Air Capture & Carbon Negative Technology - Graciela Chichilnisky (October 17, 2012 @ Cambridge University)


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Air Capture & Carbon Negative Technology - Economics & Engineering - Graciela Chichilnisky (October 17, 2012 @ Cambridge University)

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  • The main message of my presentation is that one cannot have sustainability without us hunans Closing the Carbon Cycle , by which is meant the carbon in our fuel comes from the air just as the carbon for the energy of life comes from the air. This promotes sustainability because there is no net impact on the planets carbon balance , the input to energy being the air is more equitably distributed promoting energy security and economic development. The green power fund can provide the market stimulus to trigger this virtuous cycle.
  • Snapshot of carbon cycle Note positve input of humans of 6 gigatonnes of carbon about 24 gigatonnes of co2 Note large fluxes of co2 between the land and air and the sea and air – natural balance today is to reduce co2 –global cooling period Note today 3-2 gigatonnes of our contribution adsorbed by rest of system that will change over time could aggravate problem grealty –would effecively double the rate of increase- nature changes the balance on its own and destructively so But even in this fortunate situation our current approach will not work
  • Point out –three virtous feedbacks A human system that mimics the natural carbon cycle would have the attributes listed
  • Too small Maybe bullet or two
  • Bathtub explanation –will not solve climate problem or address underlying energy security and economic development components of sustainability
  • What are the options? What are the useful products and fuels we can create
  • Tech pathways to harvest atmosphere—create value in closed loop
  • Compare to other slide show
  • Remove 20:1
  • Use shorter titles and then have lead in statements
  • Air Capture & Carbon Negative Technology - Graciela Chichilnisky (October 17, 2012 @ Cambridge University)

    1. 1. Air Capture &Carbon Negative Technology™ Economics & Engineering Graciela Chichilnisky -- Columbia University and Global Thermostat – Cambridge University October 17 2012
    2. 2. A Human Dominated WorldHuman Beings are today the largest geologicalforce in the planetWe are changing the planet’s atmosphere, itsbody of waters, and the complex web of speciesthat makes life on earth Climate Change?
    3. 3. The AnthropoceneThe change we are producing will be read in rock formationsfor thousands of yearsGeologists define a new geological era - the ‘Anthropocene’ –follows the Holocene – starting 1945 The Bretton Woods Institutions after WWII led to Globalization of Western Economics
    4. 4. Global Risks• Climate Change• Biodiversity Extinction• Clean Water scarcity• Life in the Seas going extinct Avoiding Extinction
    5. 5. Are Humans Next?• Need Action Now• Waited too long• Industrial economies 20% of world population cause most of world’s C02 emissions – the North Energy from fossil fuels 45% of global emissions $55 Trillion Infrastructure 89% based on fossil fuels (IEA) Clean Energy is the Only Solution
    6. 6. Sources: Earthtrends Database of the WorldResource Institute (WRI) Columbia Consortium for Risk Management (CCRM) 6
    7. 7. The North and the South• Since 2000, developing nations that did not yet complete their industrialization are the engine of growth of the world economy – the SouthDeveloping nations are for the first time the largest growth sector in the world economy – largest emitters in the future?• Creation of G-20 in 2009: Advocating Sustainable Development
    8. 8. GDP and Carbon EmissionsSource: World Bank (2009) and UN MillenniumDevelopment Goals Database (2009) Columbia Consortium for Risk Management (CCRM) 8
    9. 9. GDP and Carbon EmissionsSource: World Bank (2009) and UN MillenniumDevelopment Goals Database (2009) Columbia Consortium for Risk Management (CCRM) 9
    10. 10. Present & Future Energy Demand• 15 TW: Current use• Double global use by 2030• 10 fold increase by end of XXI Century (IEA) The World Needs More Energy Today Energy = CO2 Emissions
    11. 11. Sustainable Economics2009 The newly created G-20 requireschange: a Sustainable World Economy How to do it
