Designing for learning in an open world: new strategies for design Gráinne Conole, University of Leicester 6th – 9thMarch 2012
Technology paradoxes Paradoxes Technologies not fully exploited Little evidence of use of free resourcesBlogs & wikis Media sharing Reasons Technical, pedagogical, organisational… “Lack of time, research vs. teaching, lack of skills, no rewards, no support….” SolutionsVirtual worlds & Learning Design, OER, Pedagogicalonline games Patterns Social networking
Course viewsMediating How to ruin aArtefacts course PedagogicalCloudworks Activities frameworkMetaphors Affordances Intervention framework
1. Cloudworks• Social networking site for sharing and discussing learning and teaching ideas• Boundary crossing• Best of web 2.0 functionality and practices• Do the Cloudquest challenge!
Quick language guideCloud:Anything to do with learningand teaching Cloudscape: A collection of cloudsActivity stream:Latest activities on aCloudscape or people Favourites: Vote for things your likeFollow: RSS feeds: Attend:Cloudscapes, Clouds For Cloudscapes, Clouds Conferences &or people & people workshops
Take the Cloudquest challenge!• http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloud/view/4891
2. How to ruin a course• Issues and strategies important for the success of a course• Check list for design and evaluation of a course• Activity: – List 10 ways that technologies can make your course fail – Compare and discuss – Look at other examples: http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloud/view/2597
3. RepresentationHow are courses typically represented?How explicit is the inherent design? The Open University, UK KE312 Working together with children What‟s the problem? Text-based/focus on content Doesn‟t show what the course is really like or what it consists of
Moving beyond contentThe power of visualisationShift emphasis away from contentHelp articulate designsSupports effective designProvides focus at different levelsActs as a dialogic mediating artefactsProvides a design recordEncourages reflective practiceEnables sharing of designs
Visualisation toolsPen, paper Mind mapping toolsand stickers Excel templates
Learning intervention overview Guidance & Support Linear guided pathway Content & ActivitiesOnline survey, 2-index game, survey, CommunicationAUC game and SI game with sensors &Collaboration as input, mindfulness (exercises , Online forum phone app.and game) Reflection & Demonstration Diagnostic feedback via video, Reflective diary Summary Key words Regulating the disposition effect and awareness of Smart phone app, survey,, serious games and finance, emotion regulation emotion, sensors
Dimensions view Generic course dimension• Breaks down nature of Delivery-… 100 Human… Course- created course Support… Guided… 80 60 40 Activity-based Student-… against the 4 Delivery-… 20 0 Delivery-… higher level Recorded… Tuor-guided Generic course dimension Summative Peer… categories Formative… Delivery-… Collaboration
Learning outcomes view• Maps learning outcomes to activities and outputs
3a. Course map• This activity produces an ‘at a glance’ view of a course• Produces a map of a course• Activity: – Use the course map guide, fill in the six boxes for your course – Compare and discuss – Look at other examples: http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloud/view/3422
Guidance & Support Course structure and timetable e.g. course calendar, study guide, tutorials Content & Activities Course materials, prior experience, learner- generated content, e.g. Reflection & readings, DVDs, podcasts, labs Demonstration Internalization and reflection, e.g. in-text questions, blogs, e- portfolios Diagnostic, formative or summative assessmentCourse summary Key wordsLevel, credits, duration, key features Descriptive words indicating pedagogical approach
3b. Pedagogy profileMap of learner tasks to time periods(weeks, semesters, etc.)6 types of learner task +assessmentAssimilativeInformation handlingCommunicationProductiveExperientialAdaptiveAssessmentEach cell indicates the amount oftime spent on each type of task Learning Design Taxonomy - Conole, 2008
243d. Learning outcomesMapping learning outcomes to:ActivitiesAssessmentBased on Biggs‟ work (1999) onconstructive alignmentMaps course and highlights anygaps
3e. Task swimlaneFocus on the tasks learners doBase on:Roles (learner, tutor, etc.)Tasks (read, discuss, etc.)Tools and resourcesOutputsAdvantagesMakes design explicitMaps out designSharable with othersGood at activity levelUseMindmapping tools –CompendiumLD, CMap, FreemindPen, paper and stickers
Learning activities• This activity produces a task swimlane of an activity and the tools and resources used• Produces a swimlane diagram• Activity: – Decide on the learning outcomes, tools, resources and assessment for this activity – Map out the activity – Use pens and arrows to add explanations – Compare and discuss – Look at other examples: http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloud/view/3422
Working between the views Learning outcomes Course mapPedagogy profile Course dimensions Task swimlane
