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'Profile Of "FM 102", The Radio Station Of The Women's Media Centre, Phnom Penh, Cambodia' [incomplete draft] by Grant Goddard

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Incomplete draft report about the organisation, objectives, resources and audience of 'FM 102', the radio station of the Women's Media Centre in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, written by Grant Goddard in ...

Incomplete draft report about the organisation, objectives, resources and audience of 'FM 102', the radio station of the Women's Media Centre in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, written by Grant Goddard in February 2004.

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'Profile Of "FM 102", The Radio Station Of The Women's Media Centre, Phnom Penh, Cambodia' [incomplete draft] by Grant Goddard 'Profile Of "FM 102", The Radio Station Of The Women's Media Centre, Phnom Penh, Cambodia' [incomplete draft] by Grant Goddard Document Transcript

  • PROFILE OF 'FM 102', THE RADIO STATION OF THE WOMEN'S MEDIA CENTRE, PHNOM PENH, CAMBODIA [incomplete draft] by GRANT GODDARD www.grantgoddard.co.uk February 2004
  • INCOMPLETE DRAFT INTRODUCTION FM 102 is the radio station of the Women’s Media Centre. It broadcasts 06002200 with a 10kW transmitter that reaches 60% of the Cambodian population across 12 provinces. A 1kW relay station has recently been added in Komponh Thom that is on-air Monday-Friday and broadcasts its own programming 12001400.1 According to the Women’s Media Centre web site, the station “enables women to increase their knowledge and understanding of issues that directly and indirectly affect them in their day-to-day lives” with the object “to increase support of women’s issues in society.”2 The station’s output comprises:  Educational and entertainment programming in four areas: o Women’s issues such as law, domestic violence and health o News programmes o Teenagers’ programmes o Children’s programmes  Live news bulletins and daily updates  Airtime for NGO’s to publicise their activities.3 The station launched on 8 March 1999, International Women’s Day, and describes itself as a “unique, independent, non-party political station providing a neutral, unbiased means of expression in Cambodia.”4 FM 102’s Mission Statement is “to use the media to raise awareness of social issues in Cambodia and to improve the situation of women for the benefit of Cambodian society” and additionally “to improve the participation and portrayal of women in the mainstream media.”5 The station employs 15 full-time staff (14 women and 1 man), including Station Director Ms Chea Sundaneth who had worked as reporter and producer of women’s programmes for the radio station established by UNTAC in 1992. Between 1979 and 1981, she worked as protocol officer for Kampuchea Newspaper in Phnom Penh, and in 1982 was appointed writer and reporter for the state newspaper.6 1 Women’s Media Centre of Cambodia website, www.forum.org.kh/~wmc/RadioFM102/radio.htm accessed 23 January 2004 2 ibid. 3 ibid. 4 Mary Van, “Radio FM 102 – The Women’s Media Centre of Cambodia” presentation at the UNESCO Seminar on Integrating New & Traditional Information & Communication Technologies For Community Development, Kotimale, Sri Lanka, 22-27 January 2001 5 ibid. 6 ibid. & Women’s Media Centre of Cambodia website Profile Of 'FM 102', The Radio Station Of The Women's Media Centre, Phnom Penh, Cambodia ©2004 Grant Goddard page 2
  • INCOMPLETE DRAFT FACILITIES FM 102’s facilities are spread across two floors of the Women’s Media Centre and linked to its transmitter mast erected in the middle of the Centre’s car park. On the first floor are:  Live self-operated on-air studio comprising: o Extensive music library of CDs o Mixing desk o Cassette players  Soundproofed discussion room comprising: o Oval table with X microphones  Production room with three work stations: 1. SADIE editing station:  Hard disk  Mixer 2. Cool Edit Pro editing station:  Hard disk  Mixer 3. Cool Edit Pro editing station:  Hard disk  Mixer  Commercial production room with one work station: Also on the first floor are the Centre’s finance office and a rest area with sofas, neither of which are solely for the radio operation. On the second floor of the building are:  Radio station office comprising: o X desks, filing cabinets, computer work stations o X Minidisc recorders  Newsroom whose resources are shared between radio and TV production On-air advertising sales are handled by the Centre’s marketing office which is elsewhere in the building. Profile Of 'FM 102', The Radio Station Of The Women's Media Centre, Phnom Penh, Cambodia ©2004 Grant Goddard page 3
