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  • 1. National Teaching Fellow 2012 EDEN fellow 2013 Ascilite fellow 2012 Trajectories of e-learning Gráinne Conole University of Leicester 25th November 2013
  • 2. About me… • • • • Irish but living in England PhD in Chemistry Two girls (15 and 18) Professor of Learning Innovation at the University of Leicester
  • 3. Institute of Learning Innovation http://www.le.ac.uk/ili • • • • • • Research Teaching Supervision Consultancy Visiting scholars Institutional advice
  • 4. Areas of research • • • • • • • • Openness (OER, MOOCs, digital scholarship) – POERUP, OER in Rwanda Learning Design – SPEED and METIS Mobile learning – eBooks and PLACES, iPads for reading strategies, podcasts Virtual worlds – SWIFT Social media – use for research Learner experience/teacher practice – use with teachers Digital literacies and creativity – PELECON Technology-Enhanced Pedagogies – Overview and SCENE
  • 5. Outline • Disruptive technologies or pedagogies? • Why e-learning? • E-learning timeline and back to the future • Emergent technologies • Pedagogical approaches • Learning Design
  • 6. Disruptive technologies or pedagogies? Changing educational paradigms – Ken Robinson
  • 7. Why e-learning? • For learning – Potential to support interaction, communication and collaboration – Developing digital literacy skills – Promoting different pedagogical approaches – Fostering creativity and innovation – Connecting students beyond the formal course • For life – Preparing students for an uncertain future – Improving employability opportunities – Increased importance of technology in society
  • 8. The Internet and the Web Learning objects Learning Management Systems Mobile devices Learning Design Gaming technologies Open Educational Resources 80s 93 94 95 98 99 00 01 04 Massive Open Online Courses 05 E-books and smart devices Virtual worlds Social and participatory media Multimedia resources E-Learning timeline 07 08 http://www.europarl.europa.eu/interp/rectorsconference2012/files_en/index2_en.html
  • 9. A glimpse of the future… • • • • • • MOOCs Tablet computing Games and gamification Learning analytics 3D-printing Wearable technologies http://tinyurl.com/horizon2013
  • 10. Innovating pedagogy • • • • • • • • • • MOOCs Badges to accredit learning Learning analytics Seamless learning Crowd learning Digital scholarship Geo-learning Learning from gaming Maker Culture Citizen inquiry http://www.menon.org/matel/ http://www.open.ac.uk/blogs/innovating/
  • 11. Pedagogical approaches Drill & practise learning Inquiry learning Situated learning Immersive learning
  • 12. Drill and practise learning
  • 13. Inquiry-based learning • Promoting inquirybased approaches for Science –nQuire tools • Developing public understanding of Science - iSpot
  • 14. Situated learning Mark Childs Archeological digs Medical wards Art exhibitions Cyber-law Virtual language exchange Beyond formal schooling http://www.jibbigo.com/
  • 15. Swift project Paul Rudman and Suzanne Lavelle
  • 16. Immersive learning
  • 17. E-Assessment • Types: Diagnostic, Formative, Summative • Examples – Computer-marked tests to assess knowledge level – Tutor feedback via email, comments on blogs, annotation of essays – Audio feedback – E-portfolios to evidence learning achieved – Peer feedback – Group presentations and marking http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/elearning/assessmentandfeedback.aspx http://www.e-assessment.com/
  • 18. From E- to ‘M-pedagogy’ Mayes & De Freitas, 2004 Conole 2010 E-training Drill & practice Flashlets App Inquiry learning Collective intelligence Resource-based Associative Focus on individual Learning through association and reinforcement Constructivist Building on prior knowledge Task-orientated Springpad App A Solve Outbreak App Experiential, Problem-based Role play Situative Learning through social interaction Learning in context Connectivist Learning in a networked environment Social media & MOOCs Reflective & dialogic learning, Personalised learning
  • 19. Flashlets app
  • 20. Springpad curation
  • 21. Outbreak App
  • 22. OLDS MOOC
  • 23. Promise and reality Social and participatory media offer new ways to communicate and collaborate Wealth of free resources and tools Not fully exploited Replicating bad pedagogy Lack of time and skills
