Grantsmanship 101


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  • Grantsmanship 101

    1. 1. Grantsmanship 101 Andrea Snyder Grants Collection Enoch Pratt Free Library (410)396-5320 [email_address]
    2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>World of Philanthropy </li></ul><ul><li>What you need to have in place before you seek a grant </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying funding partners </li></ul><ul><li>Approaching the foundation/funder </li></ul><ul><li>Writing the proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Submitting the proposal: </li></ul><ul><li>Wrap-up </li></ul>
    3. 3. Grants Collection
    4. 4. Introductions
    5. 5. Understanding the World of Philanthropy
    6. 6. Why do we give?
    7. 7. What is Philanthropy? <ul><li>The effort or inclination to increase the well-being of humankind, as by charitable aid or donations. </li></ul><ul><li>Love of humankind in general. </li></ul><ul><li>Something, such as an activity or institution, intended to promote human welfare. </li></ul>
    8. 9. Source: Nonprofit Almanac 2008 National Center for Charitable Statistics, the Urban Institute Other Income 2.9% Fees for Services and Goods 70.3% Private Contributions 12.3% Sources of Revenue for Reporting Public Charities Government Grants 9.0% Investment Income 5.4%
    9. 10. Individuals $229.03 Corporations $15.69 Foundations $38.52 Bequests $23.15 Total Giving: $306.39 billion 74.8% 5.1% 12.6% 7.6% Private Contributions by Source ($ in billions) Source: Giving USA 2008, Giving USA Foundation, researched and written by the Center On Philanthropy at Indiana University
    10. 11. Economic Crisis Info <ul><li>Foundation Center: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Maryland Info: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>National Council of Nonprofits: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    11. 12. Questions
    12. 13. Before You Seek a Grant
    13. 14. What You Need To Have In Place <ul><li>501(c)(3) status </li></ul><ul><li>Active board </li></ul><ul><li>Effective bylaws </li></ul><ul><li>Strong mission statement </li></ul>
    14. 15. What Funders Look For <ul><li>Relevant, high-quality programs that meet a real need in the community </li></ul><ul><li>Board commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Staff capacity </li></ul><ul><li>A strong organizational and financial infrastructure </li></ul>
    15. 16. What You Will Need About Your Organization <ul><li>List of board members </li></ul><ul><li>Biographies and resumes of key people </li></ul><ul><li>IRS 501(c)(3) letter of determination </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational budget for current year </li></ul><ul><li>Last 2 audited financial statements </li></ul><ul><li>By-laws </li></ul><ul><li>History of organization, including news clippings, anecdotal stories </li></ul>
    16. 17. What You Will Need to Know About Your Community <ul><li>Community Demographics </li></ul><ul><li>Community Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Partners </li></ul><ul><li>Competitors </li></ul><ul><li>Press clippings, anecdotes </li></ul><ul><li>Published reports, newsletters, and other materials of local nonprofits </li></ul><ul><li>Any other community files </li></ul>
    17. 18. Questions
    18. 19. The Process of Grantseeking Finding Funding Partners
    19. 20. Questions to Ask <ul><li>Why do I need funding and what kind do I need? </li></ul><ul><li>How much do I need? </li></ul><ul><li>When do I need the funds? </li></ul>
    20. 21. Finding Funding Partners <ul><li>Look for the match! </li></ul><ul><li>Who funds in my area of interest? </li></ul><ul><li>Who funds in my geographic region? </li></ul><ul><li>Who will provide the type of support I need? </li></ul><ul><li>Who has funded organizations like mine? </li></ul><ul><li>Who has given amounts in the range I need? </li></ul>
    21. 22. Questions
    22. 23. Researching Potential Donors
    23. 24. Government
    24. 25. Research Sources <ul><li>Federal (U.S.) government </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State (Maryland) government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Governor’s Grants Office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maryland Red Book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    25. 26. Questions
    26. 27. Business
    27. 28. Why do businesses’ give?