  • INCOMPLETE DRAFT INFORMATION GATHERING7 FM 102 gathers information to feed into its programming output from both:  Traditional non-digital sources: o Brainstorming amongst directors of Women’s Media Centre o Monthly meetings of staff from all five of the Centre’s departments o Weekly meeting of FM 102 staff o Communication with the Ministry of Information, other government ministries, IO’s (??????), NGO’s, newspapers and other radio stations o Reporters sent to cover national and local news stories o Khmer and English language newspapers o Reporters sent to the provinces to gather information o Dialogue and meetings with regular contacts o Relationships with newspapers, magazines and other radio stations  Digital sources: o E-mail communications – press releases, internet news groups, invitations to events o Collaboration with Australian Broadcasting Corporation o Plans to create an audiovisual library with internet access The new technology poses problems of language, budget and lack of access. 7 Mary Van, “Radio FM 102 – The Women’s Media Centre of Cambodia” presentation at the UNESCO Seminar on Integrating New & Traditional Information & Communication Technologies For Community Development, Kotimale, Sri Lanka, 22-27 January 2001 Profile Of 'FM 102', The Radio Station Of The Women's Media Centre, Phnom Penh, Cambodia ©2004 Grant Goddard page 4
  • INCOMPLETE DRAFT NETWORKING8 Networking is achieved by:           8 Brainstorming amongst Women’s Media Centre directors Maintenance of good relationships with government ministries, especially those of Information and Women’s Affairs Collaborations with other radio stations – national state radio, FM 103 (part owned by Phnom Penh municipality), FM 95, FM 96, Battambang, Rattanakiri and Pailin Internship programmes, volunteers, trainees and scholarships Visits to the Women’s Media Centre by high school students Contributions from listeners – letters, poems, articles, verbal feedback and phoned-in suggestions Good relationships with NGO’s and IO’s Collaboration with Australian Broadcasting Corporation Collaboration with Voice of America Participation in conferences and workshops overseas ibid. Profile Of 'FM 102', The Radio Station Of The Women's Media Centre, Phnom Penh, Cambodia ©2004 Grant Goddard page 5
  • INCOMPLETE DRAFT CAPACITY BUILDING9 Organisational growth and development has been pursued through:  Internal training in collaboration with IMPACS: o Basic journalism training o Media Code of Ethics and Press Law o Radio production training  External training: o Workshops o Study visits o Overseas conferences  Market research to: o evaluate, measure and gauge the audience’s responses o improve the station’s programming o meet the needs of listeners  Advisor programme to: o Technical assistance o Production training o Management training 9 ibid. Profile Of 'FM 102', The Radio Station Of The Women's Media Centre, Phnom Penh, Cambodia ©2004 Grant Goddard page 6
  • INCOMPLETE DRAFT DONORS10         10 Australian Embassy (recording studio in 1997) UNESCO (200 watt transmitter in 1999, recording studio and internetenabled computer in 2001) UNICEF (youth programme) TAF (core support and station running for six months) ???????? Forum Syd (running station and women’s programme) ??????? International Labour Organisation (radio campaign against child labour) GFW (staff salary) ?????????? British Embassy (1 SADIE editing station) ibid. Profile Of 'FM 102', The Radio Station Of The Women's Media Centre, Phnom Penh, Cambodia ©2004 Grant Goddard page 7
