Conole icem plenary

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  • §
  • Horizon 2103
  • VW: 3D space; represented by avatarCreate any context in which to learnSimulation – real, imagined, impossibleDemo: SWIFT Genetics lab (experiential; computer as tutor)Demo: Language-learning in context / with nativesDemo: SWIFT XP3 (Abstract)Demo: Artistic (Castle)SL; OpenSim; HTML5
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  • 1. Disruptive what? Shifting to ‘we-learning’ Gráinne Conole, University of Leicester 2nd October 2013 63rd ICEM Conference Singapore National Teaching Fellow 2012 Ascilite fellow 2012EDEN fellow 2013
  • 2. About me… • Irish but living in England • PhD in Chemistry • Two girls (15 and 18) • Professor of Learning Innovation at the University of Leicester
  • 3. Institute of Learning Innovation • Research • Teaching • Supervision • Consultancy • Visiting scholars • Institutional advice http://www.le.ac.uk/ili
  • 4. Outline • Disruptive technologies or pedagogies? • Why e-learning? • E-learning timeline and back to the future • Emergent technologies • Pick and mix – Digital literacies and identity – Pedagogical approaches – OER and MOOCs – Learning analytics – Mobile learning – Social media and open practices
  • 5. Disruptive technologies or pedagogies?
  • 6. Gray’s anatomy on Twitter Via Tony Ratcliffe
  • 7. A day made of glass Via Alice Godwin-Davey
  • 8. Why e-learning? • For learning – Potential to support interaction, communication and collaboration – Developing digital literacy skills – Promoting different pedagogical approaches – Fostering creativity and innovation – Connecting students beyond the formal course • For life – Preparing students for an uncertain future – Improving employability opportunities – Increased importance of technology in society
  • 9. E-Learning timeline Multimediaresources 80s TheInternetandtheWeb 93 LearningManagementSystems 95 OpenEducationalResources 01 Mobiledevices 98 Gamingtechnologies 00 Socialandparticipatorymedia 04 Virtualworlds 05 E-booksandsmartdevices MassiveOpenOnlineCourses 07 08 LearningDesign 99 Learningobjects 94 http://www.europarl.europa.eu/interp/rectorsconference2012/files_en/index2_en.html
  • 10. Back to the future… http://gizmodo.com/16-classic-films-that-got-future-tech-right-1184346443 Back to the future: Wearable technology Total recall: Self driving cars Space odyssey 2001: Skype Minority report: Touch interface Space odyssey 2001: Siri
  • 11. A glimpse of the future… • MOOCs • Tablet computing • Games and gamification • Learning analytics • 3D-printing • Wearable technologies http://tinyurl.com/horizon2013
  • 12. Innovating pedagogy • MOOCs • Badges to accredit learning • Learning analytics • Seamless learning • Crowd learning • Digital scholarship • Geo-learning • Learning from gaming • Maker Culture • Citizen inquiry http://www.open.ac.uk/blogs/innovating/http://www.menon.org/matel/
  • 13. Red or blue pill?
