Handouts English III Top 20 Part 2


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Handouts English III Top 20 Part 2

  1. 1. <ul><li>Research is a way of knowing. </li></ul>What is research? <ul><li>Research is the empirical part of science. </li></ul><ul><li>Research is a solution to most of our questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Research is an unending cycle of searching and finding. </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>When experts are mistaken, research corrects them. </li></ul>Why is research of value? <ul><li>When colleagues have no experience in the matter, research provides the background. </li></ul><ul><li>When one’s own intuition may be irrelevant, research leads to significant information. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>For sensory experience </li></ul>Why man needs research <ul><li>In agreement with others </li></ul><ul><li>To prove the experts’ opinion </li></ul><ul><li>To reason logically </li></ul><ul><li>To employ scientific method in finding solutions to his problems </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Feasible </li></ul>Characteristics <ul><li>Time-bound </li></ul><ul><li>Investigative </li></ul><ul><li>Free from bias </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>All educational research is oriented toward one or both of two ends: </li></ul>Functions of Educational Research <ul><li>the extension of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>solution of a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Educational research improves the educational process through: </li></ul><ul><li>refinement of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>extension of knowledge </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Basic Research <ul><li>Adds more to the existing body of knowledge on the discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Provides results that are of supplemental use to solutions to problems </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Applied Research <ul><li>provides immediate solution to a problem </li></ul><ul><li>provides results that are of practical use </li></ul><ul><li>provides general knowledge of the field </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Qualitative Research </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative Research </li></ul>Types of Research Based on Process and Kind of Resulting Data <ul><li>generates theory </li></ul><ul><li>searches for patterns </li></ul><ul><li>tests a theory </li></ul><ul><li>narrows down focus to one or few patterns </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Quantitative Research <ul><li>has quantifiable results </li></ul><ul><li>involves numbers and counting </li></ul><ul><li>is focused on a few yet well lined up variables </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Qualitative Research <ul><li>usually has broader focus </li></ul><ul><li>does not involve numbers and counting </li></ul><ul><li>typically involves studying events in all or most of their complexity </li></ul><ul><li>involves describing what is observed with little quantification </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Descriptive Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention Studies </li></ul>General Research Types <ul><li>Associational Studies </li></ul><ul><li>generally describes the variable that is being observed </li></ul><ul><li>generally investigates relationships </li></ul><ul><li>generally employs a method or treatment that influences one or more outcomes </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Experimental Research </li></ul><ul><li>Causal-Comparative Research </li></ul>Research Types Based on Methodology <ul><li>Correlation Research </li></ul><ul><li>Survey Research </li></ul><ul><li>Historical Research </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Experimental Research <ul><li>establishes different treatments and studies their effects </li></ul><ul><li>most conclusive of scientific methods </li></ul><ul><li>results lead to the most clear-cut interpretations </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Correlation Research <ul><li>helps make more intelligent predictions </li></ul><ul><li>determines relationships among two or more variables </li></ul><ul><li>seeks to investigate whether one or more relationships of some type exist </li></ul><ul><li>requires no manipulation or inter-vention on the part of the researcher </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Causal-Comparative Research <ul><li>determines the cause for or the consequences of difference between groups </li></ul><ul><li>has limited interpretations </li></ul><ul><li>identifies possible causes of observed variations between groups </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Survey Research <ul><li>has two-fold difficulties: </li></ul><ul><li>obtains data to determine specific characteristics of a group </li></ul><ul><li>clear, not misleading questions </li></ul><ul><li>provides information from quite a large sample of individuals </li></ul><ul><li>getting sufficient number of completed and returned questionnaire </li></ul>
  17. 17. What Good Research Questions Should Be <ul><li>Should be significant </li></ul><ul><li>Should be feasible </li></ul><ul><li>Should be clear </li></ul><ul><li>Should investigate relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Should be ethical </li></ul>
  18. 18. Ethics in Research <ul><li>Protecting respondents participants from harm </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring confidentiality of research data </li></ul><ul><li>Deception </li></ul>