  • INCOMPLETE DRAFT CHALLENGES FM 102 faces several challenges: 11        Interviews on sensitive topics such as prostitution, drug addiction, HIV/AIDS, child labour Lack of radio studio equipment Lack of radio reporters No permanent engineer/technician Staff capacity is limited by English language barrier Electricity supply is often interrupted Security and transportation systems In its 2000 report12, Forum Syd identified that the Women’s Media Centre was suffering a structural problem: “It is a strictly hierarchical organisation, with a wide gap between the apt, strong women in the leadership on the one hand, the regular staff on the other. Measures to improve this imbalance are underway. A staff council has been set up, bringing more democratic rule to the internal organisation. And capacity building of the staff has been given increasingly more scope.” In its 2001 evaluation of the Women’s Media Centre’s organisational structure13, Padek ………. 11 ibid. Britt-Louise Edman…………………… 13 Padek, “ 12 Profile Of 'FM 102', The Radio Station Of The Women's Media Centre, Phnom Penh, Cambodia ©2004 Grant Goddard page 8
  • INCOMPLETE DRAFT EXAMPLES OF INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT 1. IMPACS14 IMPACS is ……………….. The goal of the IMPACS Cambodia Radio Journalists’ Training Project was “to strengthen the peacebuilding process by assisting in the development of more independent, open and accountable radio media in Cambodia.” The radio training element ran from September 1999 to December 2000 at FM 102 and focused on developing skills in interviewing, writing, editing, performance and media ethics. IMPACS provided inexpensive portable recording equipment for the trainee journalists. A further training programme was instituted in 2001. IMPACS further agreed to provide two weeks of “desperately needed skills training” for the graduates of its earlier courses, in order that FM 102 could provide extensive independent coverage of the 2003 general election. Kim Kierans, former reporter and editor for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and currently Director of the School of journalism at the University of King’s College, Halifax, Nova Scotia, started work there in July 2003 – her third visit to Cambodia. Kieran’s training course produced of pre-election news reports for broadcast on FM 102. According to IMPACS, “the young staff at FM 102 had no trouble generating ideas for campaign coverage. What they lacked was the skill to turn their ideas into effective news stories. Here, Ms Kieran’s most important contribution was to help them identify a focus for each of about thirty stories and to plot the means to execute those stories.” IMPACS measured the success of its training by the broadcast of 93 prepared election campaign reports during that one month, supplemented by 97 live reports, all produced by a team “who just one month earlier had no professional experience to speak of.” A basic handbook on journalism was produced in the Khmer language by IMPACS staff. Jonathan Manthorpe of IMPACS noted afterwards: “Cambodia offers an important lesson too often forgotten, especially by westerners whose cultures tend to foster a short attention span…… We must be prepared to make longterm commitments to the people we have undertaken to assist. Succumbing to the whims of fashion in the world of development assistance and then flying off when the fad changes can often be more damaging than it is useful.” 14 Ian Porter, “The Story of FM 102 And The Women’s Media Centre In Cambodia,” IMPACS, undated Wayne Sharpe, “Cambodia: Working With Radio Journalists To Support A Fragile Democracy,” Activate, Winter 2001, pp. 4-5, IMPACS Kim Kierans, “Land Of Contrasts,” Halifax Herald, 15 September 2002, Canada Jonathan Manthorpe, presentation to the International Civil Society Forum in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, 8-9 September 2003 Profile Of 'FM 102', The Radio Station Of The Women's Media Centre, Phnom Penh, Cambodia ©2004 Grant Goddard page 9
