Historical Events After Napoleonic campaign, the indipendence wars against Austro-Hungarian Empire, Camillo Benso Earl Cavour was the spokesman of middle class and intellectuals who wanted the political, economic and social liberation from foreign powers .
Emigration In 1896 Francesco Saverio Nitti First Minister considered emigration “the only, big and safety valve” infact, emigration in Basilicata was a phenomenon wich changed the aspect, in the populating and bereaving. Basilicata was in extreme and needy conditions. The countries too reach where Usa, Canada, Brasil, Australia and Belgium.
Emigration Later in 1952 people from south moved to north Italy in towns as Milan, Tourin and Genoa to work in the FIAT.
Disasters Ecological disasters In Italy the hydrogeological disruption is part natural because of a breakable territory and part because of man misuse.
Disasters 1956: Andrea Doria the big ship collided with the Swedish American line and sank.
Disasters 1963: October 9 th , a landslide made the dam Vajont overflow and several villages were destroyed, 9000 people died. before after
Disasters 1966: The river Arno inundated Florence. Volunteers from all of the world came to save works of art.
Disasters 1968: An earthquake devastated Belice Valley in Sicily. 1976: The earthquake in Friuli. 1980: The earthquake in Irpinia (Campania) and Basilicata.
Disasters 2009: A terrible earthquake destroyed L’Aquila and around.
Disasters Waste, UE condemns Italy “At risk environment and human health” The subject waste is the gap… … North… … South
Disasters To pay the effetc are the citizens economically and healthy, since pollution causes illness as asthma, cardiovascular problems, cancer and untimely death.
Disasters Environment: Italy hasn’t solved its environmental problems yet Italy is naughty and UE punishes it. Under accusation is the polluted air, the cause are the motorised mobility infact 82% are the means of private transport and the industrial waste without rules. The report of “Environment Italy 2010” about our country health is undoubtedly negative.
Disasters PETROLEUM Today the real wealth of Basilicata is from the subsoil that can offer good economic growth. The area is very rich in hydrocarbon as mathane and oil. In Val d’Agri there is the biggest oilfield of Europe discovered in 1981 whose owner is ENI. There are 55 oil wells and 720 km of pipelines.
Disasters The oil minings risk water resource. So we can say that Petroleum hasn’t brought wealth considering enviroment and health safety.
WWF In Basilicata WWF has 1000 members. It is important bacause its aim is to protect the evironment. WWF has been operating since 1975. Natural oasis of Moliterno
Violence August 1980 – Red extremists made a bomb explode in Bologna rail station.
Violence 1992 – Two judges of court Giovanni Falcone e Paolo Borsellino are killed by mafia. The film “I Cento Passi” and the book “Gomorra” show those sad events. Roberto Saviano the writer is forced to run under police escort.
Credit Crunch Economical crisis . Petroleum crisis of 1973 tested italian economy what had already we akned structures because of the late technology, inefficency of tax system, we a k ness of money and b ad administration of government. So there were a deficit of the state balance. When the Lira change d into Euro the situation didn' t change but got worse.
Social Relations Women Movement Women Vote Women Day School - University Students Movement Personalities Celebrities
Women Movement The first "Congress of the Italian women" held in Rome in 1908, where was also present at the meeting the Queen Elena wife of Vittorio Emanuele III.
Women Movement Several women took care of the problem of female emancipation: the old Anna Maria Mozzoni collected many signatures in favour of political vote to women, among the supporters was the famous educator Maria Montessori who developed an educational method based on the free development of children personality. The petition was discussed in parliament but was rejected. Meanwhile, feminist groups were formed in Turin, Naples and Milan. Suffraggette during the 1° World War
Women Movement In the Fascist period the woman was especially mother and wife, devoted to home, her husband and child-rearing. Passed the day of the Mother and Child for propaganda.
Women Movement During the Second World War, in particular the period of resistance, women had an active role and would cooperate with the partisans.
Women Movement From the second post-war women were able to get their vote and laws such as the reforms on employment protection during pregnancy, abortion, divorce. In addition, sexual violence was regarded as a crime against the person, the honor killing was abolished, which justified the killing of mothers, wives and sisters in the case of dishonorable behavior.
