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  • 1. COURSE SEMINAR ON ROLE OF ORGANIC AGRICULTIRE/FARMING Speaker SupervisorGovinda Raj Sedai Dr. S. K. Verma I.D. No. A 11019 Assistant lecturer DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES BANARAS HINDU UNIVERSITY VARANASI
  • 2. INTRODUCTIONThe definition of organic agriculture is a matter ofdebate in itself. It has no single definition of its own.However, all definitions agree that it implies theapplication of agronomic, biological and mechanicalmethods of production in place of the use of syntheticchemical inputs. Most definitions also incorporate theuse of several techniques not exclusive to organicagriculture, as they may be applied in conventional andlow-input production systems as well. These include, inparticular, “better land husbandry” techniques such assoil-conservation measures, crop rotation and the use ofgreen manure, instead of slashing and burning.
  • 3. Basic rules of Organic farming and Organic food production•no use of chemical fertilizers or syntheticdrugs•no use of genetically modified organisms•prevention from soil loss and erosion•promotion of ‘bio diversity’ – support arange of crops, not a single species
  • 4. Principles of Organic Agriculture•The principle of health•The principle of ecology•The principle of fairness•The principle of care
  • 5. Principles of healthOrganic Agriculture should sustain and enhance the health of soil, plant,animal, human and planet as one and indivisible.This principle points out that the health of individuals and communities cannotbe separated from the health of ecosystems - healthy soils produce healthy cropsthat foster the health of animals and people.Health is the wholeness and integrity of living systems. It is not simply theabsence of illness, but the maintenance of physical, mental, social and ecologicalwell-being. Immunity, resilience and regeneration are key characteristics ofhealth.The role of organic agriculture, whether in farming, processing, distribution, orconsumption, is to sustain and enhance the health of ecosystems and organismsfrom the smallest in the soil to human beings. In particular, organic agriculture isintended to produce high quality, nutritious food that contributes to preventivehealth care and well-being. In view of this, it should avoid the use of fertilizers,pesticides, animal drugs and food additives that may have adverse health effects.
  • 6. Principles of ecologyOrganic Agriculture should be based on living ecological systems and cycles, work withthem, emulate them and help sustain them.This principle roots organic agriculture within living ecological systems. It states thatproduction is to be based on ecological processes, and recycling. Nourishment and well-being are achieved through the ecology of the specific production environment. Forexample, in the case of crops this is the living soil; for animals it is the farm ecosystem; forfish and marine organisms, the aquatic environment.Organic farming, pastoral and wild harvest systems should fit the cycles and ecologicalbalances in nature. These cycles are universal but their operation is site-specific. Organicmanagement must be adapted to local conditions, ecology, culture and scale. Inputsshould be reduced by reuse, recycling and efficient management of materials and energyin order to maintain and improve environmental quality and conserve resources.Organic agriculture should attain ecological balance through the design of farmingsystems, establishment of habitats and maintenance of genetic and agricultural diversity.Those who produce, process, trade, or consume organic products should protect andbenefit the common environment including landscapes, climate, habitats, biodiversity, airand water.
  • 7. Principles of fairnessOrganic Agriculture should be managed in a precautionary and responsible manner toprotect the health and well-being of current and future generations and theenvironment.Organic agriculture is a living and dynamic system that responds to internal and externaldemands and conditions. Practitioners of organic agriculture can enhance efficiency andincrease productivity, but this should not be at the risk of jeopardizing health and well-being. Consequently, new technologies need to be assessed and existing methodsreviewed. Given the incomplete understanding of ecosystems and agriculture, care mustbe taken.This principle states that precaution and responsibility are the key concerns inmanagement, development and technology choices in organic agriculture. Science isnecessary to ensure that organic agriculture is healthy, safe and ecologically sound.However, scientific knowledge alone is not sufficient. Practical experience, accumulatedwisdom and traditional and indigenous knowledge offer valid solutions, tested by time.Organic agriculture should prevent significant risks by adopting appropriate technologiesand rejecting unpredictable ones, such as genetic engineering. Decisions should reflectthe values and needs of all who might be affected, through transparent and participatoryprocesses.
