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    1. 1. National Teaching Fellow 2012 EDEN fellow 2013 Ascilite fellow 2012 Navigating the digital landscape… Gráinne Conole, University of Leicester 29th October 2013
    2. 2. About me… • • • • Irish but living in England PhD in Chemistry Two girls (15 and 18) Professor of Learning Innovation at the University of Leicester
    3. 3. Institute of Learning Innovation • • • • • • Research Teaching Supervision Consultancy Visiting scholars Institutional advice
    4. 4. Outline • Disruptive technologies or pedagogies? • Why e-learning? • E-learning timeline and back to the future • Emergent technologies • Pick and mix – – – – – – – Learning Design Pedagogical approaches OER and MOOCs Learning analytics Mobile learning Social media and open practices Digital literacies and identity
    5. 5. Disruptive technologies or pedagogies? Changing educational paradigms – Ken Robinson
    6. 6. Grey’s anatomy on Twitter Via Tony Ratcliffe
    7. 7. A day made of glass Via Alice Godwin-Davey
    8. 8. Why e-learning? • For learning – Potential to support interaction, communication and collaboration – Developing digital literacy skills – Promoting different pedagogical approaches – Fostering creativity and innovation – Connecting students beyond the formal course • For life – Preparing students for an uncertain future – Improving employability opportunities – Increased importance of technology in society
    9. 9. The Internet and the Web Learning objects Learning Management Systems Mobile devices Learning Design Gaming technologies Open Educational Resources 80s 93 94 95 98 99 00 01 04 Massive Open Online Courses 05 E-books and smart devices Virtual worlds Social and participatory media Multimedia resources E-Learning timeline 07 08
    10. 10. Back to the future… Total recall: Self driving cars Back to the future: Wearable technology Space odyssey 2001: Skype Minority report: Touch interface Space odyssey 2001: Siri
    11. 11. A glimpse of the future… • • • • • • MOOCs Tablet computing Games and gamification Learning analytics 3D-printing Wearable technologies
    12. 12. Innovating pedagogy • • • • • • • • • • MOOCs Badges to accredit learning Learning analytics Seamless learning Crowd learning Digital scholarship Geo-learning Learning from gaming Maker Culture Citizen inquiry
    13. 13. Red or blue pill?
    14. 14. Learning Design Pedagogical approaches OER and MOOCs Learning analytics Mobile Learning Social media and open practices Digital Literacies & Identity
    15. 15. Conclusion • Nature of learning, teaching and research is changing • Changing roles • Technology Enhanced Learning spaces • It’s about – Harnessing new media – Adopting open practices • New business models are emerging
    16. 16. @gconole
    17. 17. References • Conole, G. (2010) Review of pedagogical frameworks and models and their use in elearning, • Conole, G. and P. Alevizou (2010) Review of the use(s) of Web 2.0 in Higher Education. • Conole, G., M. Dyke, et al. (2004). "Mapping pedagogy and tools for effective learning design." Computers and Education 43(1-2): 17-33. • Dewey, J. (1916). Experience and Nature. New York, Dover. • Jarvis, P. (2004). Adult education and lifelong learning. London, RoutledgeFalmer. • Laurillard, D. (2002). Rethinking university teaching, Routledge %@ 0415256798, 9780415256797. • Secker, J.(2011), • Learning Design workshop resources
    18. 18. Learning Analytics Resources • LAK conference site – • Special issue of ETS – • Definitions – cessesPotential.pdf • Siemens: presentation –
    19. 19. Pedagogical approaches Drill & practise learning Inquiry learning Situated learning Immersive learning
    20. 20. Drill and practise learning
    21. 21. Inquiry-based learning • Promoting inquirybased approaches for Science –nQuire tools • Developing public understanding of Science - iSpot
    22. 22. Situated learning Mark Childs Archeological digs Medical wards Art exhibitions Cyber-law Virtual language exchange Beyond formal schooling
    23. 23. Swift project Paul Rudman and Suzanne Lavelle
    24. 24. Immersive learning
    25. 25. From E- to ‘M-pedagogy’ Mayes & De Freitas, 2004 Conole 2010 E-training Drill & practice Flashlets App Inquiry learning Collective intelligence Resource-based Associative Focus on individual Learning through association and reinforcement Constructivist Building on prior knowledge Task-orientated Springpad App A Solve Outbreak App Experiential, Prob lem-based Role play Situative Learning through social interaction Learning in context Connectivist Learning in a networked environment Social media & MOOCs Reflective & dialogic learning, Personalised learning
    26. 26. Flashlets app
    27. 27. Springpad curation
    28. 28. Outbreak App
    29. 29. OLDS MOOC