  • INCOMPLETE DRAFT 2. SIDA/SWEDISH NATIONAL RADIO15 The donation of a 10kW transmitter to replace the former 200W effectively multiplied FM 102’s coverage range from a 30km radius around Phnom Penh to cover a large part of the country. The expansion allowed the station to introduce on-air advertising to help finance its activities. This plan copied what Swedish Radio had already done in Vietnam, where the strategy was to:  Make the switch from analogue to digital equipment. After training on the new equipment, focus was placed on programming, making the radio more alive, more public service, and covering a wider area  Installation of the 10kW transmitter, covering a large part of the country, offering access to advertising, through which to finance operations  Transfer of older analogue equipment to the provinces, where local radio stations are established to spearhead journalism in rural areas. SIDA’s 2000 report noted: “The Women’s Media Centre may be the closest to a public service radio available in terms of quality, partly because of its technical and human resources. However, the Centre’s focus on women’s issues limits its scope……. To transform the Women’s Media Centre into a media organisation requires structural changes that might undermine its other activities, deemed important not only by themselves, but also by its keen donors. FM 102, with its intellectual messages and its short time on the air, has rather limited transmission coverage [before the transmitter was upgraded to 10kW] and, in order for the station to take on a more public service approach, it needs much input [from international aid].” 15 Britt-Louise Edman…………………… Profile Of 'FM 102', The Radio Station Of The Women's Media Centre, Phnom Penh, Cambodia ©2004 Grant Goddard page 10
  • INCOMPLETE DRAFT WHO IS LISTENING? There are no official ratings data for Cambodia, so available information is patchy and somewhat contradictory. A survey of radio listening by Cambodia’s National Institute of Management in 200016 identifies the most popular stations as FM 103, FM 99 and FM 98 in descending order. Women’s Media Centre’s market research in July 200017 shows that the most popular stations in Phnom Penh were FM 103 and FM 105 in descending order. 13% of respondents in Phnom Penh listen to FM 102 “sometimes”. More recent market research commissioned in 2003 for the Women’s Media Centre by the Danish Institute for Human Rights18 concludes that FM 102 has the highest reach of any radio station in Phnom Penh (87%), followed by FM 103 (78%) and FM 105 (72%). The question asked of respondents was “Which stations have you ever listened to?” Market research by Inter-Media for the BBC in 200319 shows that radio’s weekly reach is 57%, compared to television’s 71%. Radio stations considered most significant nationally as an “important source of information” are: FM 103 (weekly reach 22%), Cambodia National Radio (25%), and Voice of America (26%). FM 102’s weekly reach is 12%. Only 56% of respondents report having a working radio in their home. Market research by Indochina Research Ltd for UNICEF in 200320 shows the most popular radio stations nationally to be: FM 103 (52% listen ever), FM 105 (30%), FM 98 (27%) and FM 95 (22%). In Phnom Penh, stations mentioned most were: FM 103 (86%), FM 105 (76%), FM 102 (52%) and FM 107 (50%). Zenith Media Cambodia’s 2003 data21 shows that radio’s daily reach is 24.8% nationally (compared to 90% for television). No specific data was provided for individual stations, though the report asserts that “research indicates FM 103 and FM 105 are most popular.” There was no mention of FM 102. 16 referred to in: Britt-Louise Edman, “Trapped In The Past, Seeking Out A Future – A Study On The Cambodian Media Sector,” Sida & Forum Syd, 12 May 2000 IMIC Research Ltd, “Attitudes To Media Coverage Of Women And Social Issues,” Women’s Media Centre, September 2000 18 CoBrain Research, “Audience Research Survey WMC FM 102,” Women’s Centre of Cambodia, 2003 19 InterMedia, “National Survey In Cambodia 2003,” BBC, 2003 20 Indochina Research Ltd, “Media Index 2003,” UNICEF, 2004 21 Zenith Media Cambodia, “Cambodia Media Scene,” undated 17 Profile Of 'FM 102', The Radio Station Of The Women's Media Centre, Phnom Penh, Cambodia ©2004 Grant Goddard page 11