    12. 12. Changes Articulated by the United NationsKyoto Protocol
    13. 13. The Kyoto Protocol Carbon MarketInternational Law since 2005Compulsory Carbon Markets now exist in 4 continents:EU ETS, Japan, Australia & California USA
    14. 14. December 2011: Kyoto Protocol extended 3 years in Durban COP 17• Existing KP limits valid until 2015• New global emission limits pledged for 2020
    15. 15. The Carbon Market - by its author -• What is it?• What it is not
    16. 16. Emission Limits are the basis of Carbon Market How does it Work Carbon Makes Clean Energy CARBON CHANGES THE Dirty pays profitable PRICES ARE $25/TON ENTIREclean – ZERO Dirty Energy THE Missing EMITTED GLOBALoverall costs expensive and Signal ECONOMY Undesirable
    17. 17. The Missing Signal• If we destroy all trees & make toilet paper our economy improves – why?• Because Toilet Paper has Market Value & Trees do not. We lack Market Prices New Market prices = New Values New costs and New benefits The Carbon Market Provides the Missing Signal• 1997: KP Placed Limits on industrial emissions• 2005: KP Carbon Market International Law
    18. 18. New Markets• SO2 market in CBOT – successful & 20 years old• New markets for water and for biodiversity• (Chichilnisky (1992, 1996, 2000, 2002, 2009, 2010, 2011)
    19. 19. The Carbon Market• Trades $215 Bn/year EU ETS• Reduced 37% EU emissions• CDM transferred $50 Bn for clean energy projects in poor nations• Changes US$55 Trillion energy infrastructure
    20. 20. Carbon Market Links to Global Economy Everything is made with energy Economic growth = Energy Use Link to EnergyCarbon Market provides Missing Signal New Market Prices = New Values
    21. 21. FOCUS of Carbon Market• Capping Emissions• We can’t get there without emissions reductions Markets for trading a Global Public Good: Compensates bringing down Atmospheric CO2 Creating Equity and EfficiencyClosing the Carbon Cycle
    22. 22. Where are We?What comes Next?
    23. 23. What to do?• Changing International Law• Changing Economics We may just have to do it• For the survival of our Species
    24. 24. Change International Law Basic Needs• 1974 This author created Basic Needs within the Bariloche Model of the World Economy• 1002 The new concept of Basic Needs becomes the basis of Sustainable Development and is voted by 150 nations at UN Earth Summit in Rio Brazil• 2009 G-20 adopts Sustainable Development Sustainable Development
    25. 25. Change International Law The Carbon Market• 1997 The Carbon Market - designed and written by the author into the UN Kyoto Protocol - international law since 2005• Since 2005 Productive clean CDM transfers to developing nations $50 Bn• 2012 EU ETS Trades $215 Bn/year, decreased 37% EU emissions since it became law• Makes profitable the use of clean energy for the production of all goods and services• Changes the energy foundation of the Global Economy• China ratified the Kyoto Protocol and since 2005 leads the World in Solar and Wind markets• US did not and we are left behind in clean technology
    26. 26. Change International Law The Green Power Fund• 1997 Sustainable Development requires Carbon Negative Technology™• $200Bn/year private public Green Power Fund to support Sustainable Development in the short and the long term – and change the global energy industry• Uses Kyoto Protocol and its Carbon Market to fund Carbon Negative Power Plants - in LA. Africa & 43 Small Island States• 2009 GPF Created by the author in Copenhagen COP 15• 2011 Partially approved as the $200 Bn/year Green Climate Fund in Durban COP17 December 2011
    27. 27. New types of Markets = New GDP• Market economics can be made consistent with sustainable goals• But markets themselves must change • Individualistic markets must evolve into new types of markets that I postulated - markets for the global commons – which incorporate connections between people and value Valuing the Global Commons • They are slowly emerging due to new scarcities: carbon market I created within the Kyoto Protocol, international law since 2005 trading $200Bn/year; SO2 markets in CBOT, new markets for water and for biodiversity - Chichilnisky 1992, 1996, 2000, 2002, 2009, 2010, 2011, Chichilnisky Heal and Starrett 1994, Chichilnisky & Heal 2000New Global Markets value privately produced public goods: the Global Commons