    28. 29. Targeting Businesses <ul><li>Reference USA database </li></ul><ul><li>National Directory of Corporate Giving </li></ul><ul><li>D & B Regional Business Directory </li></ul><ul><li>Maryland Business Directory </li></ul><ul><li>D & B Minority-Owned Business Directory </li></ul>
    29. 30. Research Sources <ul><li>Hoovers </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Websites of Corporate Grantmakers </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Prospector </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    30. 31. Foundations
    31. 32. What Is a Private Foundation? <ul><li>Nongovernmental, nonprofit organization </li></ul><ul><li>Has its own funds or endowment </li></ul><ul><li>Managed by its own trustees or directors </li></ul><ul><li>Established to aid educational, social, religious, scientific, or other charitable activities through the making of grants </li></ul>Part 2: The World of Grantmakers
    32. 33. Types of Private Foundations <ul><li>Independent </li></ul><ul><li>Company-sponsored </li></ul><ul><li>Operating </li></ul><ul><li>~ 5% payout requirement </li></ul><ul><li>~ Must disclose total giving and grants through Form 990-PF </li></ul>Part 2: The World of Grantmakers
    33. 34. Other Types of Grantmakers <ul><li>Direct Corporate Giving Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research through sponsoring companies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grantmaking Public Charities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disclose activities through Form 990 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Community foundations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population or issue-oriented funds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Company-sponsored </li></ul></ul></ul>Part 2: The World of Grantmakers
    34. 35. Resources for Researching Grantmakers <ul><li>Print Directories </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation Directory Online </li></ul><ul><li>Online Resources </li></ul>
    35. 36. Resources on Specific Funders <ul><li>Grantmaker Web sites </li></ul><ul><li>Grantmaker documents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newsletters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guidelines/brochures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IRS filings (Form 990-PF) </li></ul><ul><li>News articles </li></ul>
    36. 37. RECAP <ul><li>What is a grant? </li></ul><ul><li>Credible Nonprofit </li></ul><ul><li>Finding the Match </li></ul><ul><li>Finding funders </li></ul>
    37. 38. RECAP
    38. 39. Approaching the Foundation
    39. 40. Which Foundations Will You Approach? <ul><li>Prepare Your Prospect List </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are no shortcuts! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do your homework to find a match </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prioritize your prospects and funding needs </li></ul></ul>
    40. 41. The Initial Approach <ul><li>Letter </li></ul><ul><li>Full Proposal </li></ul><ul><li>E-Mail </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediaries </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone Call </li></ul>
    41. 42. Preparation for Meetings and Phone Calls <ul><li>Assemble Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Case statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial documents </li></ul></ul>
    42. 43. Preparation for Meetings and Phone Calls <ul><li>Prepare Talking Points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outcomes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who will benefit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership Involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources Needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Costs </li></ul></ul></ul>
    43. 44. Preparation for Meetings and Phone Calls <ul><li>Who Should Make the Approach? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive director? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project director? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development staff? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Board member? </li></ul></ul>
    44. 45. Preparation for Meetings and Phone Calls <ul><li>Request for Multiple Projects? </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of the Request? </li></ul><ul><li>Funding Part of a Project? </li></ul><ul><li>Disclose Requests to Multiple Funders? </li></ul>
    45. 46. Introductory Phone Call <ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To introduce your organization and project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To make the connection to the foundation’s philanthropic interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To secure a meeting, if possible </li></ul></ul>
    46. 47. Plan the Meeting <ul><li>How Much Time is Allotted? </li></ul><ul><li>Who Should Attend? </li></ul><ul><li>Where Should the Meeting be Held? </li></ul><ul><li>What Should You Bring? </li></ul>
    47. 48. Conduct the Meeting <ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To build the funder’s knowledge of your organization and project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To strengthen the funder’s confidence in the competence of your organization’s leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Listen! </li></ul>
    48. 49. Tips for the Meeting <ul><li>Beware Mission Drift! </li></ul>
    49. 50. After the Meeting <ul><li>Write Up Meeting Notes </li></ul><ul><li>Send Thank You Letter </li></ul>
    50. 51. The Follow-Up Phone Call <ul><li>Review the File Prior to the Call </li></ul><ul><li>Ask All the Key Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Respect the Grantmaker’s Time </li></ul>
    51. 52. The Site Visit <ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To demonstrate the strength of your program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To demonstrate the effectiveness of your operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To enable the funder to become acquainted with your leaders </li></ul></ul>
    52. 53. The Site Visit (cont’d) <ul><li>Prepare the Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Determine Who Will Participate </li></ul><ul><li>Showcase Your Project </li></ul><ul><li>Follow Up with a Thank You Letter </li></ul>
    53. 54. ProposalWriting Basics
    54. 55. <ul><li>Writing the proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Submitting the proposal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What happens next? </li></ul></ul>
    55. 56. Information Gathering <ul><li>Project concept and its place in your organization </li></ul><ul><li>Project timetable </li></ul><ul><li>Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Budget needs </li></ul>
    56. 57. Writing the Proposal <ul><li>Before you begin to write </li></ul><ul><li>Writing tips </li></ul><ul><li>Contents of a proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Packaging </li></ul>
    57. 58. Organize Your Prospects <ul><li>Verify all deadlines </li></ul><ul><li>Create a spreadsheet or chart: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Donor name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deadline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount to be requested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be optimistic: Leave a column for grant amount and date received </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gather contact information </li></ul>
    58. 59. Remember: What is the purpose of a proposal? <ul><li>To convince the funder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>there is a challenge in the community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>your organization has a program in place to meet the challenge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>your organization has the ability to successfully implement the solution </li></ul></ul>
    59. 60. Writing tips <ul><li>Give yourself ample time – always plan on sending out a proposal at least 2-3 weeks before deadline </li></ul><ul><li>Start with an outline </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your narrative clear and simple </li></ul><ul><li>Know (and use) Foundation “buzz words” </li></ul><ul><li>Revise and edit </li></ul><ul><li>Enlist the help of a colleague to proof before sending </li></ul>
    60. 61. Five basic principles <ul><li>The proposal should be neat, clean, and easy to read </li></ul><ul><li>Write your proposal in English </li></ul><ul><li>Make it brief </li></ul><ul><li>Be positive </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid unsupported assumptions </li></ul>From: Program Planning and Writing by Norton Kiritz. Los Angeles: The Grantsmanship Center, 1980.
