Part 2: Communication• ISO 14071 () Critical review processes and reviewer competencies -- Additional requirements and guidelines to ISO 14044:2006• ISO 21930 (2007) Sustainability in building construction - Environmental declaration of building products Industrial Ecology Consultants 21
  22. 22. Process FlowDiagram LCA Study Steps Data collected in a spreadsheet LCA Specific Software Charts Charts aggregated normalized Industrial Ecology Consultants 22
  23. 23. Agenda Introductions General Introduction to LCA Concepts Interface Case Study The Importance of the Goal & Scope Definition Step Life Cycle Inventory Analysis Break Life Cycle Impact Assessment Interpretation Hands on exercise Practical Guidance Q&A Industrial Ecology Consultants 23
  24. 24. Interface – Overarching Goals“We strive to make sure every new Interface product is conceivedwithin [our] Sustainable Design Model “ “Since 1996, Interface has reduced its total carbon dioxide emissions by 56% on an absolute basis through improved energy efficiency, increased use of renewable energy, and utilizing carbon dioxide offsets from a landfill gas project near the companys LaGrange, Georgia facility. “ Industrial Ecology Consultants 24
  25. 25. Interface, Inc.Goal:For Interface to understand their product’s environmental impactIdentify areas to focus on for improvementSupport external claims of environmental performance via EPDsScope:The assessment utilizes a cradle to grave methodology.Functional Unit:The functional unit for this study was 1m2 of vinyl backed carpet with a 15yr life. Industrial Ecology Consultants 25
  26. 26. Starts with a process flow diagram Industrial Ecology Consultants 26
  27. 27. Data Gathering and Impact Assessment Data: Interface used internal process data combined with LCA proprietary databases in order to perform this assessment. Impact Assessment: The impact assessment methodology chosen was US EPA TRACI Method Industrial Ecology Consultants 27
  28. 28. Global Warming Potential of a typical Vinyl-backed Carpet TileOverall Product Breakdown 10% Other Raw Material Breakdown 10% Process Energy Nylon 6,6 Polyester Other 46% 7% 7% Vinyl Resin 10% 80% Raw Materials Plasticizer 18% Latex Polymer 13% **Identified Nylon 6,6 as largest material impact Industrial Ecology Consultants 28
  29. 29. Potential ReductionsBase Case:Avg. of 26oz Virgin N 6,6 Global Warming Potential Reductionson Vinyl 100% 100% 91% Percent of Base CaseReduced Weight: 80%Avg. of 22oz Virgin N 6,6 60% 52%on Vinyl 40% 20%Blended Reduced Weight: 0%22oz (20%PLA and 80%PC Base Case Reduced Weight Blended ReducedRecycled N 6,6) on Vinyl Weight Industrial Ecology Consultants 29
  30. 30. Resulting Actions – Focus on Nylon•Design changes to reduce fiber weightwhile still keeping functionality•Material substitution –Post consumer nylon 6,6 –Eventual phase out of virgin nylon – Industry limitations of PC materials –Continue to look at alternatives Industrial Ecology Consultants 30
  31. 31. Environmental Product Declaration ISO 14020 and ISO 14025 http://www.ul.com/global/eng/pages/offerings/businesses/environment/ Industrial Ecology Consultants 31
  32. 32. Agenda Introductions General Introduction to LCA Concepts Interface Case Study The Importance of the Goal & Scope Definition Step Life Cycle Inventory Analysis Life Cycle Impact Assessment & Weighting Break Hands on exercise Practical Guidance Q&A Industrial Ecology Consultants 32
  33. 33. How to do LCA according to ISO 14040/44• Goal & Scope Definition: – Determination of purpose, scope and system boundaries• Life Cycle Inventory: Life cycle assessment framework – Data collection, modeling & Goal and analysis Scope Definition• Impact Assessment: – Analysis of inputs and outputs Inventory Interpretation using category indicators Analysis• Interpretation: – Draw conclusions Impact Assessment – Checks for: completeness, contribution, sensitivity analysis, consistency w/ goal and scope, analysis, etc. Industrial Ecology Consultants 33
  34. 34. Goal & Scope - The most important step in LCA • Document purpose: – Internal/external, eco-design, support marketing, comparison of products, support policy • Identify stakeholders: – Internal (design, marketing, mfg.) – External (consumers, NGOs, gov’t, suppliers) • LCA coverage: – scope (e.g., cradle-to-gate) – cut-off criteria, – data quality requirements, – functional unit /reference flow, – time frame, – geographical boundary, – allocation rules Industrial Ecology Consultants 34
  35. 35. Life Cycle Scope • Extraction of raw materials • Processing of materials • Production • Transport & Distribution • Use • Reuse or recycle • Disposal Industrial Ecology Consultants 35
  36. 36. Life Cycle Scope – Cradle to Grave or Cradle • Extraction of raw materials • Processing of materials • Production • Transport & Distribution • Use • Reuse or recycle • Disposal Industrial Ecology Consultants 36
  37. 37. Life Cycle Scope – Cradle to Gate • Extraction of raw materials • Processing of materials • Production • Transport & Distribution • Use • Reuse or recycle • Disposal Industrial Ecology Consultants 37
  38. 38. Life Cycle Scope – Cradle to Input Gate • Extraction of raw materials • Processing of materials • Production • Transport & Distribution • Use • Reuse or recycle • Disposal Industrial Ecology Consultants 38
