• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Handouts English III Top 20 Part 1

Handouts English III Top 20 Part 1






Total Views
Views on SlideShare
Embed Views



0 Embeds 0

No embeds



Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Handouts English III Top 20 Part 1 Handouts English III Top 20 Part 1 Presentation Transcript

      • a concept
      What are variables?
      • a noun that stands for variation within a group
      • can be a characteristic which is compared with others
      • something that is being related to another
      • something which cannot be varied
      What are constants?
      • an unchanging characteristic
      • basis of comparison
      • something to which another is being related
    • Other Variables
      • Categorical Variable
      • Quantitative Variable
      • Manipulated Variable
      • Outcome Variable
      • Independent Variable
      • Dependent Variable
    • Quantitative Vs Categorical
      • Categorical Variable
      • Quantitative Variable
      • the characteristic is measured to be existing in some degrees along a continuum from “less” to “more”
      • the characteristic does not vary in degree, amount or quantity
    • Manipulated Vs Outcome
      • also called experimental variable or treatment variable
      • the result of another variable
      • Manipulated Variable
      • Outcome Variable
      • a variable that is created to study its effect on another
      • varies for different people, different situations and different conditions
    • Dependent Vs Independent
      • Independent Variable
      • Dependent Variable
      • the observed characteristic that is being related to another
      • the characteristic that affects another
      • whose value relies on another
      • the characteristic that does not change
      • independent variable that has an effect on other variables
      Extraneous Variable
      • variable that is not controlled so that it may render an effect on the dependent variable being observed
      • Examples:
      • maturation
      • IQ
      • gender
      • class schedule
      • family income
      • study habits
      • a restatement of the research question
      What are hypotheses?
      • a prediction of some sort
      • regards the possibility of the outcome of the study
      • usually expressed in “null” statement
      • Null hypothesis does not assume any relationship or difference
      • tested in a quantitative research
    • Advantages
      • Restating questions as hypothesis involves a philosophy of science.
      • Hypothesis forces us to think more deeply about the possible outcomes of a study.
      • Restating research question as hypothesis helps the researcher see whether or not s/he is investigating a relationship.
    • Disadvantages
      • Restating questions as hypothesis may lead to a bias, either conscious or unconscious.
      • Stating hypothesis is that focusing attention on a hypothesis may prevent researchers from noticing other phenomena that might be important to study.