1. Main points:You can use pronouns anddeterminers to refer back tosomething that has already beenmentioned.You use coordinating conjunctions tolink clauses.
2. When you speak or write, youusually need to make someconnection with other things thatyou are saying or writing.The most common way of doing thisis by referring back to somethingthat has already been mentioned.
3. One way of referring back to something is to use a personal pronoun such as «she», «it», «them»,etc. or a possessive pronoun such as «mine» or«hers»:1. My brother is fat. He weights over 100 kg.2. Denise has just came in. She is a very attractive young lady.3. I have never been to London. Mary told me it is crowded but very nice.4. Whose car is this? – It’s not mine.5. Have you ever heard of David Crystal? – Yes, I’ve just read a book of his.
4. You can also use a specific determiner such as«the» or «his» in front of a noun to refer backto something:1. A boy and a girl were walking down the hill. The boy wore shorts, a t-shirt and sneakers. The girl wore a striped dress.2. My boss has just returned from London. His business trip was a complete success.
5. The demonstratives: this, that, these and thoseare also used to refer back to a thing or factthat has just been mentioned:1. In 1988 he went on an expedition on Mount Everest. At the beginning of this expedition he began to experience pain in his chest.2. There is a lot of good material on English Café. You could use some of that to complete your essay.
6. The following general determiners can also beused to refer back to something: ANOTHER, BOTH, EACH, EITHER, NEITHER, EVERY, OTHER1. Seven managers were sacked. Another two were arrested.2. There are more than two hundred and fifty species of sharks, and every one is different.
7. Another way of making connections is spokenor written English is by using one of thefollowing coordinating conjunctions: AND, BUT, NOR, OR, SO, THEN, YET1. Johnny had to go into town and he wanted to go to Main Street.2. I asked if I could borrow his bicycle but he refused.3. She was born in New York and raised in Brooklyn.
8. There is another way to link sentences togetherand that is by using the subordinatingconjunctions:1. We send the parcel by airmail. Therefore, it’s away on Wednesday and our customer gets it on Monday.2. You can take my car as long as you drive carefully.3. I will fix your bicycle when I get back home.
9. When people are speaking or writing, they oftenuse words that refer back to very similar words,or words that refer back to a whole sentence orparagraph:1. Everything was quiet. Everywhere there was the silence of the winter nights.2. “What are you going to do?” – “That’s a good question.”