    30. 30. A pedagogical meta-model Two uses: 1. To map different learning theories 2. Map use of a technology in a particular context Conole, et al., 2004
    31. 31. A pedagogical meta-model Experience Non Reflective Social Individual Reflective Information
    32. 32. A pedagogical meta-model Experience Non Reflective Social Individual Reflective Information Pre-conscious learning Jarvis, 1972
    33. 33. A pedagogical meta-model Experience Non Reflective Social Individual Reflective Information Reflective learning Dewey, 1916
    34. 34. A pedagogical meta-model Experience Non Reflective Social Individual Reflective Information Dialogic learning Laurillard, 2002
    35. 35. Mapping e-Pedagogies to technologies Pedagogies Technologies • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Inquiry-Based Learning (IBL) Didactic (Did) Reflection (Ref) Dialogic Learning (Dial) Collaboration (Collab) Assessment (Ass) Communities of Practice (CoP) IBL – social User-Generated Content (UGC) Virtual Worlds (VW) Google E-Books Blogs, e-Portfolios Discussion Forums (DF) Wikis MCQs Google+ Twitter Youtube
    36. 36. Social Information Formal Informal Experience Individual
    37. 37. IBL/Twitter CoP/Google+ Dial/Skype Social Formal Informal Ref/Blog IBL/Google UGC/YouTube PBL/VW Dial/forum Collab/Wiki Individual Ref/e-Portfolio Did/e-Book Ass/MCQs
    38. 38. Social Information Formal Informal Experience Individual
    39. 39. Ref/Blog CoP/Google+ Dial/Skype Experience Formal Informal IBL/Twitter IBL/Google UGC/YouTube PBL/VW Ref/e-Portfolio Dial/Forum Information Coll/Wiki Did/e-Book Ass/MCQs
    40. 40. Mapping m-Pedagogies to technologies Pedagogies Tech/app/platform • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Inquiry-Based Learning (IBL) Didactic (Did) Reflection (Ref) Dialogic Learning (Dial) Collaboration (Collab) Assessment (Ass) Communities of Practice (CoP) IBL – social User-Generated Content (UGC) ‘Solve Outbreak’ iTunesUCourse, Futurelearn E-Books, iTunesU, TEDTalks Springpad, Tumblr Facebook group or page Google doc Google forms quiz in context, Group blog, Twitter (FB, Google+) Youtube, SoundCloud, Instag ram, Vine
    41. 41. Mobile learning Study calendars E-books Learning resources Online modules Annotation tools Mind mapping tools Communication mechanisms
    42. 42. From E-Learning to M-Learning • More than just mobile e-learning – Anytime, anywhere for the learner (efficiency) – Enables learning in special location (i.e. fieldwork) • New affordances of mobile – – – – – Small and compact Personal Capturing sound, video, image New tech i.e. augmented reality Wearable tech Peacekeeper student using supplied iPad and course app – Security, Conflict & International Development Masters Distance
    43. 43. Other Leicester examples Masters of International Education: •Personalised learning environment •Accessibility •iBooks Author to create iBook One iPad per medical undergraduate: •Paperlessness, Perso nalised •Anywhere •Medical references and apps for clinical settings
    44. 44. Flexibility and mobility Small, compact size Continue reading, Bookmark Capacity Portability Photo by Kzeng on Flickr Readability Access from a single device without internet Easy on the eyes Long battery life Photo by Yummy Pancake on Flickr Terese Bird
    45. 45. Promise and reality Social and participatory media offer new ways to communicate and collaborate Wealth of free resources and tools Not fully exploited Replicating bad pedagogy Lack of time and skills
    46. 46. • Definition of Learning Design • Teachers need guidance to make informed design decisions that are pedagogically effective and make appropriate use of technologies
    47. 47. Challenge Creating learning experiences aligned to particular pedagogical approaches and learning objectives Teaching Cycle Educational Philosophy All pedagogical approaches All disciplines Design and Plan Theories & Methodologies Level of Granularity Engage with students Program Module A range based on assumptions about the Learning Environment Session Learning Environment: Characteristics & Values External Agencies Institution Educator Learner Professional Development Reflection Learning Activities Core Concepts of Learning Design Guidance Representation Sharing Implementation Tools Resources Learner Responses Feedback Assessment Learner Analytics Evaluation
    48. 48. Learning Design Learning Design Conceptual Map (LD-CM) Learning Design Framework (LD-F) Learning Design Practice (LD-P)
    49. 49. The 7Cs of Learning Design Vision Conceptualise Activities Capture Communicate Collaborate Consider Synthesis Combine Implementation Consolidate
    50. 50. Conceptualise • Vision for the course, including: – Why, who and what you want to design – The key principles and pedagogical approaches – The nature of the learners Conceptualise Course Features 6 design frames Personas