4. Affordances Characteristics of Characteristics of tools people Reflection Preferences Affordances (Gibson) „All "action possibilities" latent in Dialogue an environmentt… Interests but always inEvolving to the actor relation practices and therefore dependent on their Aggregation capabilities.‟ Skills For instance, a tall tree offers the affordances of food for a Giraffe Interactivity a sheep. but not ContextBasic Symbolic 1st wave technologies 2nd wave technologiescommunications representations (phone, radio, fax, networks, mobiles, the& gestures (words, numbers) TV, CD/DVDs) Internet)
Technology affordances Positive affordances, Negative affordances, promotes… think about… Collaboration A blog for reflective practice Time consuming (development) Reflections Difficult to use Interaction Affordances (Gibson) Costly to produce All "action possibilities" latent in an environmentt… Dialogue Time consuming (support) but always in relation to the actor and therefore Creativity dependent on their Assessment issues capabilities. Organisation For instance, a tall tree Lack of interactivity offers the affordances of food for a Giraffe but not a Inquiry Difficult to navigate sheep. Authenticity New literacy skills
An ICT framework Communication+ Virtual worlds, online games & Audio & video immersive environments conferencing Social networking Google Forums wave Wikis Email Blogs Instant messaging Twitter Web pages Media sharing Mash ups Interactivity
Effective choice of tools• Confusing array of tools which should you use and when?• Number of things to consider: – Nature of your students and context, your expertise and preferences, time to learn the tool, time to develop, etc.• Aim of the next exercise – Explore some tools and consider relevance – Brainstorm how you might use them – Map in terms of communication and interactivity – Consider other factors to take into consideration – Strategies to make quick pragmatic judgements about which tools to use before investing time in exploring further33
Comparing four tools• About: this activity will introduce you to 4 tools (Twitter, Wordpress, Wallwisher and Wordle) and help you think about their use.• Production: a map• Acitivity – Visit the tool websites – Explore, look at any overviews about them or examples – Map the tools onto the ICT framework – Compare and discuss – Look at other examples - http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloud/view/3930
Tools in use• In this activity you will explore the term ‘affordances’ and decide on tools based on their positive and negative affordances• Produce a map• Activity – Choose a task and 3 tools – Put the task in centre of paper and tools on the outside – Add positive and negative affordances – Decide which tool to use – Compare and discuss – Look at other examples: http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloud/view/4042
Twitter: the good and the badEjemplos IssuesPosting queries Your „a-ha‟ momentCommenting The right networkBackchannel Your digital voiceCrowdsourcing InappropriatenessGathering opinions Personal/privateSharing ideas Too much!Brainstorming Use with other toolsSocial presence A passing fad?
5. A pedagogy framework Social InformationInformal Formal Experience Individual
Social InformationInformal Formal Experience Individual
IBL/Twitter Social PBL/VWCoP/Google+ Dial/forumDial/Skype Collab/WikiInformal FormalRef/Blog Ref/e-PortfolioIBL/Google Did/e-BookUGC/YouTube Individual Ass/MCQs
Social InformationInformal Formal Experience Individual
Ref/Blog Experience PBL/VWCoP/Google+ Ref/e-PortfolioDial/Skype Dial/ForumInformal FormalIBL/Twitter Coll/WikiIBL/Google Did/e-BookUGC/YouTube Information Ass/MCQs
Activity• Pick three different pedagogical approaches• Decide on an activity to facilitate these using a particular tool• Map the three learning interventions onto the framework
6. Mediating Artefacts Mediating Design Mediating Artefacts 1.Concepts Artefacts (MA) •Tools •Dialogues •Activities Creates Learning activity Learner or Resource Has an Design inherentResearch focusWhat Mediating Artefacts do teachers use? Other teachers and learnersWhat Mediating Artefacts can we create to can use or repurposeguide the design process? Vygotsky, Activity Theory
Activity• Discuss the concept of Mediating Artefacts and how it might be used to facilitate sharing and discussion of learning and teaching designs
7. Intervention framework Horizon scanning OER Learning design Virtual worlds Research Learner experience Web 2.0 Blackboard rollout Design practice Policy Teacher practiceOER/iTunes Use of technologies Learning spaces Cloud computing Learner practice Use of technologies Diversity/culture
Activity• Draw an intervention framework for your context.• Consider: – What are the key research drivers? – What are your current strategic and policy drivers? – What do you know about how your learners are using technologies? – What do you know about teacher practice and what are the challenges to ICT uptake in your context?
Reflection• What three words would you use to describe this workshop?• What did you like about this workshop?• What could have been better?• What three words would you use to describe Cloudworks?• What three words would you use to describe the course views?• What action points will you do as a result?