  • 24. http://www.larnacadeclaration.org/ • Definition of Learning Design • Teachers need guidance to make informed design decisions that are pedagogically effective and make appropriate use of technologies
  • 25. Challenge Creating learning experiences aligned to particular pedagogical approaches and learning objectives Teaching Cycle Educational Philosophy All pedagogical approaches All disciplines Design and Plan Theories & Methodologies Level of Granularity Engage with students Program Module A range based on assumptions about the Learning Environment Session Learning Environment: Characteristics & Values External Agencies Institution Educator Learner Professional Development Reflection Learning Activities Core Concepts of Learning Design Guidance Representation Sharing Implementation Tools Resources Learner Responses Feedback Assessment Learner Analytics Evaluation
  • 26. The 7Cs of Learning Design Vision Conceptualise Activities Capture Communicate Collaborate Consider Synthesis Combine Implementation Consolidate http://www2.le.ac.uk/projects/oer/oers/beyond-distance-research-alliance/7Cs-toolkit
  • 27. Conceptualise • Vision for the course, including: – Why, who and what you want to design – The key principles and pedagogical approaches – The nature of the learners Conceptualise Course Features 6 design frames Personas
  • 28. Course features http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloud/view/5950 • • • • • • Pedagogical approaches Principles Guidance and support Content and activities Reflection and demonstration Communication and collaboration
  • 29. Theory based Practice based Aesthetics Cultural Professional Principles Political Sustainable International Serendipitous Community based
  • 30. Inquiry based Problem based Dialogic Case based Collaborative Pedagogical approaches Situative Constructivist Vicarious Didactic Authentic
  • 31. Learning pathway Mentoring Scaffolded Peer support Step by step Guidance & Support Study skills Library support Tutor directed Help desk Remedial support
  • 32. Brainstorming Concept mapping Assimilative Annotation Modeling Content & Activities Jigsaw Pyramid Aggregating resources Learner generated content Information handling
  • 33. Diagnostic E-Assessment Formative E-Portfolio Feed forward Reflection & Demonstration Summative Reflective Peer feedback Vicarious Presentation
  • 34. Structured debate Group aggregation Flash debate Peer critique Communication & Collaboration Group presentation Pair debate Group project Group project For/Against debate Question & Answer
  • 35. Capture • Finding and creating interactive materials – Undertaking a resource audit of existing OER – Planning for creation of additional multimedia such as interactive materials, podcasts and videos – Mechanism for enabling learners to create their own content Capture Resource Audit Learner Generate Content
  • 36. Communicate • Designing activities that foster communication, such as: – Looking at the affordances of the use of different tools to promote communication – Designing for effective online moderating Communicate Affordances E-moderating
  • 37. Collaborate • Designing activities that foster collaboration, such as: – Looking at the affordances of the use of different tools to promote collaboration – Using CSCL (collaborative) Pedagogical Patterns such as JIGSAW, Pyramid, etc. Collaborate Affordances CSCL Ped. Patterns
  • 38. Consider • Designing activities that foster reflection • Mapping Learning Outcomes (LOs) to assessment • Designing assessment activities, including – Diagnostic, formative, summative assessment and peer assessment Collaborate LOs/Assessment Assessment Ped. Patterns
  • 39. Combine • Combining the learning activities into the following: – Course View which provides a holistic overview of the nature of the course – Activity profile showing the amount of time learners are spending on different types of activities – Storyboard: a temporal sequence of activities mapped to resources and tools – Learning pathway: a temporal sequence of the learning designs Combine Course View Activity Profile Storyboard Learning Pathway