  • 8. Apart from these, basic principles should beclosely followed:•Sustaining and improvement of the soil•Realization of nutrient re-cycling (farm, village, region)•Intensive use of legumes/leguminous trees to provide nitrogen supply•Biological plant protection through prevention•Diversity of crop varieties and species grown•Site and species appropriate animal husbandry•Prohibition of Genetic Engineering and products thereof•Maintenance of the surrounding natural landscape (sustainable eco-agrosystems)•Least possible consumption of non-renewable energy and resources•Ban on synthetic, chemical fertilizers, plant protection, storage andripening means as well as hormones and synthetic growth regulators(also harmful processing aids in food processing).
  • 9. Organic Agriculture is not the solution toall problems in farming sector. I’mconfident that within this century all ofthe World’s agriculture will convert to“ORGANIC”. - Gunar Rund Gren President, IFOAM
  • 10. Ancient Period1. Oldest Practice 10000 years ago dating back to Neolithic age by ancient civilization like Mesopotamia, Hwang Ho basin etc.2. Ramayana All dead things returned to earth that in nourish soil and life3. Mahabharata 5500 B.C., Kamadhenu – the cow is role in human life and soil fertility4. Kautilya 300 B.C., several manures like oil cake andArthshastra excreta of animals5. Brihad Sanhita Methods of choosing manures for crops and manuring6. Rigveda 2500-1500 B.C., green manure, use of dung of goat, sheep, cow etc. 10
  • 11.  The organic movement was began in the 1930s and 1940s as a reaction to agriculture’s growing reliance on synthetic fertilizers. Sir Albert Howard is widely considered to be the father of Organic farming. Rudolf Steiner, a German philosopher, made influential strides in the earliest organic theory with his Biodynamic agriculture. J. I. Rodale worked in United States. Lady Eve Balfour in United Kingdom. 1980s - Increased Environmental Awareness. 1990s – Market for organic products has grown at a rapid pace averaging 20 – 25 percent / year. In 2002, the USDA under National Organic Program(NOP) regulated the commercial use of the term ORGANIC. 2007 – Approximately 306,000 Sq.Km(30.6 million hectares) are farmed Organically.
  • 12. S.N. Region Area (ha) % Organic Producers Europe 10637127.52 2.23 291451.00 1 Northern America 2790162.37 0.72 16659.00 2 Latin America 6857610.72 1.12 315889.00 3 Africa 1073656.65 0.12 4 540988.00 Asia 3706279.61 0.26 619439.00 5 Total 25064836.87 4.45 1784426.00
  • 13. 12000000.00 10637127.5210000000.00 8000000.00 6857610.72 Area (ha) 6000000.00 3706279.61 % Organic Producers 4000000.00 2790162.37 1073656.65 2000000.00 291451.00 16659.00 315889.00 540988.00 619439.00 1.12 0.26 2.23 0.12 0.72 0.00 Europe Northern America Latin America Africa Asia
  • 14. Sustainable aims Organic AgricultureEcological Social aims aims
  • 15. Organic Agriculture: • Economic security, • Economically viable, • Added value, • Low investment,Sustainability • Good and constant yields, aims • Make best use of local resources • Good working condition • Fair Trade, • food supply, • Satisfy local needs Social • Gender balance • Respect the local culture aims • Good taste and quality • Balance ecosystem • No chemical pollution • High soil fertility • Clean waterEcological • Biological diversity aims • Animal friendly husbandry • Conserve the natural resources • Safe products
  • 16. Material considered to be used in Organic farming• In-situ waste/product: – Farm yard manure and urine – Rotted litter of poultry birds – Vermicompost, – Plant residues, – Green manuring – Azolla, BGA, Rhizobium etc. – Organic compost from organic kitchen waste, – Residues of organic mushroom production, – Night soil, – Oil cake – Bio-dynymic mixture – Sheep/goat manure – Pig manure• Could be used after with analysis and care takes: – Bio fertilizer Rhizobium, Mycorrhiza etc. from external source – Saw dust, – Blood -meal, bone-meal – FYM, Compost , vermicompost from external sources,• Lesser than recommended doses – Limestone, – Grinded rock, – Magnesium – Bodo-mixture, bodo-pest and bodo-paint
  • 17. Material considered to be used/banded in Organic farmingS.N. Particulars Symbol Remarks 1 Chemical pesticides × Hazardous 2 Aromatic substances Problematic in environment balance 3 Traps - 4 Soft soap - 5 Micro-organism If imported from foreign used with special take care 6 Plant originated extract May cause bad impact in environment 7 Plant and animal originated fat & oils May cause bad impact in environment 8 Parasite and parasitoid insects May cause harmful effect on indigenous and native insects 9 Mineral oils May cause negative impact in environment 10 Sulfur May cause negative impact in environment 11 Mulching from natural sources - 12 Potassium per magnet May cause bad impact in environment 13 Bodo-mixture, bodo-pest and paint May cause negative impact in environment × - Banded/not to be used, - used with take care and - could be used
  • 18. Material considered to be used/banded in Organic farmingS.N. Country No. of farmers Percent in Total 1 Germany 10000 2 Austria 20000 3 Sweden 4 Finland 5 Switzerland 6 Denmark 7 Italy 18000 8 Uganda 7000 9 Mexico 100000 10 11 12 13
  • 19. Organic Agriculture:
  • 20. Integrated farming Integrated Integrated pest weed managementmanagement Organic farming Integrated Organic/ disease Biofertilizer management Crop rotation
  • 21. NEED OF ORGANIC FARMING
  • 22. Advantages Animals lead Soil structure happier lives is better Organic farming More birds and insects Less harmful to environment No harmful chemicals – healthier?