  • 14. Social media and open practices Digital Literacies and identities OER and MOOCs Pedagogical approaches Learning analytics Mobile Learning
  • 15. Pedagogical approaches Drill &practise learning Inquiry learning Situated learning Immersive learning
  • 16. Drill and practiselearning
  • 17. Inquiry-based learning • Promoting inquiry- based approaches for Science –nQuire tools • Developing public understanding of Science - iSpot
  • 18. Situated learning Archeological digs Medical wards Art exhibitions Cyber-law Virtual language exchange Beyond formal schooling http://www.jibbigo.com/
  • 19. SWIFT – Learning in virtual worlds Features: • Harnesses imagination • Experiential learning • Creates learning context • Computer as personal tutor Example applications: • Practical subjects • Language practice • Abstract concepts • Artistic creation Paul Rudman
  • 20. Immersive learning
  • 21. A Constructivist Building on prior knowledge Task-orientated Situative Learning through social interaction Learning in context Connectivist Learning in a networked environment From E- to ‘We-pedagogy’ Mayes & De Freitas, 2004 Conole 2010 E-training Drill & practice Inquiry learning Collective intelligence Resource-based Experiential, Problem-based Role play Reflective & dialogic learning, Personalised learning Flashlets App Springpad App Solve Outbreak App Social media & MOOCs Associative Focus on individual Learning through association and reinforcement
  • 22. Flashlets app
  • 23. Springpadcuration
  • 24. Outbreak App
  • 25. OLDS MOOC
  • 26. Individual Social Information Experience A pedagogical meta-model Conole, et al., 2004 Non Reflective Reflective
  • 27. Individual Social Information Experience A pedagogical meta-model Jarvis, 1972 Non Reflective Reflective
  • 28. Individual Social Information Experience A pedagogical meta-model Dewey, 1916 Non Reflective Reflective
  • 29. Individual Social Information Experience A pedagogical meta-model Laurillard, 2002 Non Reflective Reflective
  • 30. Mapping e-Pedagogies to technologies Pedagogies • Problem-Based Learning (PBL) • Inquiry-Based Learning (IBL) • Didactic (Did) • Reflection (Ref) • Dialogic Learning (Dial) • Collaboration (Collab) • Assessment (Ass) • Communities of Practice (CoP) • IBL – social • User-Generated Content (UGC) Technologies • Virtual Worlds (VW) • Google • E-Books • Blogs, e-Portfolios • Discussion Forums (DF) • Wikis • MCQs • Google+ • Twitter • Youtube
  • 31. Social Individual Informal Formal Information Experience A pedagogy framework
  • 32. Social Individual Informal Formal Information Experience
  • 33. Social Individual Informal Formal PBL/VW Dial/forum Collab/Wiki IBL/Twitter CoP/Google+ Dial/Skype Ref/Blog IBL/Google UGC/YouTube Ref/e-Portfolio Did/e-Book Ass/MCQs
  • 34. Social Individual Informal Formal Information Experience
  • 35. Experience Information Informal Formal PBL/VW Ref/e-Portfolio Dial/Forum Ref/Blog CoP/Google+ Dial/Skype IBL/Twitter IBL/Google UGC/YouTube Coll/Wiki Did/e-Book Ass/MCQs
  • 36. Mapping m-Pedagogies to technologies Pedagogies • Problem-Based Learning (PBL) • Inquiry-Based Learning (IBL) • Didactic (Did) • Reflection (Ref) • Dialogic Learning (Dial) • Collaboration (Collab) • Assessment (Ass) • Communities of Practice (CoP) • IBL – social • User-Generated Content (UGC) Tech/app/platform • ‘Solve Outbreak’ • iTunesUCourse, Futurelearn • E-Books, iTunesU, TEDTalks • Springpad, Tumblr • Facebook group or page • Google doc • Google forms quiz in context • Scoop.it, Group blog, • Twitter (FB, Google+) • Youtube, SoundCloud, Instagram, Vine
  • 37. Study calendars E-books Learning resources Online modules Annotation tools Mind mapping tools Communication mechanisms Mobile learning
  • 38. From E-Learning to M-Learning • More than just mobile e-learning – Anytime, anywhere for the learner (efficiency) – Enables learning in special location (i.e. fieldwork) • New affordances of mobile – Small and compact – Personal – Capturing sound, video, image – New tech i.e. augmented reality – Wearable tech Peacekeeper student using supplied iPad and course app – Security, Conflict & International Development Masters Distance
