There are many methods for measuring body fat. The skinfold measurement is relatively simple but it requires a skilled technician for accurate readings. The usual sites of measurement include the chest, abdomen, and thigh for men and the tricep, hip, and thigh for women. Other methods include hydrostatic weighing. skinfold caliper technique. dual-energy X ray absorptiometry (DXA). bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA).
What Is Nutrition? -The study of how your body uses the food that you eat.
What is a Nutrient A nutrient is a chemical substance in food that helps maintain the body. Some provide energy. All help build cells and tissues, regulate bodily processes such as breathing. No single food supplies all the nutrients the body needs to function.
Build a Healthy Base 3. Let the pyramid guide your choices 4. Choose a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains 5. Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables daily. 6. Keep food safe to eat.
Choose Sensibly 7. Choose a diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol and moderate in total fat 8. Choose beverages and foods to moderate your intake of sugars 9. Choose and prepare food with less salt 10. If you drink alcoholic beverages do so in moderation
Energy Values of Foods & Nutrients; Obesity; Rules for Achieving Desirable Weight Chapter 1
Is the minimum amount of energy required to maintain vital functions in an organism at complete rest, measured by the basal metabolic rate in a fasting individual who is awake and resting in a comfortably warm environment.
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) – is the rate at which energy is used by an organism at complete rest, measured in humans by the heat given off per unit time, and expressed as the calories released per kilogram of body weight or per square meter of body surface per hour.
Body mass index (BMI) is a mathematical ratio which is calculated as weight (kg)/ height squared (m 2 ). It is used to describe an individuals relative weight for height, and is significantly correlated with total body fat content. BMI is intended for those 20 years of age and older.
With a BMI of: You are considered: Below 18.5 Underweight 18.5 - 24.9 Healthy Weight 25.0 - 29.9 Overweight 30 or higher Obese
Mortality and Morbidity Associated with Obesity
The effects of excess weight on mortality and morbidity have been recognized for more than 2,000 years. It was Hippocrates who recognized that “sudden death is more common in those who are naturally fat than in the lean.”
Today, obesity is increasing rapidly. Research shows that many factors related to obesity influence mortality and morbidity.
Mortality Weight, Fat Distribution, and Activity
The following factors have been shown to increase mortality in individuals:
The heart to get larger, which may lead to heart failure.
Small bulges ( aneurysms ) to form in blood vessels.
Blood vessels in the kidney to narrow, which may lead to kidney failure .
Arteries in the body to harden faster, especially those in the heart, brain, kidneys, and legs. This can cause a heart attack , stroke , kidney failure , or can lead to amputation of part of the extremities.
Blood vessels in the eye to burst or bleed. This may cause vision changes and can result in blindness .
Failure to find and treat HTN is serious, as untreated HTN can cause:
When the heart muscle is not receiving the amount of oxygen that it needs, one of two things can happen:
Angina This is the chest pain or discomfort that occurs when the heart is not getting enough blood. Heart attack This is what happens when a blood clot develops at the site of the plaque in a coronary artery. The result is a sudden blockage, which may block all or most of the blood supply to the heart muscle. Because cells in the heart muscle begin to die when they are not receiving adequate amount of oxygen, permanent damage to the heart muscle can occur if blood flow is not quickly restored.
Over time, CAD can weaken the heart muscle and contribute to:
2009 Heart Failure In this condition, the heart can’t pump blood effectively to the rest of the body. Heart failure does not mean that the heart has stopped nor does it mean that it is about to. It means that the heart is failing to pump blood the way that it should. Arrhythmias Arrhytmias are changes in the normal beating rhythm of the heart. They can be either faster or slower than normal. Some arrhythmias can be quite serious.
Obesity is associated with an increased risk for CAD.
Abdominal fat distribution is believed to be related as well.
Data from the Nurses Health Study illustrated that women in the lowest BMI but highest waist-to-hip circumference ratio had a greater risk of heart attack than those in the highest BMI but lowest waist-to-hip circumference ratio.
Regional fat distribution appears to have a greater effect on CAD risk than BMI alone.
Gastrointestinal Disorders Associated with Obesity
Obese individuals are at greater risk of developing these gastrointestinal disorders:
Colorectal cancer is a term used to refer to cancer that develops in the colon or the rectum.
The colon (a.k.a. the large intestine) is about 5 feet long and its role in the digestive system is to continue to absorb water and mineral nutrients from food. Once this process of absorption is complete, waste matter (feces) remains.
The rectum is the final 6 inches of the digestive system. Feces are passed from the large intestine to the rectum, to exit the body through the anus.
Cholelithiasis is the primary hepatobiliary pathology associated with overweight.
Cholelithiasis is a condition characterized by the presence or formation of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts.
Normally, a balance of bile salts, lecithin, and cholesterol keep gallstones from forming. However, if there are abnormally high levels of bile salts or, more commonly, cholesterol, then stones can form.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is strongly associated with overweight and obesity in both genders and in all ethnic groups .
The risk for Type 2 DM increases with the degree and duration of overweight in individuals.
The risk for Type 2 DM also increases in individuals with a more central distribution of body fat (abdominal).
Obesity and Type 2 DM In the United States Among people diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, 55 percent have a BMI ≥ 30 (classified as obese), 30 percent have a BMI ≥ 25 or ≤30 (classified as overweight), and only 15 percent have a BMI ≤ 25 (classified as normal weight). 15% 30% 55%
The 300 billion cells of the liver control a process known as metabolism. During metabolism, the liver breaks down nutrients into usable products. These products are then delivered to the rest of the body through the bloodstream.
The liver also metabolizes toxins into byproducts that can be safely eliminated.
The liver also produces many important substances, such as: albumin, bile, cholesterol, clotting factors, globin, and immune factors.
The liver is the largest organ in the body and it plays a vital role in performing many complex functions that are essential for life:
The incidence of OA is significantly increased in overweight individuals.
OA that develops in the knees and ankles is probably directly related to the trauma associated with the degree of excess body weight.
Osteoarthritis in other non-weight bearing joints suggests that there must be some component of the overweight syndrome responsible for altering cartilage and bone metabolism, independent of the actual stresses of body weight on joints.
Intentional weight loss has been consistently associated with improved quality of life.
Severely obese patients who lost 43 kg through gastric bypass demonstrated improved quality of life scores to such an extent that their post-weight loss scores were equal to or even better than population norms.
The following conditions have been found to be associated with obesity: These diseases have been found to be associated with increased metabolic activity (secretion) of fat cells in obesity These diseases have been found to be associated with increased fat mass