    28. 28. Green Capitalism in the 21st Century • The basis exists: international law and new economics • Theoretically and in practice • New markets for the global commons, new growth theory, new cost benefit analysis and new GDP measures, new international law • New international law – self-funded and creating economic value (Kyoto Protocol)
    29. 29. The Global Commons New Economics From maximizing profits to economic progressthat ensures survival of our species
    30. 30. Technology Urgently Needed• To Reduce Carbon from the Atmosphere• In a Profitable Way The Word needs Energy CLEAN ENERGY FOR DEVELOPING NATIONS
    31. 31. Why Carbon Negative Technology™ Carbon Neutral is not enough Reducing CO2 Concentrations in • Neutralizing emissions does not prevent the Atmosphere CO2 Parts per Million (PPM) 800 further increases in atmospheric CO2 700 • Even the most aggressive efficiency Business as Usual improvements and renewables adoption 600 are unlikely to keep CO2 concentration at 500 Constant Growth the generally agreed 450ppm to avoid 400 catastrophic climate risk Wedges 300 Approach / Negative Carbon is the solution1 200 Stabilization Global Thermostat • Air capture enables direct and rapid 100 reduction of CO2 concentration 0 Hazardous Level 450 ppm • GT allows for the capture of even more CO2 than we are loading into the atmosphere or that the earth’s systems can absorb – Negative Carbon GT’s technology directly reduces1 United Nations Headquarters, New York, November 12, 2009. Presentation by G.Chichilnisky on "The Rising Tide at Copenhagen: carbon concentration in the air,A Win-Win Solution for Industrialized and Developing Nations“ making carbon negative possible Global Thermostat Company Confidential Page 31
    32. 32. Engineering:Closing the Carbon Cycle for Sustainability A Key Strategy for Environmental Protection, Energy Security, and Economic Development
    33. 33. Global Thermostat• GT creates Carbon Negative Power Plants™• More Energy for Development• While Cleaning the Atmosphere• GT Transforms the worse emitters – the fossil power plants - into carbon sinks• GT technology makes solar plants more profitable and even faster carbon sinks
    34. 34. Closing the Carbon Cycle™• GT Technology Captures Carbon from Air• Inexpensive: Uses Low Process Heat• Cogenerates Power Production with Carbon Capture• With GT the More Power is Produced – the More Carbon is Reduced• Makes Coal Plants Carbon Negative• Makes Solar Power Plants even more Carbon Negative
    35. 35. Markets for Captured CO2 Storage Enhanced Oil Algae-Based Recovery* Biofuels* *EOR and Algae-based biofuels represent most significant opportunities for commercial applications of CO2 captured using GT’s technology Hydrogen- Products Based Fuels cement, fertilizer, plastic s, greenhousesGlobal Thermostat Company Confidential Page 35
    36. 36. Global Thermostat:Captures CO2 from AirTransforms CO2 from a Global ThreatInto A Massive Profit OpportunityBenefits the Environmentglobalthermostat Company Confidential 2
    37. 37. Global Thermostat:Transforms Energy and Fuel MarketsEnables National Security& Economic DevelopmentTurns CO2 from a global liabilityand pollutant into a profit centerand source of clean fuelClosing the Carbon CycleSMglobalthermostat Company Confidential 3
    38. 38. Leadership Team Graciela • World leading economist, entrepreneur, inventor, & executive Key Advisors Chichilnisky • Founder CEO of FITEL & Cross Border Exchange, financial technology Ed Hotard companies Former COO, Praxair Managing • Authored carbon market of Kyoto Protocol (EU ETS), and formal theory of Director Sustainable Development Eric (Ric) Redman President, Summit Power • PhDs (2) in Mathematics and in Economics, MIT and UC Berkeley • Tenured Professor Columbia University, previously Harvard & Stanford Ron Chance Emeritus Science Advisor, Exxon Rocco Fiato Accelergy, Exxon Richard Kauffman CEO, Energies Peter • Leading physicist, R&D energy executive - 20 year career as head of R&D Eisenberger at Bell Labs and Director Nicholas Eisenberger • EXXON Global R&D, Vice Provost Columbia University Pure Energy Partners Managing • Expertise in innovation around CO2 - renewable gasoline, chemicals, Ben Bronfman Director materials Global Thermostat • Founding Director Princeton University Materials Institute • Founding Director Columbia University Earth Institute Chris Jones Georgia Tech Roger Cohen Ex-Exxon Edgar • Chairman, Endeavor Global Bronfman, Jr. • General Partner, Accretive LLC Michael Fleisher • Former President and CEO of the Seagram Company Bain, Gartner Chairman • Former Chairman and CEO, Warner Music Group Eric Redman • Recently and successfully sold Warner for $3.3 billion President, Summit Power Sasha Mackler Summit Powerglobalthermostat Company Confidential 11