    51. 51. Course features • • • • • • Pedagogical approaches Principles Guidance and support Content and activities Reflection and demonstration Communication and collaboration
    52. 52. Theory based Practice based Aesthetics Cultural Professional Principles Political Sustainable International Serendipitous Community based
    53. 53. Inquiry based Problem based Dialogic Case based Collaborative Pedagogical approaches Situative Constructivist Vicarious Didactic Authentic
    54. 54. Learning pathway Mentoring Scaffolded Peer support Step by step Guidance & Support Study skills Library support Tutor directed Help desk Remedial support
    55. 55. Brainstorming Concept mapping Assimilative Annotation Modeling Content & Activities Jigsaw Pyramid Aggregating resources Learner generated content Information handling
    56. 56. Diagnostic E-Assessment Formative E-Portfolio Feed forward Reflection & Demonstration Summative Reflective Peer feedback Vicarious Presentation
    57. 57. Structured debate Group aggregation Flash debate Peer critique Communication & Collaboration Group presentation Pair debate Group project Group project For/Against debate Question & Answer
    58. 58. Capture • Finding and creating interactive materials – Undertaking a resource audit of existing OER – Planning for creation of additional multimedia such as interactive materials, podcasts and videos – Mechanism for enabling learners to create their own content Capture Resource Audit Learner Generate Content
    59. 59. Communicate • Designing activities that foster communication, such as: – Looking at the affordances of the use of different tools to promote communication – Designing for effective online moderating Communicate Affordances E-moderating
    60. 60. Collaborate • Designing activities that foster collaboration, such as: – Looking at the affordances of the use of different tools to promote collaboration – Using CSCL (collaborative) Pedagogical Patterns such as JIGSAW, Pyramid, etc. Collaborate Affordances CSCL Ped. Patterns
    61. 61. Consider • Designing activities that foster reflection • Mapping Learning Outcomes (LOs) to assessment • Designing assessment activities, including – Diagnostic, formative, summativ e assessment and peer assessment Collaborate LOs/Assessment Assessment Ped. Patterns
    62. 62. Combine • Combining the learning activities into the following: – Course View which provides a holistic overview of the nature of the course – Activity profile showing the amount of time learners are spending on different types of activities – Storyboard: a temporal sequence of activities mapped to resources and tools – Learning pathway: a temporal sequence of the learning designs Combine Course View Activity Profile Storyboard Learning Pathway
    63. 63. Course View Purpose: To start mapping out your module/course, including your plans for guidance and support, content and the learner experience, reflection and demonstration, and communication and collaboration. E-tivity Rubric:
    64. 64. Activity profile • Types of learner activities – Assimilative – Information Handling – Communication – Production – Experiential – Adaptive – Assessment
    65. 65. Week 1 Topic 1 Week 2 Topic 2 Week 3 Topic 3 Week 4 Topic 4 Learning Outcomes LO1 LO2 LO3 LO4 Start Assessment End LO1 LO2 LO3 LO4
    66. 66. Storyboard for a design workshop
    67. 67. Consolidate • Putting the completed design into practice – Implementation: in the classroom, through a VLE or using a specialised Learning Design tool – Evaluation of the effectiveness of the design – Refinement based on the evaluation findings – Sharing with peers through social media and specialised sites like Cloudworks Combine Implementation evaluation Refinement Sharing
    68. 68. METIS Integrated Learning Design Environment • Conceptualize • Author • Implement
    69. 69. Digital literacies: definition • Set of social practices and meaning making of digital tools (Lankshear and Knobel, 2008) Socio-cultural view of digital literacy • Continuum from instrumental skills to productive competence and efficiency
    70. 70. Multi-tasking Digital literacy skills Judgment Performance Collective Intelligence Simulation Transmedia Navigation Appropriation Networking Play Negotiation Distributed cognition Creativity Jenkins et al., 2006
    71. 71. Identity, presence and interaction Interaction Identity Presence
    72. 72. Identity • How you present yourself online • How you interact and communicate with others • Facets – – – – – Reputation Impact Influence Productivity Openness
    73. 73. My digital identity Lewin, Life Spaces