Designing for learning in an open world: e-Pedagogies and transformation Gráinne Conole, University of Leicester Southern Cross University 6th March 2012
Other activities1. Using social media2. Pedagogical Planners3. Digital learning environments4. OPAL OER guidelines5. CSCL Pedagogical Patterns6. 8 LEM model7. Presentation tools8. Useful links and resources
1. Social media• Review of the affordances of social media• Consideration of how they can be used in learning, teaching and research
A typology of new technologies Technology Examples Media sharing Flckr, YouTube, Slideshare, Sketchfu Media manipulation and mash ups Geotagged photos on maps, Voicethread Instant messaging, chat, web 2.0 MSN, Paltalk, Arguementum forums Online games and virtual worlds WorldofWarcraft, SecondLife Social networking Facebook, Myspace, Linkedin, Elgg, Ning Blogging Wordpress, Edublog, Twitter Social bookmarking Del.icio.us, Citeulike, Zotero Recommender systems Digg, LastFm, Stumbleupon Wikis and collaborative editing tools Wikipedia, GoogleDocs, Bubbl.us Syndication/RSS feeds Bloglines, Podcast, GoogleReader(Conole and Alevizou, 2010), Review of Web 2.0 tools in Higher Educationhttp://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/EvidenceNet/Conole_Alevizou_2010.pdf
Digital identity Finding your digital voice Working across tools Degree of openness Personal/professional
New digital literacies Play Collective intelligencePerformance Judgement Participatory culture shifts the focus of literacy from one of individual expression toSimulation community involvement. The Transmedia new literacies almost all involve navigation social skills developed through collaboration and networkingAppropriation Networking Multitasking Negotiation Distributed cognition Jenkins et al., 2006
Activity• Brainstorm how you might use different social to promote your research? Consider the following: – Blogs – Twitter – Facebook – Slideshare – Others?
Using new media for research• Blogs• facebook• Twitter• Working across social media• Courses and conferences• Publishing as you go57
So why use blogs?• Of the moment reflections• Digital archive• The power of peer review• Record of events, reviews and resources• Wider audience reach and hence profile• Link into facebook and Twitter• Complements traditional publication routes
Blogs: promoting digitalscholarship
Twitter - ideas for harnessing Web 2.0?
Twitter and facebook #fb
Tips and hints • Think about strategies to make the most of each of the following and then think about how you can do this both in a face-to-face and virtual context – Conferences – Networking – Publishing 63
Conferences A personal example• Purpose:presentation & feedback• Network, network, network!• Potential collaborators & bid partners• Put in a symposium of experts• Expertvalidation workshops• Put papers/presentations online• Follow upcontacts afterwards: email, fb, Twitter, blogs, etc.• Work up into aresearch paper• Work the hashtag• Live blog or follow conference-related blogs
Networking• Build links with international colleagues• Get on national-level committees• Invite key researchers in your field to be involved in a joint research activity• Invite people to give seminars at your institution• Build connections online via Twitter, facebook, etc.• Participate in online events• Leave comments on blogs
Publishing• Write books - edited or single authored (post drafts)• Become an editor for a special issue of an online journal• Keep publication list up to date in your research repository• Set up a writing group or workshop (real/virtual)• Co-write with lots of different people (using a wiki)• Disseminate publications via Tweet, fb etc• Post up drafts for comment on blogs etc• See Twitter, blogs, journals, books as complementary
2. Pedagogical Planners• Explore the Learning Designer and Phoebe pedagogical planners: – Learning Designer – Phoebe• Reflect on their pros and cons• Consider how you might use them in your practice• Links
3. Digital learning environments• Draw your digital learning environment• What core tools do you use for what?• What other tools do you use?• How has your environment changed in the last ten years?
4. OPAL OER guidelines
Activity• The guidelines provide advice on: – Benchmarking current OER practices – Creating a vision and an implementation plan• Reflect on relevance for your context
5. CSCL pedagogical patterns• Derived from Alexander’s work• “Solutions to problems” – Introduction – Context – Problem headline – Solution – Picture – Similar patters
Deposits OER CreatesDesigner Design Deposits Quiz + beginners route Uses Learner A OER Quiz + advanced route Chooses Learner B Uses Design Repurposes Tutor & deposits
Prior designs Process design New designs& resources Content: (OER repositories, etc) Designs: New OER (Pedagogical & designs Patterns, CompendiumLD designs)
Activity• Useful resources: – CSCL Pedagogical Patterns – Olnet CSCL pedagogical patterns workshop• Explore the CSCL Pedagogical Patterns• Think about how they can be used to transform the Spanish Learning Activity into a collaborative activity
6. 8 LEM model• Explore th8LEM model and resources site• Think of a learning activity• Break down into learning events• Consider: – Learning & teacher interactions• Record on the mapping grid
7. Presentation tools• Explore the following presentation tools: – Prezzi – Sliderocket• Reflect on the pros and cons of each tool
8. Useful links and resources• Conole, G. (forthcoming), Designing for learning in an open world, New York: Springer• http://cloudworks.ac.uk• http://slideshare.net/grainne• Evidence hub for Open Education• The OPAL initiative• The Pedagogical Patterns Project
Reflection• What three words would you use to describe this workshop?• What did you like about this workshop?• What could have been better?• What action points will you do as a result?