  39. 39. Life Cycle Scope – Cradle to Output Gate • Extraction of raw materials • Processing of materials • Production • Transport & Distribution • Use • Reuse or recycle • Disposal Industrial Ecology Consultants 39
  40. 40. Life Cycle Scope – Gate to Gate • Extraction of raw materials • Processing of materials • Production • Transport & Distribution • Use • Reuse or recycle • Disposal Industrial Ecology Consultants 40
  41. 41. Life Cycle Scope – Upstream • Extraction of raw materials • Processing of materials • Production • Transport & Distribution • Use • Reuse or recycle • Disposal Industrial Ecology Consultants 41
  42. 42. Life Cycle Scope – Downstream • Extraction of raw materials • Processing of materials • Production • Transport & Distribution • Use • Reuse or recycle • Disposal Industrial Ecology Consultants 42
  43. 43. What is the context? Industrial Ecology Consultants 43
  44. 44. What is the context? Industrial Ecology Consultants 44
  45. 45. Functional unit / Reference flow • Per vehicle? • Per passenger-mile? • Cargo-capacity? – Passenger + cargo • Work productivity? • Boundary – Per person/family – Local – Regional Area – National – International Industrial Ecology Consultants 45
  46. 46. Functional unit / Reference flow • Per vehicle? • Per passenger- mile? • Cargo-capacity? – Passenger + cargo • Work productivity? • Mid-life crisis mitigation? Industrial Ecology Consultants 46
  47. 47. Functional unit / Reference flow • Per vehicle? • Per passenger- mile? • Cargo-capacity? – Passenger + cargo • Work productivity? • Mid-life crisis mitigation? Industrial Ecology Consultants 47
  48. 48. Making Comparisons to Industrial Ecology Consultants 48
  49. 49. Making Comparisons to Industrial Ecology Consultants 49
  50. 50. Making Comparisons to Industrial Ecology Consultants 50
  51. 51. Making Comparisons to Industrial Ecology Consultants 51
  52. 52. Balancing the Functional Ledger Industrial Ecology Consultants 52
  53. 53. Balancing the Functional Ledger Industrial Ecology Consultants 53
  54. 54. Plastic vs. Woven Reusable bagsFunctional Unit• Functional unit: facilitating the transport of groceries purchased over 4 years.• Assumptions – The two plastic bags can lift the same weight and volume as woven bag – 2080 uses / lifespan (520/year uses or 10 per week) – Woven bag is 100% cotton, Reusable woven bags lasts 4 years. – Plastic is 100% recycled LDPE content & recycled at end of life Industrial Ecology Consultants 54
  55. 55. Coffee cup: Paper vs. Reusable PlasticFunctional Unit• Functional unit: 5 years’ usage for an equivalent amount of coffee drinking• Assumptions: • Usage for each product is 2 cups of coffee per day X 250 workdays per year = 500 usages per year • Reusable cup life span is 5 years before getting broken or sufficiently soiled to require disposal • Reusable cup is washed once per day (250 times per year) – Half of these washes are by hand and half are as part of a full dishwasher load • Paper cups are disposed of after each use Industrial Ecology Consultants 55
  56. 56. MAC vs. PCFunctional Unit• Functional unit: Similar usage levels over an assumed 6-year usable life.• Assumptions: – Assumes overall product can be used 6 years, but certain components (memory, non-solid-state hard drive, possibly LCD monitor) would need to be replaced / upgraded during that time – Will use industry averages for costs/impacts of extraction, manufacture, transportation, etc. – Will use as much brand & model-specific input & impact information as possible – Are they the same? iTunes, iCloud, look and feel, reliability, etc. Industrial Ecology Consultants 56
  57. 57. System Boundaries Included Excluded• Raw materials extraction • Capital equipment• Processing of materials • Infrastructure• Production of product • Maintenance of equipment• Transportation of finished product• Use of product• Maintenance/Cleaning of the product• Recycling collection and processing• Product disposal• Ancillary materials• All energy• All Transport links Industrial Ecology Consultants 57
  58. 58. When do you stop collecting data? The cut-off criteria for the study could be as follows: 1. Mass – If a flow is less than X% of the cumulative mass of the model it may be excluded, providing its environmental relevance is not a concern. 2. Energy – If a flow is less than X% of the cumulative energy of the model it may be excluded, providing its environmental relevance is not a concern. 3. Environmental relevance – assumed high – If a flow meets the above criteria for exclusion, yet is thought to potentially have a significant environmental impact, it will be included. Industrial Ecology Consultants 58
  59. 59. Data Quality – basis for comparability • Technology/Time Coverage : – Example: Representative of 2012 manufacturing activities. – Example: Secondary data to be representative within 5 years of the technology coverage. • Geographic Coverage: – Example: North American general conditions • Precision: – Example: log normal and Geometric Standard Deviation (GSD) • Representativeness: degree data represents reality • Consistency • Reproducibility • Sources of the data – Primary, Secondary (average & technical literature), Tertiary (aggregated databases) • Uncertainty – overall uncertainty of data, model and assumptions • Treatment of missing data – non-zero, zero, based on proxy Industrial Ecology Consultants 59