  • 23. Disadvantages More More blemishes on expensive crops Organic farming More farm Smaller yields workers needed
  • 24. Table 1. Chemical composition of organic manures FYM Green manure Composition 2007-08 2008-09 2007-08 2008-09 Rice wheat Rice wheat Rice wheat Rice wheatOrganic carbon (mg kg-1) 143000 138600 139800 140200 386000 460000 389000 481000Total N (mg kg-1) 4800 5000 4900 4900 24000 32000 27000 31500Total P (mg kg-1) 2300 2500 2500 2400 3700 3300 3900 3000Total K (mg kg-1) 4900 5200 5100 5000 208000 23000 21900 22800Fe (mg kg-1) 20.85 22.35 21.9 22 74.6 83.2 77.2 80.3Zn (mg kg-1) 10.6 11.7 12.05 11.9 34.2 36.4 34.8 33.7Mn (mg kg-1) 38.9 39.6 39.95 40.1 88.2 96.2 90.4 94.8Cu (mg kg-1) 2.6 2.7 2.79 2.83 8.5 9.2 8.7 8.8C:N ratio 29.8 27.7 28.5 28.6 16.1 14.4 14.4 15.3 Source: Moolam Ram et al. 2011
  • 25. Table 1. Biodiversity on organic farms (global literature review of comparisonstudies) Taxon Positive Negative No differenceBirds 7 2Mammals 2Butterflies 1 1Spiders 7 3Earthworms 7 2 4Beetles 13 5 3Other arthropods 7 1 2Plants 13 2Soil microbes 9 8Total 66 8 25 Hole et al., 2005
  • 26. Table 2. Some projection on the availability of organic resources for agriculture in Indiaduring 2010-2025 Resources 2010 2025 Generator Human population (million) 1120 1300 Livestock population (million) 537 596 Food grain production (million t) 264 315 Human excreta (dry) (million t) 18.5 21.5 Livestock dung (sun dry) (million t) 396 426 Crop residue (million t) 343 496 Resources (considered tappable) Human excreta 15 17 Livestock excreta 119 128 Crop residue excreta 112 162 Resources (considered potental) Human excreta (million t N + P2O5 + K2O) 2.24 2.60 Livestock excreta (million t N + P2O5 + K2O) 7.00 7.54 Crop residue excreta (million t N + P2O5 + K2O) 7.10 20.27 Nutrient( considered tappable) (30% dung, 80% excreta and 33% of crop residue) Human excreta (million t N + P2O5 + K2O) 1.80 2.10 Livestock excreta (million t N + P2O5 + K2O) 2.10 2.26 Crop residue excreta (million t N + P2O5 + K2O) 2.34 3.39 Total 6.24 7.75 Source: Tandon 1997
  • 27. Table 3. Effect of nutrient combinations and mode of application N, P and K uptake in rice N uptake (kg ha-1) P uptake (kg ha-1) K uptake (kg ha-1) Treatments 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 Nutrient combination (N) Control 47.4 47.1 7.5 7.2 69.6 68.7 Farm Yard Manure (FYM) 68.3 74.6 10.6 11.8 92.9 99.1 Green manure (GM) 76.0 84.9 11.8 13.3 99.8 108.0 GM + Biofertilizer (B) 83.7 90.2 13.0 14.0 106.3 112.6 GM + FYM 95.8 103.8 14.7 15.9 115.7 120.7 GM + FYM + B 105.4 112.5 16.2 17.2 124.9 12805 Control Vs others SEd± 5.51 4.81 0.86 0.74 5.29 6.10 CD (P=0.05) 11.25 9.83 1.75 1.51 10.80 12.45 Between others SEm± 2.74 2.41 0.43 0.37 2.64 3.05 CD (P=0.05) 7.95 6.95 1.24 1.07 7.63 8.81 Mode of application (M) Direct effect 82.7 93.8 12.6 14.3 102.9 111.2 Residual effect 69.7 75.5 10.9 11.8 93.3 98.1 Cumulative effect 105.0 110.3 16.3 17.2 127.5 132.1 SEm± 2.13 1.8 0.33 0.29 2.05 2.36 CD (P=0.05) 6.16 5.38 0.96 0.83 5.91 6.82 N×M SEm± 4.77 4.17 0.74 0.64 4.58 5.28 CD (P=0.05) NS NS NS NS NS NS Source: Moolam Ram et al. 2011
