with Graeme Hodgsonwww.learningfactory.net firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND Adult students want to:www.learningfactory.net email@example.com
Deliberate Practice Psychologist K. Anders Ericsson, a professor of Psychology at Florida State University: “The differences between expert performers and normal adults reflect a life-long period of deliberate effort to improve performance in a specific domain."www.learningfactory.net firstname.lastname@example.org
Deliberate Practice “How expert one becomes at a skill has more to do with HOW one practices than with merely performing a skill a large number of times. An expert breaks down the skills that are required to be expert and focuses on improving those skill chunks during practice… often paired with immediate coaching feedback. Another important feature lies in continually practicing a skill at more challenging levels.” - Anders Ericsson (1993)www.learningfactory.net email@example.com
Cognitive Theory “Excellent performance results from practicing complex tasks that produce errors. Such errors provide the learner with rich feedback that results in scaffolding for future performance.” - Mayer (2008)www.learningfactory.net firstname.lastname@example.org
Function of Drills (for Learners) •Provide a focus on accuracy. •Provide learners with intensive practice in hearing and saying particular words or phrases. •Provide a safe environment for learners to experiment with producing the language. •Help students notice the correct form or pronunciation of a word or phrase. •Provide an opportunity for learners to get immediate feedback on their accuracy. •Help memorization and automization of common language patterns and language chunks.www.learningfactory.net email@example.com
General Guidelines on Drilling Better for Ss NOT to see the language written down before they practice saying it (T models, S repeat) Give clear, natural and consistent models. Hand movements indicate intonation, beat stress etc. Join or separate fingers to show word boundaries and linking. Back-chaining helps focus on correct pronunciation & intonation . It is also attention-grabbing! Vary drill in terms of who repeats: whole class, half the class, boys, girls, individuals. Drilling should be done at a “snappy” pace.www.learningfactory.net firstname.lastname@example.org
Changing Pace by Drilling Whisper drills (for quietening down a rowdy class) Shouting drills (for livening them up ) Model saying things in different ways: e.g. very happy, very sad, very bored, very excited, sleepy, angry etc. (Model facial expression & get learners to do the same).www.learningfactory.net email@example.com
“Communicative tasks- yes – but there is also a definite need for an explicit focus on form and meaning, and therefore for the micro skills needed to do that. And this is often completely lacking in teachers and in their training.” “The micro techniques (eg: drilling, contextualizing, use of substitution tables, etc) ...are extremely useful ... and will enhance coursebook work.” Jim Scrivener IATEFL Conference, Harrogate 2010)www.learningfactory.net firstname.lastname@example.org
Relevance of repetition & “mental rehearsal” for fluencywww.learningfactory.net email@example.com
“For years and years people learnt languages with teaching methods that most modern teachers would think were completely anti- fluency. Grammar translation, audio-lingualism, constant drilling and repetition. And yet, the result of that was that some people became very fluent. You just know them, you’ve met them, you may be them.” (ABCI, 2010)www.learningfactory.net firstname.lastname@example.org
“For the last 15 or 20 years, sts have learnt English using communicative activity after communicative activity. Lots and lots of talking. And you know what happened? Some of them become very fluent and some of them, don’t.” (ABCI, 2010)www.learningfactory.net email@example.com
“Once you’ve said: ‘Have you ever been to France?’ ‘Have you ever been to France?’ ‘Have you ever been to France?’ enough times, you can say ‘Have you ever been to Fortaleza?’ ‘Have you ever been to Recife?’ ‘Have you ever been to Salvador?’ ‘Have you ever been to Porto Alegre’. You can say it easy, easy. But … the challenge for you is… Yes, repetition works, how can you make it work WELL? What kind of repetition does the magic to the brain? That’s my last question.” (ABCI, 2010)www.learningfactory.net firstname.lastname@example.org
REPETITION DRILL1. Teacher says a sentence/ lexical item;2. Students repeat the sentence/lexicalitem, in chorus;3. After 2 or 3 choral repetitions,conduct an individual repetition.4. Teacher repeats procedures 1-3 usingthe prompts suggested in the Teacher’sGuide.
SUBSTITUTION DRILL1. The teacher presents the basic structure thatstudents need to practice;2. The teacher provides a cue word/expression tosubstitute in a slot;3. The teacher models the sentence;4. Students say the new sentence, in chorus,keeping the same pattern;6. After 2 or 3 choral repetitions, T colIectsindividual repetitions;
SUBSTITUTION DRILLExample:T: What’s your *name+? Stds repeat.T: last name. (mime “hold on”)T: What’s your *last name+? Stds repeat.T: jobStds: What’s your *job+?
QUESTION & ANSWER DRILL1. Teacher asks a question;2. Student answers the question.3. Teacher asks stds to repeat either the question or the answer (depending on the focus of the drill) in chorus.E.g. T: What time is it? [on the board - 5:30] T: It’s half past five. (Student repeats) Stds: It’s half past five.
DRILLS Transformation drillStudent transforms sentence by making it negative orinterrogative, switching from singular into plural or bychanging tense, mood, voice, aspect or modality. Open Pair drillStudent A or group A asks Student B or group B aquestion, considering a prompt given by the teacher.E.g. T: happy. A: Are you happy? (Stds repeat) B: B’s reply. (yes, I am./No, I’m not.)
CHAIN DRILL1. Student A asks Student B a question;2. Student B answers the question;3. Student B asks Student C a question;4. Student C answers the question;5. The same procedure is repeated until all students take part in the activity.6. Correction permeates the activity, if necessary.
References• Tice, J. Teaching English, British Council, 2004.http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/articles/drilling-1• Anders Ericsson, K. Krampe, R. and Tesch-Romer, C. The Role ofDeliberate Practice in the Acquisition of ExpertPerformance. Psychological Review 1993, Vol. 100. No. 3, 363-406• Mayer, R. E. Learning and Instruction. Upper Saddle River, NewJersey: Pearson Education, Inc. 2008.www.learningfactory.net email@example.com