  60. 60. Allocation of Burden Industrial Ecology Consultants 60
  61. 61. Co-Product Allocation 1. If possible avoid allocation by either: dividing the unit processes so that inputs and outputs can be assigned to specific products OR expand the system to include the function of co-products. 2. If dividing the unit processes and system expansion are not possible, the inputs and outputs of co-products should be divided based on physical relationships between the co-products (e.g. mass). 3. If allocation cannot be accomplished based on physical relationships, then other relationships between the co-products should be used (e.g. economic value). Source: ISO 14040 Standard Industrial Ecology Consultants 61
  62. 62. Recycling Allocation V(1) P(1) R(1) P(2) R(2) P(3) Use(1) Use(2) Use(3) W(3)• Closed Loop Recycling (amortized over loops - metals) – L(1) = L(2) = L(3) = 1/3V(1) + 1/3W(3) + 1/3 (R(1) + R(2))• Open Loop Recycling ( 50 / 50 or cut-off method - paper, plastics) – L(1) = (V(1) + W(3))/2 + R(1)/2 – L(2) = (R(1) +R(2))/2 – L(3) = (V(1) + W(3))/2 + R(1)/2 Industrial Ecology Consultants 62
  63. 63. Goal & Scope Summary – the path forward• Document purpose: – Internal/external, eco-design, support marketing, comparison of products, support policy• Identify stakeholders: – Internal (design, marketing, mfg.) – External (consumers, NGOs, gov’t, suppliers)• LCA coverage: – Scope, cut-off criteria, data quality requirements, functional unit, reference flow, time frame, geographical boundary, allocation rules Industrial Ecology Consultants 63
  64. 64. Agenda Introductions General Introduction to LCA Concepts Interface Case Study The Importance of the Goal & Scope Definition Step Life Cycle Inventory Analysis Break Life Cycle Impact Assessment Interpretation Hands on exercise Practical Guidance Q&A Industrial Ecology Consultants 64
  65. 65. How to do LCA according to ISO• Goal & Scope Definition: – Determination of scope and system boundaries Life cycle assessment framework• Life Cycle Inventory: Goal and – Data collection, modeling & Scope Definition analysis• Impact Assessment: Inventory – Analysis of inputs and outputs Analysis Interpretation using category indicators• Interpretation: Impact – Draw conclusions Assessment – Checks for: completeness, contribution, sensitivity analysis, consistency w/ goal and scope, analysis, etc. Industrial Ecology Consultants 65
  66. 66. Life cycle perspectiveRaw Materials Product Manufacture Materials Manufacture TransportationEnd Disposition Recycling Use & Distribution Industrial Ecology Consultants 66
  67. 67. Process Level Inventory M E M E M E M E M E MATERIALS PRODUCT RAW FINAL MANU- MANU- USE MATERIALS DISPOSITION FACTURE FACTURE W W W W WM = MaterialsE = EnergyW = Wastes (air, water, & soil) Industrial Ecology Consultants 67
  68. 68. #1. Determine materials in product – by mass Bill of Materials (pounds, kg, ton, tonne) M E M E M E M E M E MATERIALS PRODUCT RAW FINAL MANU- MANU- USE MATERIALS DISPOSITION FACTURE FACTURE W W W W W M = Materials E = Energy W = Wastes (air, water, & soil) Industrial Ecology Consultants 68
  69. 69. #2. Determine Energy Use Energy Bills (electricity, NG, heating oil) (kWh, ccf or therms, gallons) M E M E M E M E M E MATERIALS PRODUCT RAW FINAL MANU- MANU- USE MATERIALS DISPOSITION FACTURE FACTURE W W W W W M = Materials E = Energy W = Wastes (air, water, & soil) Industrial Ecology Consultants 69
  70. 70. #3. Determine Process Efficiency M E M E M E M E M E MATERIALS PRODUCT RAW FINAL MANU- MANU- USE MATERIALS DISPOSITION FACTURE FACTURE W W W W W M = Materials Typically measured as a percent E = Energy of waste generated – i.e., how W = Wastes (air, water, & soil) much falls on the floor, down a pipe, or up a stack. Industrial Ecology Consultants 70
  71. 71. #4. Transportation Hops Mode (truck, train, boat, plane) Distance (miles, km) Weight shipped (lbs., kg) M E M E M E M E M E MATERIALS PRODUCT RAW FINAL MANU- MANU- USE MATERIALS DISPOSITION FACTURE FACTURE W W W W W M = Materials E = Energy W = Wastes (air, water, & soil) Industrial Ecology Consultants 71
  72. 72. #5. Allocation of activities Data is at the facility level M E M E M E M E M E MATERIALS PRODUCT RAW FINAL MANU- MANU- USE MATERIALS DISPOSITION FACTURE FACTURE W W W W W M = Materials E = Energy W = Wastes (air, water, & soil) Industrial Ecology Consultants 72
  73. 73. #6. Use phase assumptions How long does the product last? Does it use energy in the use phase? Does it use other resources? M E M E M E M E M E MATERIALS PRODUCT RAW FINAL MANU- MANU- USE MATERIALS DISPOSITION FACTURE FACTURE W W W W W M = Materials E = Energy W = Wastes (air, water, & soil) Industrial Ecology Consultants 73
  74. 74. #7. Ancillary Materials Materials not in entrained in the product (fertilizers, pesticides, water, lubricating oils, catalysts) M E M E M E M E M E MATERIALS PRODUCT RAW FINAL MANU- MANU- USE MATERIALS DISPOSITION FACTURE FACTURE W W W W W M = Materials E = Energy W = Wastes (air, water, & soil) Industrial Ecology Consultants 74
  75. 75. Hybrid LCI – EIO and Process Level EIO-LCA CMU Database Center for Resilience – The Ohio State University CEDA Database – access in SimaPro PAS 2050 LC GHG of goods and services WRI/WBSCD Supply Chain / Product Carbon Footprint OECD Sustainable Materials Management Sustainability Consortium/ Wal-Mart/Earthster Industrial Ecology Consultants 75