    61. 62. Questions
    62. 63. Proposal contents <ul><li>Title page and table of contents </li></ul><ul><li>Executive summary </li></ul><ul><li>Organization information </li></ul><ul><li>Statement of need </li></ul><ul><li>Project description </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul><ul><li>Appendix and supporting materials </li></ul>
    63. 64. Executive summary <ul><li>Include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funding requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your organization’s expertise </li></ul></ul>
    64. 65. Organization Information <ul><li>Mission and history </li></ul><ul><li>Programs and expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Board and key staff </li></ul>
    65. 66. Statement of need <ul><li>Include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems and issues that the project addresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether the project can be replicated, or has already been implemented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether you will collaborate with other groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat the ask </li></ul></ul>
    66. 67. Project description <ul><li>Include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broad, general statement of what your project will accomplish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S pecific </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>M easureable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A chievable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>R ealistic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T ime-Bound </li></ul></ul></ul>
    67. 68. Project Description <ul><li>Strategies/Description of Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Replicatiblity </li></ul><ul><li>Staffing/Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul>
    68. 69. Project description, cont. <ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How you will measure outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How you will analyze processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the project finite? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the project self-sufficient? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the project attractive to other funders? </li></ul></ul>
    69. 70. Budget <ul><li>Include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supplies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overhead </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fees for service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget narrative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notes for unusual items or expenses </li></ul></ul></ul>
    70. 71. Conclusion <ul><li>Summarize: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What you will accomplish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who will benefit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why it’s important </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Repeat the Ask </li></ul><ul><li>Thank the funder! </li></ul>
    71. 72. Appendix and supporting materials <ul><li>List of Board members and key staff </li></ul><ul><li>IRS 501 (c) 3 letter of determination </li></ul><ul><li>Financial documents </li></ul><ul><li>Other, relevant documents that help make your case </li></ul>
    72. 73. Questions
    73. 74. Packaging your proposal <ul><li>Cover letter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brief summary of the request </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Request for funding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposal Package contents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer to meet and/or answer questions </li></ul></ul>
    74. 75. Packaging Your Proposal cont’d <ul><li>Include a title page and table of contents </li></ul><ul><li>Neatness does count </li></ul><ul><li>Follow funder’s guidelines </li></ul>
    75. 76. Proposal Submission <ul><li>Follow the funders guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Initial contact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone call? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter of Inquiry? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full proposal? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Grant Application? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funder’s own application form? </li></ul></ul>
    76. 77. <ul><li>Always follow </li></ul><ul><li>the funder’s guidelines </li></ul>
    77. 78. Questions
    78. 79. Submitting Your Proposal <ul><li>What’s NEXT? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After the proposal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The results </li></ul></ul>
    79. 80. What’s Next? <ul><li>The best time to start thinking about your next request to a funder is right after you put your proposal in the mail! </li></ul>
    80. 81. <ul><li>Think about: </li></ul><ul><li>How can I update my files so I have all the information I need next time? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there other funders who might be good prospects for this project? </li></ul><ul><li>What would make the process simpler in the future? </li></ul>
    81. 82. Follow up with Foundations <ul><li>Cultivating relationships after you submit the proposal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone conversations and appointments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Board contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep them informed </li></ul></ul>
    82. 83. If the answer is yes … <ul><li>Write a thank-you letter IMMEDIATELY! </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain the relationship: Remember, this is a partnership </li></ul><ul><li>Involve the funder throughout the life of the project </li></ul>
    83. 84. If the answer is no … <ul><li>Don’t take it personally </li></ul><ul><li>Try to find out why </li></ul><ul><li>Ask about possibilities for future funding </li></ul><ul><li>If possible, try again </li></ul><ul><li>Move on - seek out other prospects </li></ul>
    84. 85. Questions
    85. 86. Recap <ul><li>Approaching the Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal sections </li></ul><ul><li>Submitting the package </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up </li></ul>
    86. 87. Where else can I go? <ul><li>Foundation Center </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Maryland Nonprofits </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Grants Collection </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    87. 88. <ul><li>Please Fill Out the Evaluation! </li></ul><ul><li>THANKS  </li></ul>
    88. 89. <ul><li>Andrea Snyder </li></ul><ul><li>Grants Collection </li></ul><ul><li>Enoch Pratt Free Library/State Library Resource Center </li></ul><ul><li>(410)396-5320 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>