  • 28. Table 4. Effect of nutrient combinations and mode of application innutrient concentration in Basmati rice grain N, P, K concentration (%) Micro-nutrient concentration (%) Treatments N P K Fe Mn Zn Cu 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008Nutrient combination (N)Control 1.2 1.18 0.206 0.205 0.212 0.211 34.110 33.770 33.010 33.02 32.65 32.27 13.7 12.97Farm Yard Manure (FYM) 1.29 1.31 0.229 0.236 0.246 0.249 35.610 35.870 34.560 35.08 34.15 34.43 14.1 14.59Green manure (GM) 1.32 1.35 0.237 0.244 0.251 0.256 35.800 36.290 34.770 35.34 34.34 34.68 14.1 14.64GM + Biofertilizer (B) 1.34 1.36 0.239 0.245 0.253 0.258 35.850 36.440 34.860 35.43 34.39 34.71 14.2 14.69GM + FYM 1.37 1.39 0.247 0.253 0.259 0.266 36.330 37.020 35.730 36.37 35.09 35.25 14.2 14.84GM + FYM + B 1.39 1.4 0.250 0.255 0.262 0.267 36.320 37.220 35.980 36.6 35.13 35.43 14.3 14.93Control Vs othersSEd± 0.062 0.027 0.010 0.008 0.007 0.006 0.480 0.230 0.290 0.19 0.64 0.55 0.11 0.16CD (P=0.05) 0.126 0.056 0.021 0.017 0.014 0.013 0.990 0.460 0.600 0.39 1.32 1.11 0.22 0.33Between othersSEm± 0.031 0.014 0.01 0.004 0 0.003 0.240 0.11 0.15 0.1 0.32 0.27 0.05 0.08CD (P=0.05) 0.089 0.039 0.015 0.012 0.010 0.009 0.700 0.330 0.420 0.27 0.93 0.79 0.15 0.23Mode of application (M)Direct effect 1.34 1.36 0.237 0.24 0.25 0.26 35.87 36.22 35.51 35.99 34.55 34.83 14.2 14.78Residual effect 1.3 1.33 0.23 0.24 0.25 0.25 35.49 35.55 33.31 34.33 34.1 34.41 14.1 14.56Cumulative effect 1.39 1.40 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.27 36.51 37.94 36.73 36.98 35.11 35.46 14.2 14.88SEm± 0.024 0.011 0 0.003 0.003 0.002 0.190 0.090 0.110 0.07 0.25 0.21 0.04 0.06CD (P=0.05) 0.069 0.030 0.01 0.009 0.008 0.007 0.540 0.250 0.330 0.21 0.72 0.61 0.12 0.18 Source: Moolam Ram et al. 2011
  • 29. Table 5. Effect of nutrient combinations and mode of application oneconomy of cultivation of Basmati rice Gross Return cost of cultivation Net return B:C ratio Treatment (×103 Rs. Ha-1) (×103 Rs. Ha-1) (×103 Rs. Ha-1) 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 Nutrient combination (N) Control 49.64 49.85 20.090 21.040 29.550 28.810 1.500 1.400 Farm Yard Manure (FYM) 66.86 72.67 25.770 27.060 41.090 45.620 1.600 1.700 Green manure (GM) 71.66 78.98 22.410 23.460 49.250 55.520 2.200 2.400 GM + Biofertilizer (B) 79.54 83.47 22.520 23.570 57.020 59.890 2.500 2.500 GM + FYM 87.65 93.07 41.490 43.510 46.170 49.560 1.100 1.100 GM + FYM + B 95.79 100.16 41.600 43.620 54.190 56.550 1.300 1.300 Control Vs others SEd± 5.710 3.550 5.710 3.550 0.320 0.150 CD (P=0.05) 11.660 7.250 11.660 7.250 0.660 0.300 Between others SEm± 2.860 1.780 2.860 1.780 0.160 0.070 CD (P=0.05) 8.250 5.130 8.25 5.130 0.470 0.21 Mode of application (M) Direct effect 77.76 86.74 36.090 36.09 41.67 48.89 1.2 1.3 Residual effect 67.34 71.40 20.09 20.09 47.250 50.36 2.4 2.4 Cumulative effect 95.8 98.88 36.85 36.09 59.71 61.03 1.7 1.6 SEm± 2.210 1.380 2.210 1.380 0.13 0.060 CD (P=0.05) 6.390 3.970 6.390 3.970 0.36 0.160 N×M SEm± 4.95 3.080 4.950 3.08 0.280 0.130 CD (P=0.05) NS 8.88 NS 8.880 0.810 0.36 Source: Moolam Ram et al. 2011
  • 30. Certification A procedure by which a third party gives written assurance that a product, process or services is in conformity with certain standards.• Certification Body• Inspector• Operator (farmers. Processor and applicant)