  76. 76. What do the datasets represent? Unit Process Primary Aluminum Production Secondary Aluminum Recovery/ Reprocessing First-tier Aluminum Product Production Product Manufacture Use Phase End of Life Industrial Ecology Consultants 76
  77. 77. What do the datasets represent?Cradle-to-Gate Primary Aluminum Production Secondary Aluminum Recovery/ Reprocessing First-tier Aluminum Product Production Product Manufacture Use Phase End of Life Industrial Ecology Consultants 77
  78. 78. What do the datasets represent? “Rolled –up” Dataset or System Level Primary Aluminum Production Secondary Aluminum Recovery/ Reprocessing Aluminum product manufacture including First-tier Aluminum scrap and recovery flows Product Production Product Product Manufacture Manufacture Use Phase Use Phase End of Life Industrial Ecology Consultants 78
  79. 79. What do the datasets represent? Comprehensive LCI Database Electricity Fuels Materials Primary Aluminum Production Secondary Aluminum Recovery/ Reprocessing Aluminum product manufacture including First-tier Aluminum scrap and recovery flows Product Production Product Product Manufacture Manufacture Use Phase Use Phase End of Life Industrial Ecology Consultants 79
  80. 80. Types of Data• Primary Data Sources – Data directly collected – Actual measurements or meter readings• Secondary Data Sources – Data that compiles primary data sources – Assembly of primary data into LCA databases• Tertiary Data Sources – These are sources that compile or digests secondary sources. – LCA databases Industrial Ecology Consultants 80
  81. 81. Available LCI Databases• Proprietary – ecoinvent Swiss database (2000+) – PE GaBi 5.0 (2000+ up to 5000 special order) – Boustead (claims 13,000 in 41 regions → ~300) – (not updated anymore)• Public Databases – North American LCI Data base (US DOE NREL) [~139] www.nrel.gov/lci – LCA Digital Commons www.lcacommons.gov – European Reference Life Cycle Database (ELCD) [300] http://lca.jrc.ec.europa.eu/lcainfohub/datasetArea.vm• More comprehensive list: – www.life-cycle.org under “Resources” Industrial Ecology Consultants 81
  82. 82. Guidance by DQ in Set in Goal & Scope • Cut-off Criteria • Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Data Sources • Technology/Time Coverage : – Example: Representative of 2012 manufacturing activities. – Example: Secondary data to be representative within 5 years of the technology coverage. • Geographic Coverage: – Example: North American general conditions Industrial Ecology Consultants 82
  83. 83. Allocation: WRI Protocol Industrial Ecology Consultants 83
  84. 84. Recycling Allocation V(1) P(1) R(1) P(2) R(2) P(3) Use(1) Use(2) Use(3) W(3)• Closed Loop Recycling (amortized over loops) – L(1) = L(2) = L(3) = 1/3V(1) + 1/3W(3) + 1/3 (R(1) + R(2))• Open Loop Recycling ( 50 / 50 method) – L(1) = (V(1) + W(3))/2 + R(1)/2 – L(2) = (R(1) +R(2))/2 – L(3) = (V(1) + W(3))/2 + R(1)/2 Industrial Ecology Consultants 84
  85. 85. Product Carbon FootprintingWRI Product Accounting and Reporting Standard100/0 Method – Recycled input is known, downcycling is likely Industrial Ecology Consultants 85
  86. 86. Product Carbon FootprintingWRI Product Accounting and Reporting Standard 0/100 Method – Recycled content unknown, closed loop cycling occurs Recycled displaces virgin Industrial Ecology Consultants 86
  87. 87. Process Level Inventory Analysis • Goal & Scope Definition • Preparation for data collection – Data collection sheet M E M E M E M E M E • Data collection RAW MATERIALS MATERIALS MANU- FACTURE PRODUCT MANU- FACTURE USE FINAL DISPOSITION • Validate collected data W W W W W • Relate the data to the unit process • Relate the data to the functional unit – Defining the reference flow • Data aggregation • Refine system boundary Industrial Ecology Consultants 87
  88. 88. Agenda Introductions General Introduction to LCA Concepts Interface Case Study The Importance of the Goal & Scope Definition Step Life Cycle Inventory Analysis 15 minute break Break Life Cycle Impact Assessment Interpretation Hands on exercise Practical Guidance Q&A Industrial Ecology Consultants 88
  89. 89. How to do LCA according to ISO• Goal & Scope Definition: – Determination of scope and system boundaries Life cycle assessment framework• Life Cycle Inventory: Goal and – Data collection, modeling & Scope Definition analysis• Impact Assessment: Inventory – Analysis of inputs and outputs Analysis Interpretation using category indicators• Interpretation: Impact – Draw conclusions Assessment – Checks for: completeness, contribution, sensitivity analysis, consistency w/ goal and scope, analysis, etc. Industrial Ecology Consultants 89
  90. 90. Life Cycle Impact Assessment Elements of Impact Assessment Selection - Determination of relevant impact categories, category indicators, and characterization models Mandatory Elements Methodology Dependent Classification - Assignment of Life Cycle Inventory results (Academic Institutions, Gov’t Agencies, International NGOs (IPCC)) Characterization - Calculation of category indicator results Normalization - Calculation of the magnitude of category indicator results relative to reference information Optional Elements Grouping - Assignment of impact categories to groups of similar Methodology Dependent impacts (Academic Institution, Gov’t Agency, Industry Consortia Weighting - Assignment of relative values or weights to different impacts, allowing integration across all impact categories. (USGBC)) Data Quality Check - Analysis of the significance, uncertainty Study Context Dependent and sensitivity of LCIA results Industrial Ecology Consultants 90
