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Handouts English III Top 20 Part 1
Handouts English III Top 20 Part 1
Handouts English III Top 20 Part 1
Handouts English III Top 20 Part 1
Handouts English III Top 20 Part 1
Handouts English III Top 20 Part 1
Handouts English III Top 20 Part 1
Handouts English III Top 20 Part 1
Handouts English III Top 20 Part 1
Handouts English III Top 20 Part 1
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Handouts English III Top 20 Part 1

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  1. <ul><li>a concept </li></ul>What are variables? <ul><li>a noun that stands for variation within a group </li></ul><ul><li>can be a characteristic which is compared with others </li></ul><ul><li>something that is being related to another </li></ul>
  2. <ul><li>something which cannot be varied </li></ul>What are constants? <ul><li>an unchanging characteristic </li></ul><ul><li>basis of comparison </li></ul><ul><li>something to which another is being related </li></ul>
  3. Other Variables <ul><li>Categorical Variable </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative Variable </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulated Variable </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome Variable </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Variable </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent Variable </li></ul>
  4. Quantitative Vs Categorical <ul><li>Categorical Variable </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative Variable </li></ul><ul><li>the characteristic is measured to be existing in some degrees along a continuum from “less” to “more” </li></ul><ul><li>the characteristic does not vary in degree, amount or quantity </li></ul>
  5. Manipulated Vs Outcome <ul><li>also called experimental variable or treatment variable </li></ul><ul><li>the result of another variable </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulated Variable </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome Variable </li></ul><ul><li>a variable that is created to study its effect on another </li></ul><ul><li>varies for different people, different situations and different conditions </li></ul>
  6. Dependent Vs Independent <ul><li>Independent Variable </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent Variable </li></ul><ul><li>the observed characteristic that is being related to another </li></ul><ul><li>the characteristic that affects another </li></ul><ul><li>whose value relies on another </li></ul><ul><li>the characteristic that does not change </li></ul>
  7. <ul><li>independent variable that has an effect on other variables </li></ul>Extraneous Variable <ul><li>variable that is not controlled so that it may render an effect on the dependent variable being observed </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>maturation </li></ul><ul><li>IQ </li></ul><ul><li>gender </li></ul><ul><li>class schedule </li></ul><ul><li>family income </li></ul><ul><li>study habits </li></ul>
  8. <ul><li>a restatement of the research question </li></ul>What are hypotheses? <ul><li>a prediction of some sort </li></ul><ul><li>regards the possibility of the outcome of the study </li></ul><ul><li>usually expressed in “null” statement </li></ul><ul><li>Null hypothesis does not assume any relationship or difference </li></ul><ul><li>tested in a quantitative research </li></ul>
  9. Advantages <ul><li>Restating questions as hypothesis involves a philosophy of science. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis forces us to think more deeply about the possible outcomes of a study. </li></ul><ul><li>Restating research question as hypothesis helps the researcher see whether or not s/he is investigating a relationship. </li></ul>
  10. Disadvantages <ul><li>Restating questions as hypothesis may lead to a bias, either conscious or unconscious. </li></ul><ul><li>Stating hypothesis is that focusing attention on a hypothesis may prevent researchers from noticing other phenomena that might be important to study. </li></ul>Main

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