Ancient Babylon


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Ancient Babylon

  1. 1. Ancient Babylonia Grace Wang, Matt Millard, Rebecca Waldrop and Julia Gaffney
  2. 2. Babylonia Basics  ~ The Babylonian Empire lasted from the 18th century BC to the 6th century BC ~ There were between 10-15 cities with approximately 10,000 to 50,000 inhabitants (no one really knows for sure how many people really lived there) ~ The heartland of Ancient Babylonia was located between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers, in what is today Iraq ~ The height of the empire began in the 18th century and lasted to the 17th century (it was only a great power for about a hundred years at the very beginning)
  3. 3. Relationship to surrounding people ~ Hammurabi united many of the surrounding civilizations under Babylonian rule, including the Assyrians, the Akkadians, and the Sumerians ~ Babylonia also traded with Anatolia, Syria, and Palestine ~After Hammurabi united several kingdoms, the Babylonians adopted the Akkadian language for their official use, and the Sumerian language for religious purposes
  4. 4. Religion ~The Babylonian religion is polytheistic, similar to that of the Aztec or Greek religion. ~Architecture(Temples, ziggurats, gates) and art were dedicated to their many gods. ~Several religious cults through out the city with their own ways of worship, fought often. ~Their 1000 line epic creation story is one of the earliest creation stories in human history(predating the Old Testament). Religious Practices include: •Giving offerings of food and artifacts. Human sacrifices were possible as well. •Practices of healing magic, magic charms and divination. •People or families had individual gods for personal prayer. They could leave their god and worship a new one if they had bad luck with their last god. Gods include: •Marduk - King of Gods, God of the rising sun •Ea - God of wisdom •Shamash - God of justice, Sun God •Ishtar - God of love and war •Tiamat - Dragon goddess, slain by Marduk, corpse made into the Earth •Nabu - Son of Marduk
  5. 5. Babylonian Gods Marduk Tiamat Ishtar
  6. 6. Architecture  ~Though the city of Babylon stands today, it is in ruins compared to what it used to be. ~The most impressive parts of the city that stand today are the various temples and ziggurats, the multiple gates, most notibly the rebuilt Gate of Ishtar, the Processional Road, the largest and only paved road in the city, and the kings palace. ~The more famous examples of the city's architecture are the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and the Tower of Babel, but neither stand today and many debate their existence.
  7. 7. Art ~Most art were terra-cotta or stone carvings of gods, kings and animals. Were apparently glass makers, but no samples remain today. Their most notable contribution is the use of polychrome glazed bricks, which gave the bricks a shiny blue coating and protected them from damage for 1,000's of years.
  8. 8. Government ~The main form of government was a monarchy with one king ~The king used governors to maintain order and control over different provinces of the empire ~An effective tool used by the government was Hammurabi's Code, the first uniform code of laws which, reinforced class distinctions awilu, a free person of the upper class; mushkenu, a free person of low estate wardu, or slave ~Patriarchy authority was enforced by the code but women still had laws to protect them
  9. 9. Economic life and trade relations ~Babylon was a very prosperous city and empire ~Babylon traded surplus' of food and manufactured goods such as furniture and pottery ~In return they received goods from around the ancient world:       ~From the south they received cotton       ~They imported wood from Persia and India in the east       ~Babylon traded for wood from Syria in the north       ~They imported minerals such as gold, copper, and stone from Egypt, Sinai, and Yemen in the west
  10. 10. Other major achievements and facts ~The most famous innovation of ancient Babylonian culture was astronomy, which began as a study of astrology ~Created calendar which perfectly predicted eclipses ~Sexagesimal system for the calculation of time and angles, which is still practical because of the multiple divisibility of the number 60 ~Cuneiform on clay tablets revealed their knowledge of science, math, and literature. That Babylonians recorded on these tablets songs, prayers, and poems along with history and laws. ~The Babylonians performed complicated surgeries and had extensive knowledge on medicine. They even did operations of eyes
  11. 11. Archaeology in Babylonia ~Much of the western part of Babylon is under water because the Euphrates River has changed it's course over time, so excavation of much of the city is difficult to do. ~ Some prominent sites found in Babylon include:          ~Kasr (Castle/Palace): the burial place of Nebuchadnezzar          ~Amran Ibn Ali: the site of a temple of Marduk, also called Esagila, which contained shrines to the deities Nabu and Ea          ~Babil: site for a palace of Nebuchadnezzar's ~Archaeology in Babylon and other parts of Babylonia are still being excavated today but much of what we know about Ancient Babylonia is from archaeology, such as the layout of their cities, their knowledge of math, and the natural disasters that occurred.
  12. 12. SOURCES   Lendering, Jona. "Babylonian Empire". Livius: Articles on Ancient History. 02/24/2010 bd/babylon/babylonian_empire.html. Gappa, Andrew. "Babylonia". Emuseum. 02/24/2010 babylonians.html. Babylonian Empire." Livius. Articles on Ancient History. Web. 05 Mar. 2010. "Hammurabi's Code." Center for History and New Media. Web. 05 Mar. 2010. History World International. "A History of Babylon." Http:// History World International, 2004. Web. 6 Mar. 2010. Russell, Rusty. "Ancient Babylonia." Http:// Bible History Online. Web. 6 Mar. 2010.