  91. 91. Necessity of LCIA Inventory Emission Amount Share Importance • Carbon dioxide (CO2) 2,000 kg 98.90 % ! • Nitrous oxide (N2O) 20 kg 0.10 % - • Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) 2 kg 0.01 % - Industrial Ecology Consultants 91
  92. 92. Necessity of LCIA Inventory Emission Amount Share Importance • Carbon dioxide (CO2) 2,000 kg 98.90 % ! • Nitrous oxide (N2O) 20 kg 0.10 % - • Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) 2 kg 0.01 % - Impact Assessment Emission Equivalence GWP contribition Share (FAR CO2-e) • CO2 1 2,000 3.7 % • N2O 298 5,960 11.1 % • SF6 22800 45,600 85.1 % Industrial Ecology Consultants 92
  93. 93. LCIA FrameworkAdapted from Jolliet et al. (2004) The LCIA Midpoint-damage Framework of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, IJLCA 9 (5) 394-404. Industrial Ecology Consultants 93
  94. 94. Midpoints vs. Endpoints Emissions (CFCs, Halons) Chemical reaction releases Cl- and Br- Cl-, Br- destroys ozone MIDPOINT measures ozone depletion potential (ODP) Less ozone allows increased UVB radiation which leads to following ENDPOINTSskin cancer cataracts crop damage marine life damage immune system suppression damage to materials like plastics Industrial Ecology Consultants 94
  95. 95. In LCIA General Fate and Transport is considered Industrial Ecology Consultants 95
  96. 96. Toxicity RegionalizationExample: Nested transboundary model for USEtox Industrial Ecology Consultants 96
  97. 97. Water Consumption RegionalizationWater Stress Index Industrial Ecology Consultants 97
  98. 98. Regionalization in LCIA Bulle et al. (2012) World + Impact Assessment Methodology Industrial Ecology Consultants 98 98
  99. 99. Classification and Characterization of Inputs and Outputs Multiplication & Addition Global Warming PotentialLife Cycle Inventory Classification Characterization (CO2-e)Resources CO2: 1 Copper CO: 1.53 Zinc CH4: 25 Σ GWPAirborne Emissions N2O: 298Carbon Dioxide CCl4: 1,800Carbon Monoxide SF6: 22,800 Human Health Toxicity Why zero? Characterization (1,4 DCB-e)Methane CCl4: 220Nitrous Oxide C6H6:1,900Carbon Tetrachloride (CFC-10)Sulfur Hexafluoride C7H8: 0.327 Σ HHTP C8H10: 0.000Benzene C8H10: 0.125Toluene Abiotic Depletion Potential C8H10: 0.043 (Sb-e)Xylenes C8H10: 0.043 Cu: 1.94 E-3o-Xylene Oil, Crude: 2.01E-2m-Xylenep-Xylene Ag: 1.84 E+0 Σ ADP Zn: 9.92E-4Waterborne Emissions XXXSoil Emissions XXX Industrial Ecology Consultants 99
  100. 100. Focus on US EPA and European CommissionLCIA Impact Categories US EPA TRACI European Commission • Climate Change Same Method* • Climate Change • Acidification Diff. Method • Acidification • Human Health Same Method* • Human Health Particulate Particulate (Respiratory) (Respiratory) • Eutrophication Diff. Method • Eutrophication • Ozone Depletion Diff. Method • Ozone Depletion • Smog Formation Diff. Method • Smog Formation • Ecotoxicity Same Method* • Ecotoxicity • Human Health Toxicity Same Method* • Human Health Toxicity • Fossil Fuel Use Diff. Method • Resource Depletion – mineral & fossil No Equivalent • Resource Depletion – Water*minor model differences No Equivalent • Land Transformation Industrial Ecology Consultants 100
  101. 101. Background on the European Commission (EC)Product Environmental FootprintOrganization Environmental Footprint• The EC Environment Directorate General makes sure that EC Member States correctly apply EU environmental law• In its Integrated Product Policy, the EC concluded that LCA is the best framework for assessing impacts of products• Environment DG is working with the Joint Research Centre (JRC) Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES) to develop: – Product Environmental Footprint and – Organization Environmental Footprint guidance.• JRC IES created European Platform on Life Cycle Assessment to – Build consensus on methodological approach and – Improve data availability Industrial Ecology Consultants 101
  102. 102. European Commission Portfolio of LCIA Methodologies• The CML 2002 or CML or “Dutch” methodology, – developed by Leiden University, Institute of Environmental Science (CML).• The Environmental Design of Industrial Products (EDIP) methodology – developed at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU)• Impact Assessment of Chemical Toxics (IMPACT) 2002+ and IMPACT World+ methodologies – created through the collaboration of the Centre Interuniversitaire de recherché sur le cycle de vie des produits, procédés et services (CIRAIG), Polytechnique Montreal, University of Michigan, Quantis International, and Ecole Polytechnique de Lausanne (EPFL);• The ReCiPe methodology (2008) – created by Dutch Government National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Radboud University, CML, and PRé Consultants;• USEtox method (2008) – created by Radboud University, University of Michigan, Dutch Government National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), UC Berkeley, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), the Centre Interuniversitaire de recherché sur le cycle de vie des produits, procédés et services (CIRAIG), Polytechnique Montreal, Industrial Ecology Consultants 102