    39. 39. CO2 Management and Commercialization39
    40. 40. GT Pilot at SRI - October 1, 2010 – Commercial Demonstration Fall 2012globalthermostat Company Confidential 16
    41. 41. September 2012First Commercial Demonstration Plant at SRICommenced March 2012 - TRL 9 expected Fall 2012Uses heat from SRI Co-gen Power PlantGT Tandem + Carburetor lowest cost embodiment fullintegration Cost Breakthrough Powered by low-cost, process heat from SRI Co-gen Plant Eliminates transportation costs Modular Design 5,000-1,000,000 tons CO2/year Locates anywhere with 100 C heat source Flexible Integration Into Legacy or New Industrial Facilities Carbon Negative Solution Captures more CO2 from SRI fossil fuel Co-gen power plants than is emitted by plantGlobal Thermostat Company Confidential
    42. 42. Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL 42
    43. 43. Closing the Carbon CycleYou need to know where you are going to get there… • Sustainability Requires Humans Close the Carbon Cycle – Climate Sustainability – Energy Security – Economic Development • A Human System that Closes The Carbon Cycle – Flexibility in location of sources and sinks – Connectivity between different components – Serve both todays fossil fuel and tomorrows renewables – Consistent with existing infrastructure – Provide net carbon negative technologies to offset carbon emitters – Value carbon so as to support positive feedbacks – New types of cooperation between countries and companies Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL 43
    44. 44. Current Approaches to Climate Change“Wedges” approach a good start… – Sensible, diversified strategy based on existing pathways – Portfolio of renewable energy and efficiency technologies – Potential to keep CO2 below 500ppm (still 2x pre-indust. level)But may not be enough to avoid climate change… – Depends on continued net natural absorption rate – Does not address 2000’s already elevated emissions – Underestimates projected growth rate by factor of two – No solution past 2055Climate will change destructively on its own – Earth history has many climate disasters – New York City under a 1 mile high ice sheet A safe, effective, and affordable solution to climate change is still urgently needed Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL 44
    45. 45. Emissions Scenarios… Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL 45
    46. 46. Future Atmospheric Concentrations… Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL 46
    47. 47. What Carbon Negative Can Achieve… Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL 47
    48. 48. The Cost of Atmospheric CO2… Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL 48
    49. 49. The Need for Going Carbon Negative…Carbon Neutral is not enough Business as usual – Neutralizing new and existing emissions does not prevent atmospheric concentration of CO2 from further increasing – It doesn’t solve the climate risk problem (reducing atmospheric concentrations below 500 ppm) 7 Wedges (aggressive renewable energyCarbon-Negative Required use, efficiency, point- source sequestration) – To reduce atmospheric concentrations faster than the natural Negative Carbon absorption rate Technology (such as Global – To achieve a safe level of CO2 Thermostat) with concentration aggressive renewable energy Air Capture Can Make Going Carbon Negative Possible Pacala and Socolow, Science, Vol 305, 8/13/2004, Pg 969. Note: 7 Wedges refers to the seven stabilization wedges, created by Wigley, Richels & Edmonds, necessary to achieve an atmospheric concentration of CO2 of 500 ppm by 2125. Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL 49
    51. 51. Renewable 95: Closing the Carbon Cycle CONVERTING CO2 FROM AIR & HYDROGEN FROM WATER TO 95 OCTANE GASOLINE Water Vapor and CO2 CO2 Capture &Hydrogen Conversion 95 Octane Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL 51