Women Vote Crown or Republic? On April 1945 the allied forces and partisans freed Italy from German and fascist, so after the liberation, Italy took its democratic life. On the 2 nd June 1946 they had to choose between the Monarchy and Republic and for the first time women could vote. Population voted Republic.
Women Vote On 25 th June 1946 it was settled the Assemblee Costituent and the Constitution was born to garantee man values. The first president was Luigi Einaudi
Women Day It was only until 1977 that the Women’s Day is officially recognized by the United Nations. It was 8 th March 1857, some workers of New York protested to improve their working conditions. They struck against poor wages and poor conditions in which they were forced to work. The symbol “8 th March” was invented in Italy and the choice of “mimosa” hasn’t a ideological meaning, but it grew near the tombs of the dead women.
School - University The development of Italian schools is a slow process because of economy.
School - University During the Fascism policy, the school had important and deep reforms which lasted for long. 1959 Education was compulsary till the 5° class years.
School - University <ul><li>The Establishment of the Italian Republic states the principle that art and science are free and free is teaching them. Higher education shall promote the progress of science. </li></ul><ul><li>The reform provided three sectors: </li></ul><ul><li>university education; </li></ul><ul><li>artistic and musical training; </li></ul><ul><li>technical training and other opportunities. </li></ul>University of Bologna since 1088 Federico II Napoli since 1224
Students Movement In 1968 Italy was characterised of young and workers manifestations because of deep social discontent caused by the economical development that hadn’t brought a change of the social class. Factories as the FIAT reacted with strikes.
Students Movement At the strikes of workers participated the students who claimed the right to study. They occupied school and universities. On 21 st December passed the law in favour of workers. The ‘68 was characterized as an ethic political revolt of young against society. Themes as pacifism, antiracism, dominion women rights, environment became discussions in the political debate of the world.
Personalities Tina Anselmi first woman Minister of the Italian Republic. Nilde Iotti first woman President of the Italian Camera Deputati
Celebrities Today women are the most important Italian Rita Levi Montalcini, scientist, life-senator and Nobel prize for medicine. Margherita Hack astrophysics has been for a long time collaborator of 'ESA and NASA’. As appreciation for his important contribution, she was named an asteroid.
Celebrities Carlo Rubbia Italian physicist and inventor discovered W and Z particles at CERN. Nobel 1984. Antonino Zichichi Italian physicist, worked in the field of nuclear.
Miniskirt At the end of 19th the feminist movements contested the long skirts because uncorfortable and during the first World War spread the use of trousers. At the end of War the skirts shortned and spread thanks to stylists.
Miniskirt In Italy the miniskirt spread in 1966 but it was’nt appreciated by public opinion and girls wore at parties only. The miniskirts shorter and shorter became the symbol of female sexual freedom. In the ‘70s the miniskirt meant woman-object. Later 1979-85 the shorts fashion in jeans took the place
Miniskirt “ Valentino” the great italian stylist presents his models.
Music The Hippy culture was in its origin a young movement started in the United States in the '60s and spread all over the world.
Music The word hippy comes from Hipster – Beatnik – Hippy – Children’s Flowers. Their ideals were “PEACE and FREEDOM” and the slogan “Put flowers in your guns” meant “LOVE not WAR”. “ Put flowers in your guns because we never want in the sky molecules sick but musical notes forming agreements a ballad for peace, peace, peace..“
Music In 1965 the Beatles perform in Milan, Genoa, Tourin. Let it be, let it be. Yeah There will be an answer, let it be
Music A musical festival of Italian songs. The singers present original songs for the first time. It started in 1951 in the beautiful town of Sanremo. The first winner was a woman: Nilla Pizzi Grazie dei fiori Grazie dei fiori Grazie tutti gli altri li ho riconosciuti Mi han fatto male eppure li ho graditi. Papaveri e papere “ Lo sai che i papaveri son alti, alti, alti e tu sei piccolina, e tu sei piccolina, lo sai che i papaveri son alti, alti, alti, sei nata peperina, che cosa ci vuoi far…”
Music Domenico Modugno His first song “ Volare ”. Adriano Celentano His famous song “ Azzurro ”.
Music Riccardo Cocciante a famous song “ Margherita ” and the first Musical “Notre Dame de Paris”.