  103. 103. European CommissionPortfolio of LCIA Methodologies (Product and Organization)Impact Category MethodologyClimate Change Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007 (revised 2011)Ozone Depletion Environmental Design of Industrial Products (EDIP) (based on World Meteorological Organization (WMO))Ecotoxicity USEtox modelHuman Health Toxicity USEtox model(cancer and non-cancer)Particulate Matter RiskPoll model in IMPACT 2002+ (Humbert)Ionizing Radiation (human health) Human health effects model (Dreicer et al.)Photochemical Ozone Formation ReCiPe (Radboud University, CML, RIVM, PRe Consultants) (Dutch Method)Acidification Accumulated Exceedance (Seppällä et al.)Eutrophication (terrestrial) Accumulated Exceedance (Seppällä et al.)Eutrophication (aquatic) ReCiPe (Radboud University, CML, RIVM, PRe Consultants) (Dutch Method)Resource Depletion (water) Swiss Ecoscarcity (Frischknecht et al.)Resource Depletion (mineral, fossil) Leiden University (CML 2002) (van Oers et al.)Land Transformation Soil Organic Matter (SOM) model (Milà i Canals et al.) Industrial Ecology Consultants 103
  104. 104. US EPA TRACI Background• Developed by US EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL)• Provides US / North American based characterization factors in response to European activities in late 1990s.• Regulatory driven – Toxicity (Toxics Release Inventory) – Smog formation – Criteria Pollutants – Non-point pollution sources (eutrophication) – Ozone Depletion• Strives for comprehensive coverage• Site specific to the extent possible – Reduced support in latest version• Funding is limited, relies on outside developers Industrial Ecology Consultants 104
  105. 105. USEPA TRACIPortfolio of MethodologiesImpact Category MethodologyClimate Change Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007 (revised 2011)Ozone Depletion World Meteorological Organization (WMO) 2003 and the US EPA 2008Ecotoxicity USEtox model (2010) and USEPAHuman Health Toxicity USEtox model (2010) and USEPA(cancer and non-cancer)Particulate Matter Respiratory Effects Humbert (2009) adjusted for North AmericaPhotochemical Ozone (Smog) Maximum Incremental Reactivity (MIR) method, CarterFormation (2007/2008)Acidification USEPA (2003)Eutrophication USEPA (2003)Fossil Fuel Depletion USEPA (2003) and Eco-Indicator 99, Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML) Leiden University and PRe Consultants (1999) Industrial Ecology Consultants 105
  106. 106. Climate Change Environmental Mechanism Emissions to the atmosphere Time integrated concentration Midpoint - Direct effects Radiative forcing - Indirect effects - temperature changes - extreme weather Climate change - increased precipitation - drought conditions Effects on Ecosystems Effects on humans EndpointNet Primary Changing Other Infectious Water stress Wild fires malnutrition Flooding Heat StressProduction biomes impacts Diseases Decreasing biodiversity Industrial Ecology Consultants 106
  107. 107. LCA – State of the PracticeWater Withdrawal• Water historically neglected by LCA field – Not a scarce resource in areas of study – Renewable – Limited to water withdrawal vs. net consumption• Water Withdrawal defined as water lost for a catchment area by: – evaporation, – transpiration, – product integration, or – discharge into another river basin or sea water. Industrial Ecology Consultants 107
  108. 108. Add up all the water withdrawal “flows” Industrial Ecology Consultants 108
  109. 109. Resource Depletion Environmental Mechanism Resource Use Decreased Availability Midpoint Recovery (urban & waste Regeneration mining) Damage to availability of resource for human wealth Future availability & effort needed Future provision of needs Endpoint Damage to human health Damage to ecosystems Industrial Ecology Consultants 109
  110. 110. Water Resource Depletion – Swiss Ecoscarcity• Basic method: a measure of the ratio of current freshwater consumption to critical flow (20% of available resource)• The model is relatively complete for water depletion in a regionally-specified way for several countries. – Frischknecht, R., Steiner, R., Jungbluth, N. (2009). The Ecological Scarcity Method: Eco-Factors 2006: A method for impact assessment. Environmental studies no. 0906. Federal Office for the Environment, Bern: 188 pp. – OECD 2004: Key environmental indicators. OECD Environment Directorate, Paris, retrieved 16.06.2005 from http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/32/20/31558547.pdf. Industrial Ecology Consultants 110
  111. 111. Human Health ToxicityEnvironmental Mechanisms ground-, fresh-, or marine agricultural or natural soil outdoor air indoor air water algae vegetation crop Fate Intake Fraction crustacae animal meat vertebrates (fish) Exposure ingestion circulatory system inhalation (lung, nose) (gastrointestinal tract) Dose-response target organs Midpoint cancer cases non-cancer type cases overall cancer overall non-cancer Disease severity Endpoint human health damage Industrial Ecology Consultants 111