    52. 52. GT Project with Algae Systems GT is developing a fully-integrated biorefinery through a partnership with Algae Systems • Produces carbon negative transportation fuels (diesel, jet, etc) • Treats municipal wastewater and produces drinking water • Generates green electricity and biochar fertilizers CO2 Fuels, Algae Fuel Solar Dewatering Electricity & Production ProductionEnergy Biochar Waste water Treated Drinking Desalination Wastewater Water This unique combination of technologies provides critical municipal services while producing energy in an embodiment that is As Green As It Gets Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL 52
    53. 53. Geothermal Electricity + CO2Collaboration with Green Fire Energy – Uses CO2 instead of water – 10-20% of circulating CO2 sequesteredUsing CO2 captured by Global Thermostat – Location flexibility of air capture – Economic advantage of locating near use – Increased geothermal locations accessibleProduces Carbon Negative electricity Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL Page 53
    55. 55. Global ThermostatOur goal is to provide technology to: ̶ Facilitate the transition to a renewable future • Our Carburetor Technology to Clean Fossil Fuel Sources ̶ Provide carbon for the renewable energy future • Our Direct Air Capture Technology to Close the Carbon Cycle ̶ Provide a common technology platform • Connects air and concentrated CO2 sources ̶ Make money by doing goodWe seek and welcome partners̶ They have already been essential to our effortsWe are committed to broad dissemination̶ Licensing model Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL 55
    56. 56. How GT Technology Works “GT CARBON SPONGE” Patented Carbon Sponge: porous block coated with proprietary amine sorbents Ambient air and/or flue gas goes through and binds to sorbent Carbon Sponge lowers into sealed chamber Low temperature process heat releases pure CO2 gas for collectionPipes to oil well, algae, etc. And the cycle restarts… Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL 56 56
    57. 57. Technology Operation Ambient air OR Monolith Step 1Air-flue gas blend Contactors + Air Input Sorbent GT Module “Cartridge” • GT uses Corning Adsorption monolith contactors Phase similar to those in your cars tailpipe • Contactors provide high surface contact areas at low Regeneration pressure drop Phase • Enables movement of large volumes of air with effective contact of CO2 at low cost • 40 minute cycle Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL 57 57
    58. 58. Technology Operation Ambient air OR Monolith Step 2Air-flue gas blend Contactors + CO2 Capture Sorbent GT Module “Cartridge” • GT sorbents proven Adsorption highly effective by Phase Georgia Tech - confirmed by SRI, BASF, and NETL • BASF process to deposit immobilized Regeneration amines in pores of the Phase contactor walls at high loading • Dramatically reduces heat required compared to liquid Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL based CCS 58 58
    59. 59. Technology Operation Monolith Step 3 Contactors + Regeneration Sorbent GT Module “Cartridge” • CO2-rich sorbent is Adsorption heated with low- Phase temperature process heat (90-105C) steam • CO2 is collected and sorbent is regenerated Regeneration • CO2 can be stored or Phase used in multiple commercial applications • 4 - 10 minute cycle 105C Steam CO2 Collection Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL 59 59
    60. 60. Closing the Carbon Cycle is KeyFor Sustainable Carbon-Based Life: Close the Carbon Cycle…Need Direct Air Capture̶ Carbon for a sustainable renewable energy future̶ Flexibility to provide sources and sinksNeed Negative Carbon̶ Climate SecurityNeed Carburetor for transition̶ Short term carbon free products̶ Long term carbon negative productsNeed a Green Energy Fund̶ Global Economic Sustainability Global Thermostat - CONFIDENTIAL Page 60
    61. 61. The Global Thermostat Carbon dioxide concentration decreasing ENERGYAtmosphere 800
    62. 62. ContactGraciela ChichilniskyCo-Founder and Managing Directorchichilnisky1@gmail.comPeter EisenbergerCo-Founder and Managing Directorpeter.eisenberger@gmail.comGlobal Thermostat Confidential 62
    63. 63. A Game Changing Company Transforms Energy and Fuel Markets Enables National Security & Economic Development Turns CO2 from a global liability and pollutant into a profit center & source of clean fuel Closing the Carbon CycleSMGlobal Thermostat Company Confidential Page 8