  • 40. Course View Purpose: To start mapping out your module/course, including your plans for guidance and support, content and the learner experience, reflection and demonstration, and communication and collaboration. E-tivity Rubric: http://tinyurl.com/SPEED-e5
  • 41. Activity profile • Types of learner activities – Assimilative – Information Handling – Communication – Production – Experiential – Adaptive – Assessment
  • 42. Week 1 Topic 1 Week 2 Topic 2 Week 3 Topic 3 Week 4 Topic 4 Learning Outcomes LO1 LO2 LO3 LO4 Start Assessment End LO1 LO2 LO3 LO4
  • 43. Storyboard for a design workshop
  • 44. Consolidate • Putting the completed design into practice – Implementation: in the classroom, through a VLE or using a specialised Learning Design tool – Evaluation of the effectiveness of the design – Refinement based on the evaluation findings – Sharing with peers through social media and specialised sites like Cloudworks Combine Implementation evaluation Refinement Sharing
  • 45. METIS Integrated Learning Design Environment • Conceptualize • Author • Implement http://ilde.upf.edu/
  • 46. A pedagogical meta-model Two uses: 1. To map different learning theories 2. Map use of a technology in a particular context Conole, et al., 2004
  • 47. A pedagogical meta-model Experience Non Reflective Social Individual Reflective Information
  • 48. A pedagogical meta-model Experience Non Reflective Social Individual Reflective Information Pre-conscious learning Jarvis, 1972
  • 49. A pedagogical meta-model Experience Non Reflective Social Individual Reflective Information Reflective learning Dewey, 1916
  • 50. A pedagogical meta-model Experience Non Reflective Social Individual Reflective Information Dialogic learning Laurillard, 2002
  • 51. Mapping e-Pedagogies to technologies Pedagogies Technologies • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Inquiry-Based Learning (IBL) Didactic (Did) Reflection (Ref) Dialogic Learning (Dial) Collaboration (Collab) Assessment (Ass) Communities of Practice (CoP) IBL – social User-Generated Content (UGC) Virtual Worlds (VW) Google E-Books Blogs, e-Portfolios Discussion Forums (DF) Wikis MCQs Google+ Twitter Youtube
  • 52. Social Information Formal Informal Experience Individual
  • 53. IBL/Twitter CoP/Google+ Dial/Skype Social Formal Informal Ref/Blog IBL/Google UGC/YouTube PBL/VW Dial/forum Collab/Wiki Individual Ref/e-Portfolio Did/e-Book Ass/MCQs
  • 54. Social Information Formal Informal Experience Individual
  • 55. Ref/Blog CoP/Google+ Dial/Skype Experience Formal Informal IBL/Twitter IBL/Google UGC/YouTube PBL/VW Ref/e-Portfolio Dial/Forum Information Coll/Wiki Did/e-Book Ass/MCQs
  • 56. Mapping m-Pedagogies to technologies Pedagogies Tech/app/platform • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Inquiry-Based Learning (IBL) Didactic (Did) Reflection (Ref) Dialogic Learning (Dial) Collaboration (Collab) Assessment (Ass) Communities of Practice (CoP) IBL – social User-Generated Content (UGC) ‘Solve Outbreak’ iTunesUCourse, Futurelearn E-Books, iTunesU, TEDTalks Springpad, Tumblr Facebook group or page Google doc Google forms quiz in context Scoop.it, Group blog, Twitter (FB, Google+) Youtube, SoundCloud, Instagram, Vine
  • 57. Conclusion • Nature of learning, teaching and research is changing • Changing roles • Technology Enhanced Learning spaces • It’s about – Harnessing new media – Adopting open practices • New business models are emerging
  • 58. http://www.slideshare.net/GrainneConole http://www.le.ac.uk/ili grainne.conole@le.ac.uk http://e4innovation.com @gconole
  • 59. References • Conole, G. (2010) Review of pedagogical frameworks and models and their use in e-learning, http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloud/view/2982. • Conole, G. and P. Alevizou (2010) Review of the use(s) of Web 2.0 in Higher Education. • Conole, G., M. Dyke, et al. (2004). "Mapping pedagogy and tools for effective learning design." Computers and Education 43(1-2): 17-33. • Dewey, J. (1916). Experience and Nature. New York, Dover. • Jarvis, P. (2004). Adult education and lifelong learning. London, RoutledgeFalmer. • Laurillard, D. (2002). Rethinking university teaching, Routledge %@ 0415256798, 9780415256797. • Secker, J.(2011), http://www.slideshare.net/seckerj/informationliteracy-e-learning-and-the-changing-role-of-the-librarian • Learning Design workshop resources http://tinyurl.com/LDworkshop