  112. 112. Toxicity Factors Intake Fraction Human Effect Factor Chemical Fate Human Dose Incidence of Exposure Disease AirEmissions Water Potentially Concentration Response Affected Soil Fraction Fate Factor Ecotox Effect Factor Industrial Ecology Consultants 112
  113. 113. LCIA Optional Elements• Normalization: calculation of the magnitude of each indicator result relative to reference information• Grouping: sorting and ranking of impact categories• Weighting: conversion and often aggregation of indicator results across categories using numerical factors based on value-choices Industrial Ecology Consultants 2/19/2013 113
  114. 114. Normalization• Divide the emissions by the total emissions of the region of concern. – Global warming  the globe – Toxicity Regional areas specific to fate and transport• Benefit  Relative contribution• Issues of incongruence – In practice we use geo-political boundaries Industrial Ecology Consultants 114
  115. 115. Weights Developed for BEES(NIST Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability) Weights by Stakeholder Grouping 50 45 40 Producers 35 Users 30 LCA Experts Percent 25 20 15 10 5 0 ke n ty se g n n s n y s s n ct io in tio lit nt ct tio io tio ci U ta ua at ffe m fe at ta xi le ca le In nd rm ar To Ef lu ic Sm r Q ep E ep ifi er ph ol lW La s Fo us id D al D Ai ou rP at tr o Ac ic ba ne ro el W og or er og Ai Eu ce Fu lo zo do nc ol ia G an O il ca In er Ec ss C rit on Fo C N Gloria, Lippiatt, Cooper (2007) Life Cycle Assessment Weights to Support Environmentally Preferable Purchasing in the US, ES&T, 41 7551-7557. Industrial Ecology Consultants 115
  116. 116. Agenda Introductions General Introduction to LCA Concepts Interface Case Study The Importance of the Goal & Scope Definition Step Life Cycle Inventory Analysis Break Life Cycle Impact Assessment Interpretation Hands on exercise Practical Guidance Q&A Industrial Ecology Consultants 116
  117. 117. How to do LCA according to ISO• Goal & Scope Definition: – Determination of scope and system boundaries Life cycle assessment framework• Life Cycle Inventory: Goal and – Data collection, modeling & Scope Definition analysis• Impact Assessment: Inventory – Analysis of inputs and outputs Analysis Interpretation using category indicators• Interpretation: Impact – Draw conclusions Assessment – Checks for: completeness, contribution, sensitivity analysis, consistency w/ goal and scope, analysis, etc. Industrial Ecology Consultants 117
  118. 118. How to do LCA according to ISO Life cycle assessment framework Goal and Scope Identification of Evaluate: Definition Significant Completeness Sensitivity Issues Consistency Inventory Interpretation Analysis Conclusions, Limitations, and Impact Recommendations Assessment Industrial Ecology Consultants 118
  119. 119. Sensitivity Analysis Industrial Ecology Consultants 119
  120. 120. Pedigree Matrix – lognormal distribution Indicator Score 1 2 3 4 5 Reliability Verified data based Verified data partly Non-verified data Qualified estimate Non-qualified on measurements based on partly based on (e.g. by industrial estimate assumptions or non- qualified estimates expert) verified data based on measurements Completeness Representative data Representative data Representative data Representative data Representativeness from all sites relevant from >50% of the from only some sites from only one site unknown or data for the market sites relevant for the (<<50%) relevant for relevant for the from a small number considered, over an market considered, the market market considered or of sites and from adequate period to over an adequate considered or >50% some sites but from shorter periods even out normal period to even out of sites but from shorter periods fluctuations normal fluctuations shorter periods Temporal Correlation Less than 3 years of Less than 6 years of Less than 10 years of Less than 15 years of Age of data unknown difference to the difference to the difference to the difference to the or more than 15 years time period of the time period of the time period of the time period of the of difference to the dataset dataset dataset dataset time period of the dataset Geographical Correlation Data from area under Average data from Data from area with Data from area with Data from unknown study larger area in which similar production slightly similar or distinctly different the area under study conditions production area is included conditions Technical Correlation Data from Data from processes Data from processes Data on related Data on related enterprises, and materials under and materials under processes or processes on processes and study (i.e. identical study but from materials laboratory scale or materials under study technology) but from different technology from different different enterprises technology Geometric Standard Deviation Values Indicator 1 2 3 4 5 Reliability 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.20 1.50 Completeness 1.00 1.02 1.05 1.10 1.20 Temporal Correlation 1.00 1.03 1.10 1.20 1.50 Ecoinvent Data Quality Geographical Correlation 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.05 1.10 Technical Correlation 1.00 1.05 1.20 1.50 2.00 Industrial Ecology Consultants 120