  • 39. Other Leicester examples One iPad per medical undergraduate: •Paperlessness, Personalised •Anywhere •Medical references and apps for clinical settings Masters of International Education: •Personalised learning environment •Accessibility •iBooks Author to create iBook
  • 40. Flexibility and mobility Small, compact size Readability Easy on the eyes Access from a single device without internet Portability Capacity Long battery life Continue reading, Bookmark Photo by Kzeng on Flickr Photo by Yummy Pancake on Flickr
  • 41. Digital literacies: definition • Set of social practices and meaning making of digital tools (Lankshear and Knobel, 2008) Socio-cultural view of digital literacy • Continuum from instrumental skills to productive competence and efficiency http://ftp.jrc.es/EURdoc/JRC67075_TN.pdf
  • 42. Digital literacy skills http://edudemic.com/2013/04/important-21st-century-skills/ Creativity Multi-tasking Performance Simulation Appropriation Play Distributed cognition Judgment Collective Intelligence Transmedia Navigation Networking Negotiation Jenkins et al., 2006
  • 43. Identity, presence and interaction Interaction Identity Presence
  • 44. Identity • How you present yourself online • How you interact and communicate with others • Facets – Reputation – Impact – Influence – Productivity – Openness http://www.flickr.com/photos/easegill/8481750456/
  • 45. My digital identity
  • 46. Presence • Presence (markchilds.wordpress.com) – Mediated presence • “being there” • immersion – Social presence • projection of ourselves • perception of others – Copresence • being somewhere with others – Self presence • or embodiment http://www.flickr.com/photos/deadair/4250153736/
  • 47. Interaction • Moore’s (1989) transactional distance: – Learners and teachers – Learners and learners – Learners and content • Hillman et al. (1994) – Learners and interface http://www.flickr.com/photos/easegill/8481750456/
  • 48. Dangers of online interaction http://e4innovation.com/?p=782 Online interaction and communication is great but there is a darker more sinister side… here is the story of my recent experience
  • 49. OER and MOOCs • Over ten years of the Open Educational Resource (OER) movement • Hundreds of OER repositories worldwide • Presence on iTunesU • 2012 Times year of the MOOC
  • 50. The OPAL metromap http://www.oer-quality.org/ Evaluation shows lack of uptake by teachers and learners Shift from development to community building and articulation of OER practice
  • 51. POERUP outputs • An inventory of more than 300 OER initiatives http://poerup.referata.com/wiki/Countries_with_OER_initiatives • 11 country reports and 13 mini-reports http://poerup.referata.com/wiki/Countries • 7 in-depth case studies • 3 EU-wide policy papers
  • 52. The emergence of MOOCs • CCK08 – Connectivist MOOC (cMOOC) – Siemens, Downes and Cormier – Evaluation (Fini, 2009) – http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/643/1402 • Emergence of large-scale xMOOCs • UK-based FutureLearn • What are MOOCs? – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eW3gMGqcZQc • List of MOOCs – http://www.mooc-list.com/ • EFQUEL series of blogs – http://mooc.efquel.org/
  • 53. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) Free Distributed global community Social inclusion High dropout rates Learning income not learning outcome Marketing exercise http://alternative-educate.blogspot.co.uk/2012/12/audio-ascilite-2012-great-debate-moocs.html JOLT, Vol. 9, No. 2, http://jolt.merlot.org
  • 54. Dimension Characteristics Context Open Degree to which the MOOC is open Massive How large theMOOC is Diversity The diversity of the learners Learning Use of multimedia Extent of use of rich multimedia Degree of communication Amount of communication incorporated Degree of collaboration Amount of collaboration incorporated Amount of reflection Ways in which reflection is encouraged Learning pathway Degree to which the learning pathway is supported Quality assurance Degree of quality assurance Certification Mechanisms for accreditation Formal learning Feed into formal learning offerings Autonomy Degree of learner autonomy A taxonomy of MOOCs http://e4innovation.com/?p=727
  • 55. The future… • Challenging traditional institutions • New business models emerging • Need for appropriate pedagogies • Disaggregation of education – High quality resources – Learning pathways – Support – Accreditation