    74. 74. Academic identity • Academic digital voice • Managing your network • Part of a networked society • Changing the way we connect, share, learn and work • Open practices: from data to publishing Costa and Torres, 2013,
    75. 75. Presence • Presence ( – Mediated presence • “being there” • immersion – Social presence • projection of ourselves • perception of others – Copresence • being somewhere with others – Self presence • or embodiment
    76. 76. Interaction • Moore’s (1989) transactional distance: – Learners and teachers – Learners and learners – Learners and content • Hillman et al. (1994) – Learners and interface
    77. 77. Dangers of online interaction Online interaction and communication is great but there is a darker more sinister side… here is the story of my recent experience
    78. 78. National Teaching Fellow 2012 EDEN fellow 2013 Ascilite fellow 2012 A conversation about MOOCs… Gráinne Conole, University of Leicester October 2013 New Zealand
    79. 79. OER and MOOCs • Over ten years of the Open Educational Resource (OER) movement • Hundreds of OER repositories worldwide • Presence on iTunesU • 2012 Times year of the MOOC
    80. 80. The OPAL metromap Evaluation shows lack of uptake by teachers and learners Shift from development to community building and articulation of OER practice
    81. 81. POERUP outputs • An inventory of more than 300 OER initiatives • 11 country reports and 13 mini-reports • 7 in-depth case studies • 3 EU-wide policy papers
    82. 82. OER communities • Social Network Analysis (who), Content Analysis (what) and Contextual Analysis (why) High density Low density Schreurs, at al., Submitted
    83. 83.
    84. 84. The emergence of MOOCs • CCK08 – Connectivist MOOC (cMOOC) – Siemens, Downes and Cormier – Evaluation (Fini, 2009) – • • • • Emergence of large-scale xMOOCs UK-based FutureLearn Launch of Massey on Open2Study What are MOOCs? – • List of MOOCs – • EFQUEL series of blogs – • ICDE list of MOOC reports –
    85. 85. Free Distributed global community Social inclusion Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) High dropout rates Learning income not learning outcome Marketing exercise JOLT, Vol. 9, No. 2,
    86. 86. A taxonomy of MOOCs Dimension Characteristics Context Open Degree to which the MOOC is open Massive How large the MOOC is Diversity The diversity of the learners Learning Use of multimedia Extent of use of rich multimedia Degree of communication Amount of communication incorporated Degree of collaboration Amount of collaboration incorporated Amount of reflection Ways in which reflection is encouraged Learning pathway Degree to which the learning pathway is supported Quality assurance Degree of quality assurance Certification Mechanisms for accreditation Formal learning Feed into formal learning offerings Autonomy Degree of learner autonomy
    87. 87. Food for thought… • Why get on the MOOC bandwagon? • Advantages of MOOCs? • Disadvantages? • Link with traditional course offerings? • Other issues?
    88. 88. The future… • Challenging traditional institutions • New business models emerging • Need for appropriate pedagogies • Disaggregation of education – – – – High quality resources Learning pathways Support Accreditation
    89. 89. Digital landscapes Open Distributed Social Networked Complex Dynamic Participatory Distributed Conole and Alevizou, 2010
    90. 90.
    91. 91. Peer critiquing Open User generated content Collective aggregation Networked Personalised Social media revolution 2013
    92. 92. New discourses Multi-platform Emoticons Sharing Hash tags Going viral
    93. 93. A personal perspective • What are the most effective uses of mobile and online technologies for education?
    94. 94. Open practices • • • • • • Digital scholarship Sharing and exchange of teaching ideas Beyond the classroom A distributed, global community Peer critique and support Challenging established paradigms
    95. 95. Learning Analytics Measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of data about learners and their contexts, for the purposes of understanding and optimising learning and the environments in which it occurs US Department of Education
    96. 96. We leave trails everywhere we go and that data is valuable (George Siemens)
    97. 97.
    98. 98. Erik Duval
    99. 99. Contribution • As a tool to understand learning behaviour • To provide evidence to support design of more effective learning environments • To make effective use of social and participatory media
    100. 100. Current focus • Understanding the scope and uses of learning analytics • Integrating analytics into existing courses • Expansion of learning analytics to new areas, particularly MOOCs • Relationship to Learning Design, so design is informed by past experience
    101. 101. Pedagogies • Learning analytics to foster: –Assessment and feedback –Enquiry and sensemaking –Discourse