  121. 121. Monte CarloUncertainty Analysis Characterization Climate change 0.065 0.06 0.055 0.05 0.045 0.04Probability 0.035 0.03 0.025 0.02 0.015 0.01 0.005 0 361 364 367 369 372 374 377 380 382 385 387 390 393 395 398 400 403 406 408 411 413 416 419 421 424 426 429 432 434 437 439 442 445 447 450 452 455 458 460 463 465 468 471 473 476 478 481 484 486 489 kg CO2 eq MPI 1005 Roll Uncertainty analysis of 1 p MPI 1005 Roll, method: ReCiPe Midpoint (H) V1.03 / World ReCiPe H, confidence interval: 95 % Industrial Ecology Consultants 121
  122. 122. Uncertainty Analysis Industrial Ecology Consultants 122
  123. 123. Agenda Introductions General Introduction to LCA Concepts Interface Case Study The Importance of the Goal & Scope Definition Step Life Cycle Inventory Analysis Break Life Cycle Impact Assessment Interpretation Hands on exercise Practical Guidance Q&A Industrial Ecology Consultants 123
  124. 124. Hire or DIY? • First time through • Number of assessments – 10 or more is the tipping point for economy of scale • Limited resources – Personnel – Software – Data repository • Complex assessments • Time limit • Review or third party verification of conformance. Industrial Ecology Consultants 124
  125. 125. Data gathering – the black hole of LCA • There are only two databases: – GaBi 5 and ecoinvent • Minimize the data to be collected – Conduct Goal & Scope carefully – Examine only areas that are different • Make your requests clear and concise – Spreadsheet – Websheets – Documentation • Request early and often • Don’t let the perfect be the enemy of the good (finishing). Industrial Ecology Consultants 125
  126. 126. Report WritingISO14040 §6.0 and ISO14044 §5.0 • Introduction – Summary that could be stand alone • Goal & Scope – Captured as part of G&SD exercise • Life Cycle Inventory – Process Flow Diagram – Data sources – Appendix / Spreadsheet • LCIA results – Tables / charts / graphs • Interpretation – Results Industrial Ecology Consultants 126
  127. 127. Software Tools• SimaPro – PRé Consultants• GaBi Software & Database – PE International AG• Umberto• Quantis Web 2.0 Tool• Carnegie Mellon - EIO-LCA Tool• The Ohio State University - Eco-LCA tool• OpenLCA Software – Used by USDA for digital commons Industrial Ecology Consultants 127
  128. 128. LCA for Environmental Labels, Claims, and Declarations Type I Type II Type III Environmental Labels Environmental Product Environmental Declarations Declarations PCRs and EPDs Selected criteria as hurdles, Single issues, describing Life Cycle Performance data, demonstrating environmental specific environmental aiming for continuous excellence characteristics improvement Life Cycle Thinking Life Cycle Thinking Life Cycle Assessment Mandatory Certification Certification possible May include 3rd party Issued by a private or public, Issued by the manufacturer verification accredited institution Issued by a private, accredited institution Like: Blue Angel, European Eco- Like: water consumption of a Like: UL Environment label, SCS washing machine, or energy use Earthsure, ASTM, NSF, of a computer. FPInnovations, Environdec Industrial Ecology Consultants 128
  129. 129. EPD Areas of Activity• USGBC V4 LEED Pilot Credit Program• ISO 21930 / ASTM E60 - EPD for building products• European Commission product footprinting guidance• France Grenelle de l’Environnement Law (2007) –omnibus législation – All high volume consumer products sold in France have an EPD effective 7/1/11 – Anticipate that the program will spread to all of the EU• The Sustainability Consortium SMRS (Sustainability Measurement & Reporting Systems) for major product groups – TSC Psuedo Operator• Sustainable Apparel Coalition – Higg Index and beyond• Business Institutional Furniture Manufacturers Association (BIFMA) – NSF Operator Industrial Ecology Consultants 129
  130. 130. LCA - limitations • Expensive & Time Consuming – Cost to value ratio may not tip in the right direction • LCA is based on averages – Innovation may be challenging to model • Cannot address localized impacts – new developments • Based on linear modeling – Less is better • Focus on physical characteristics – not market mechanisms or technological development • Caveat emptor! – It involves many technical assumptions • Too much information that leads to catatonia! – Needs to be integrated into management systems Industrial Ecology Consultants 130
  131. 131. LCA Applications  An exhaustive environmental analysis of a product or process to support DfE  Science-based analysis  Brings structure to the investigation  Highlights tradeoffs  Challenges conventional wisdom  Captures the knowledge base  Allows for ceteris paribus (all things being equal) assessment – to look at what’s different or new.  Hot spot identification  Alignment and Emergence  Support communication and discourse ( external and internal)  Establish the ground rules for environmental claims in the marketplace  Support / refute new policy Industrial Ecology Consultants 131
  132. 132. Agenda Introductions General Introduction to LCA Concepts Interface Case Study The Importance of the Goal & Scope Definition Step Life Cycle Inventory Analysis Break Life Cycle Impact Assessment Interpretation Hands on exercise Practical Guidance Q&A Industrial Ecology Consultants 132
  133. 133. Thank You and Good Luck!t.gloria@industrial-ecology.com Industrial Ecology Consultants 133

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