  • 56. Digital landscapes http://wronghands1.wordpress.com/2013/03/31/vintage-social-networking/ Open Social Distributed Participatory Distributed Networked Complex Dynamic Conole and Alevizou, 2010
  • 57. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SVOY2x81_bg http://www.ctc.ie/2012/05/great-videos-for-social-media-and.html
  • 58. User generated content Peer critiquing Networked Collective aggregation Personalised Open Social media revolution The machine is us/ing us www.heacademy.ac.uk/asse s/EvidenceNet/Conole_Alev ou_2010.pdf
  • 59. Open practices • Digital scholarship • Sharing and exchange of teaching ideas • Beyond the classroom • A distributed, global community • Peer critique and support • Challenging established paradigms
  • 60. A personal perspective • What are the most effective uses of mobile and online technologies for education? http://e4innovation.com/?p=788
  • 61. Learning Analytics Measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of data about learners and their contexts, for the purposes of understanding and optimising learning and the environments in which it occurs US Department of Education
  • 62. We leave trails everywhere we go and that data is valuable (George Siemens)
  • 63. Erik Duval
  • 64. Contribution • As a tool to understand learning behaviour • To provide evidence to support design of more effective learning environments • To make effective use of social and participatory media
  • 65. Pedagogies • Learning analytics to foster: –Assessment and feedback –Enquiry and sensemaking –Discourse
  • 66. Assessment & feedback • Importance of assessment and feedback as part of the learning process • Issues around markingand workload • Open Mentor and Open Comment: feedback through reflection and social networking • Coding of feedback comments and power of Bale’s categories of group interaction Whitelock
  • 67. Enquiry and sensemaking • New social networking spaces like Cloudworks to support dialogue and knowledge construction • Cloudworks: object- rather than ego centric, collective aggregation and improvement, supporting collective intelligence and distribution cognition (Salomon, 1983) • Disputational, cumulative and exploratory talk Ferguson
  • 68. Discourse • Cohere: structured discourse and knowledge construction • Discourse as an indicator of learning • Language as social action • Visualisation both as an analytic tool and a means of supporting sensemaking Buckingham Shum
  • 69. Putting it all together • Combining different forms of data analytics –VLE stats –Library analytics –Sitewide tracking –Course analytics • Powerful new analytics tools to understand data and network connections • Making sense of MOOCs Hirst
  • 70. Resources • LAK conference site – http://lakconference2013.wordpress.com/ • Special issue of ETS – http://www.learninganalytics.net/ • Definitions – http://learninganalytics.net/LearningAnalyticsDefinitionsPro cessesPotential.pdf • Siemens: presentation – http://www.slideshare.net/gsiemens/learning-analytics- educause
  • 71. Conclusion • Nature of learning, teaching and research is changing • Changing roles • Technology Enhanced Learning spaces • It’s about – Harnessing new media – Adopting open practices • New business models are emerging
  • 72. http://www.slideshare.net/GrainneConole http://www.le.ac.uk/ili grainne.conole@le.ac.uk http://e4innovation.com @gconole
  • 73. References • Conole, G. (2010) Review of pedagogical frameworks and models and their use in e-learning, http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloud/view/2982. • Conole, G. and P. Alevizou (2010) Review of the use(s) of Web 2.0 in Higher Education. • Conole, G., M. Dyke, et al. (2004). "Mapping pedagogy and tools for effective learning design." Computers and Education43(1-2): 17-33. • Dewey, J. (1916). Experience and Nature. New York, Dover. • Jarvis, P. (2004). Adult education and lifelong learning. London, RoutledgeFalmer. • Laurillard, D. (2002). Rethinking university teaching, Routledge %@ 0415256798, 9780415256797. • Secker, J.(2011), http://www.slideshare.net/seckerj/information- literacy-e-learning-and-the-changing-role-of-the-librarian • Learning Design workshop resources http://tinyurl.com/LD- workshop