  • INCOMPLETE DRAFT WHEN ARE THEY LISTENING? Market Research by Inter-Media for the BBC in 2003 shows the radio listening pattern nationally to be: Radio Listening in Cambodia by time period 12.0% national 8.0% 4.0% 05 00 -0 06 530 00 -0 07 630 00 -0 08 730 00 -0 09 830 00 -0 10 930 00 -1 11 030 00 -1 12 130 00 -1 13 230 00 -1 14 330 00 -1 15 430 00 -1 16 530 00 -1 17 630 00 -1 18 730 00 -1 19 830 00 -1 20 930 00 -2 21 030 00 -2 22 130 00 -2 23 230 00 -2 33 0 0.0% Market research by Indochina Research Ltd for UNICEF in 2003 shows the radio listening pattern nationally to be: Listenership Results Usual Hours - TTL & Gender Total Female Male 60% • Three peak listenership time : 6AM to 7AM, 11:30 AM to 1PM and 8:00 to 9:00 PM. 50% • Later lunch time and evening listenership for male. 40% 30% 20% 10% 11 :0 0 10 :0 0 9: 00 8: 00 7: 00 6: 00 5: 00 4: 00 3: 00 2: 00 1: 00 12 :0 0 11 :0 0 10 :0 0 UNICEF - Media Index 2003 Key Results - 20th January 2004 9: 00 8: 00 7: 00 6: 00 5: 00 0% The UNICEF research usefully demonstrates that no significant differences occur in this listening pattern between: Profile Of 'FM 102', The Radio Station Of The Women's Media Centre, Phnom Penh, Cambodia ©2004 Grant Goddard page 12
  • INCOMPLETE DRAFT    Age groups (15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54) Education level (Level 1, Level 2, Level 3) Socio-economic class (<$50, $51-$100, $101-$200, $201-400, >$400). Location is the only variable that affects the pattern. Listeners in Kampong Chhnang appear to have no listening peak in the evening, though they have the highest peak in the morning. The 2003 market research for the Women’s Media Centre shows the listening pattern in Phnom Penh to be: Radio Listening in Phnom Penh by time period 40% Phnom Penh 30% 20% 10% 0% 0600-0800 0800-1000 1000-1200 1200-1400 1400-1600 1600-1800 1800-2000 2000-2200 2200-0000 Zenith Media Cambodia’s 2003 research shows the listening pattern (nationally, one assumes) to be: Tim e Listening Radio Yesterday 45 30 15 23:01 - 23:30 22:01 - 22:30 21:16 - 21:30 20:46 - 21:00 20:16 - 20:30 19:46 - 20:00 19:01 - 19:30 18:01 - 18:30 17:01 - 17:30 16:01 - 16:30 15:01 - 15:30 14:01 - 14:30 13:01 - 13:30 12:01 - 12:30 11:01 - 11:30 10:01 - 10:30 09:01 - 09:30 08:01 - 08:30 07:01 - 07:30 06:01 - 06:30 0 05:00 - 05:30 % of Yesterday Radio Listeners 60 This pattern seems uncharacteristic compared to the others, and seems more reflective of listening habits in Western Europe (particularly with its 8am peak). Profile Of 'FM 102', The Radio Station Of The Women's Media Centre, Phnom Penh, Cambodia ©2004 Grant Goddard page 13
  • INCOMPLETE DRAFT WHERE ARE THEY LISTENING? Market research by Inter-Media for the BBC in 2003 shows that 54% of respondents nationally listen to the radio at home, 16% at a friend’s, 5% at work, 5% in some other public place, and 3% in-car at least once weekly. Market research by Indochina Research for UNICEF in 2003 shows that 98% of respondents nationally have ever listened to the radio at home, 32% at a friend’s house, 25% at a neighbour’s house, 8% at work, 2% in a café or restaurant, and 1% in-car. In-car and at-work radio listening is obviously negligible, leaving the main radio audience available only at-home. Profile Of 'FM 102', The Radio Station Of The Women's Media Centre, Phnom Penh, Cambodia ©2004 Grant Goddard page 14
  • INCOMPLETE DRAFT OPINIONS OF FM 102 PROGRAMMING Women’s Media Centre commissioned market research in 199722 about its programming that revealed that “quality is high, but [that] programmes are too intellectual and not urgent enough for most Cambodians.” Its more recent (unnamed) survey showed that “the most popular programmes are those focusing on a general audience rather than on women only.” Research commissioned for the Women’s Media Centre in 2003 showed its most popular programmes amongst Phnom Penh listeners to be: 1. Khmer history programmes 2.= Local & international news 2.= Phone-in karaoke programmes 2.= Khmer customs & culture programmes 5. Request programmes for international songs. The least popular programme amongst respondents was the youth programme “Green Light Red Light.” Grant Goddard is a media analyst / radio specialist / radio consultant with thirty years of experience in the broadcasting industry, having held senior management and consultancy roles within the commercial media sector in the United Kingdom, Europe and Asia. Details at http://www.grantgoddard.co.uk 22 IMIC Research Ltd, “Audience Responses To Women’s Media Centre of Cambodia Television And Radio Productions And Attitudes To Media Coverage of Women and Social Issues,” Women’s Media Centre, 1997 – referred to in Britt-Louise Edman, op cit. Profile Of 'FM 102', The Radio Station Of The Women's Media Centre, Phnom Penh, Cambodia ©2004 Grant Goddard page 15