  • 31. Certification Process:Steps of certification process• Request for Certification,• Applicant’s screening from Certification Body and send forms for applicant,• Applicant’s fill up form and prepare all document and return to Certification Body,• CB assess potential eligibility (Again screening),• CB assigns organic inspector for site visit,• Onsite visit report to CB,• Review on report and takes decision,• CB notifies applicant• Certification (Yes or No)• Annual certification renewal
  • 32. Conclusion: Organic farming intensifies farm-internal processes like biological activities, recycling of livestock and crop waste, enhanced biodiversity as well as nitrogen fixation and improve phosphorus availability by symbiosis. Organic farming is relevant mitigation and adoption option for climate change. Organic farming is viable solution for smallholder farmers in developing countries. Organic farming build up soil health and conserves soil water and organic matter.
  • 33. • The world currently produces double the amount of food required to feed everyone; still around 1 billion people suffer from hunger, and another billion are malnourished• The problem of hunger is mostly due to poor distribution systems and inadequate production in the poorest communities• 50% of the world’s hungry are in fact small holder farmers, who suffer from lack of extension services and access to resources, unjust trade conditions, erosion of their agricultural biodiversity and climate change• Much greater support of small holder producers is required, as they produce 70% of the world’s food. Strengthening small holder farmers is the key to increasing access to food and food security• A United Nations study has found that organic agriculture increased yields in Africa by over 100% and that organic systems have higher yields under conditions of climatic extremes• Organic systems are highly suitable for increasing productivity of traditional small holder and subsistence systems• Greater investment in research and extension of affordable, and resilient organic systems for small holder farmers is required
  • 34. Conclusion: The government of India seems to be committed for promoting organic farming in the country. Several pieces of policies and strategies are formulated to promote organic farming. But, these policies and strategies are scattered and simply inadequate. For this purpose, a consolidated policy and a clear set of legislative provisions are required. Nature has gifted Nepal with plenty of production niches suitable for organic farming of various agricultural commodities. However, it encompasses several challenges in order to make national product competitive in the domestic and international market. On the one hand policies and capacities on production technologies of organic farming are inadequate and on the other hand the developed technologies and products are not being delivered properly in Nepal. So, under the given circumstances, Nepal has to reform its policies and make organic farming friendly, so that the virgin areas can be protected from the introduction of chemical inputs. Many actors including government organizations, NGOs, private sector and farmers should be involved in different steps of organic agriculture promotion and certification. Then only the nation can prosper with the means of healthy people.

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