Music A famous singer from Basilicata: Arisa with her song “ Sincerità ”.
Music “ Il Teatro alla Scala” of Milan is among the most famous in the world. Here have sung the most important lyrical singers of the world.
Music “ Cavalleria rusticana” is an opera in one act played in 1926 at the Teatro alla Scala in Milan by Pietro Mascagni.
Music Turandot “ ...Dilegua, o notte!... Tramontate, stelle!... All'alba vincerò!... Vincerò!... Vincerò!..”
Music The most important lyrical singers: Maria Callas Luciano Pavarotti
Music Carla Fracci, one of the best classical dancers in the world.
Music The Royal Teatro San Carlo, best known as the Teatro San Carlo, is the theatre of Naples. It was founded by Charles of Bourbon in 1737 and it is the oldest theatre still active of European opera. It has been recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. First Stendhal then Burney say, “it is a splendour too dazzling to eyes”.
Music Eduardo De Filippo famous italian actor playwriter, film and theatre director. Natale in casa Cupiello
Art “ 900” Universal Dinamism Progress exaltation aggressive movement Metaphysics Giacomo Balla Giorgio De Chirico
Art “ 900” Universal Dinamism Cubism Amedeo Modigliani
Art “ 900” Universal Dinamism Renzo Piano is an important Italian architect known internationally. Paul Klee Centre – Switzerland Biosfera - Genova Centre Pompidou - Paris
Cinema Italian cinema started few months after the first showing of Lumiere brothers in 1896. It organised as industry in Tourin, Rome, Naples and Venice. Between 1810 and 1814 it was important in all over the world. During the fascist policy a fix structures was built and Mussolini inaugurated Cinecittà that was like Hollywood.
Cinema At the end of the Second World War a moviment of art-culture developed in the name of Neorealism.The aim was do show the real social situation of the country .The main producers were: Vittorio De Sica with “Ladri di bicicletta”
Cinema Federico Fellini with “La dolce vita” Anita Ekberg bathing in the Fontana di Trevi, Roma
Cinema prince Antonio de Curtis, in art Totò with “Totò, Peppino e la malafemmina” In the ‘60 Italy was the strongest centre of production in Europe. Most important comic player was Totò with about 100 films.
Cinema Sofia Loren in the film “La Ciociara” at the Oscar
Cinema Other famous italian actor is Alberto Sordi. Alberto Sordi with “Un americano a Roma”
Cinema Enormous success was the “Italian western” produced by Sergio Leone Clint Eastwood with “Per un pugno di dollari”
Cinema Luchino Visconti produced: and the “Gattopardo”
Cinema Pasolini, writer player and director produced “Vangelo Secondo Matteo” set in Matera (Basilicata) Also Mel Gibson set his film “The Passion” in Matera (Basilicata).
Cinema Lina Wertmuller director of “ I Basilischi” Rocco Papaleo set “ Basilicata Coast to Coast”
Cinema Roberto Benigni won two Oscars thanks to his work “ La vita è bella”
Italy Modern Society V E and IV Bs Liceo Scientifico Statale “Galileo Galilei” Potenza, Italy a.s. 2010/11 Headmaster: Dr. Camilla M. Schiavo Teachers: Grazia Allegretti, Donata Biondo, Maria Titti Lotito, De Carlo Giuseppe Images, sounds and texts have been made in the school labs by the team. Images, sounds and videos which are under copyright have been used only for didactic purposes and we are disposed to remove them immediately if requested. Students VE: Agoglia Aurora, Bolognese Valentina, Caponigro Margherita, D’Aquino Francesco, Garramone Michele, Ginefra Natascia, Giordano Margherita, Gruosso Monica, Lacerenza Gianna, Locaspi Marialetizia, Mollica Aurora, Nolè Margherita, Parrella Mariangela, Pica Antonio Manfredi, Pietrafesa Vita Alba, Potenza Teresa, Prete Michela, Rubino Erminia Gaia, Santomauro Antonella, Scarfiello Donatello Students IVBs: Damiano Antonio, Fiore Giusy, Monaco Carmen, Rossi Simone In order to plan, organize and make possible this research we thank a lot the following team:
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