TERROR KING:-LADEN This article is about person who has recently died Such as that pertaining to the circumstances of the person's death and surrounding events, may change as more facts become known… the only fugitive ever to be listed on both FBI fugitive lists. WAGGONRER OF TERRORISM 1
"Allah knows it did not cross our minds to attack the towers but after the situation became unbearable and we witnessed the injustice and tyranny of the American-Israeli alliance against our people in Palestine and Lebanon, I thought about it. And the events that affected me directly were that of 1982 and the events that followed – when America allowed the Israelis to invade Lebanon, helped by the U.S. Sixth Fleet. As I watched the destroyed towers in Lebanon, it occurred to me punish the unjust the same way (and) to destroy towers in America so it could taste some of what we are tasting and to stop killing our children and women." –Osama bin Laden, 2004 2
NETAJI SUBHASH ENGINEERING COLLEGE ENGLISH COMMUNICATION LAB B-TECH (IT) 2ND YEAR PRESENTED BY NAME: AVINASH NAME: GOVIND KISHORE rOLL NO: 09109002014 ROLl NO: 09109002021 3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT we would like to express our sincere thanks to our English Communication Teacher Mrs. AyanitaBanerjee who helped us to decide on the topic and Humanities department of NetajiSubhash Engineering College for providing us an opportunity to explore the creative part of our mind through this project. We would also like to thank various faculties of our college for providing us with the necessary resources and infrastructure. We would like to thank our friends and family for their constant support, encouragement and the care they provided us through out the development of the project. 4
INTRODUCTION Osama bin Mohammed bin Award bin Laden was born in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. he was born on 10th March 1957. His father, the late Mohammed Award bin Laden, was a wealthy businessman. Before World War his father emigrated from Hadhramaat on the south coast of Yemen, to the Red Sea port of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, where he began to work as a porter. Starting his own business in 1930, Mohammed built his fortune as a building contractor for the Saudi royal family during the 1950s. Osama was the 17th son of his father and only son of his father and his 10th wife. Qualification Bin Laden earned a degree in civil engineering in 1979 from King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah. 6
He earned his degree in civil engineering in 1979 from king abdulaziz university in Jeddah.
He was on the American Federal Bureau of Investigation's
lists of Ten Most Wanted Fugitives and Most Wanted Terrorists.
He joined Islamic Unity of Afghanistan Mujahedeen
In the forthcoming pages we r refreshing some dangerous fact about Osama bin laden. 8
The Mujahedeen were significantly financed, armed and trained by the United States (Central Intelligence Agency) during the administrations of Carterand Reagan, and also by Saudi Arabia, Pakistan under Zia-ul-Haq, the People's Republic of China and several western europian country.
During 30 years of his terrorist life, graph of his terrorism was continuously increases.
BELIFS &IDEALOGY # Osama believed that only the restoration of Sharia law would "set things right" in the Muslim world, and that alternatives such as —”pan-Arabism, socialism, communism, democracy"—must be opposed. # This belief, in conjunction with violent jihad. # Osama was anti-Semitic, and delivered warnings against alleged Jewish conspiracies: "These Jews are masters of usury and leaders in treachery. They will leave you nothing, either in this world or the next 9
MILITANT ACTIVITY #Mujahedeen in Afghanistan # Formation and structuring of Al-Qaeda # Sudan and return to Afghanistan # Early attacks and aid for attacks # Balkan wars # September 11 attacks 10
Mujahedeen in Afghanistan The beginnings of Jihad are traced back to the words and actions of Muhammad and the Quran. The people who helped Muhammad during the early periods of his prophet hood were referred to as Ansars (helpers) and Muhajirs But the Ansarparticipated in armed conflict alongside Muhammad, and are also referred to as Mujahedeen. mujahedeen parties allied themselves into the political bloc called Islamic Unity of Afghanistan Mujahedeen. The mujahedeen were significantly financed, armed and trained by the United States (Central Intelligence Agency)during the administrations of Carterand Reagan, and also by Saudi Arabia, Pakistan under Zia-ul-Haq, Iran, the People's Republic of China and several Western European countries. 11
FORMATION AND STRUCTURE OF AL-QAIDA Osama bin Laden meant everything to Al Qaeda. Founder. Charismatic cheerleader. Principle fundraiser. WHAT IS AL-QAIDA???? Al Qaeda is not an organization that commands massive resources. It doesn’t have a big army. It doesn’t have vast reservoirs of funds that it can direct easily across the world. Al Qaeda was an idea and an ideology, symbolized by an extremely charismatic figure in Osama bin Laden. Bin Laden was this Saudi prince-like figure who had gone into the mountains of Afghanistan forsaking the riches of a multibillion-dollar fortune, fought against the Soviets, demonstrated personal bravery and then crafted a seductive message about Islam and Islamic extremism as a path to destroy the corrupt regimes of the Middle East ESTABLISHMENT OF AL-QAEDA In 1988, with the Soviet’s in retreat, he established al-Qaeda– meaning 'the base’ in Arabic – a new organisation that would wage jihad beyond the borders of Afghanistan 12
#Sudan and return to Afghanistan In Sudan, bin Laden established a new base for mujahedeen operations in Khartoum. He continued his verbal assault on King Fahd of Saudi Arabia, and in response, on March 5, 1994, Fahd sent an emissary to Sudan demanding bin Laden's passport. His family was persuaded to cut off his $7 million a year stipend. By now bin Laden was strongly associated with Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ), which made up the core of al-Qaeda. In 1995 the EIJ attempted to assassinate Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. The attempt failed, and the EIJ was expelled from Suda. As a result of his dealings in and advocacy of violent extremist jihad, Osama bin Laden lost his Saudi citizenship in 1994 and was disowned by his billionaire family 13
In May 1996, under increasing pressure on Sudan, from Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and the United States, bin Laden returned to Jalalabad, Afghanistan aboard a chartered flight, and there forged a close relationship with Mullah Mohammed Omar bin Laden and Al-Qaeda raised money from "donors from the days of the Soviet jihad", and from the Pakistani (ISI) to establish more training camps for Mujahedeen fighters. Bin Laden effectively had hijacked. Ariana Afghan Airlines, which ferried Islamic militants, arms, cash and opium through the United Arab Emirates and Pakistan as well as provided false identifications to members of Bin Laden's terrorist network.Viktor Bout helped to run the airline, maintaining planes and loading cargo. Michael Scheuer, head of the CIA's bin Laden unit, concluded that Ariana was being used as a "terrorist taxi service". 14
# Balkan wars In 1992, hundreds of volunteers joined an "all-mujahedeen unit" called El Moujahed in an abandoned hillside factory. Among them was Karim Said Atmani who was identified by authorities as the document forger for a group of Algerians accused of plotting the bombings in the USA Khalil al-Deek, was arrested in Jordan in late December 1999 on suspicion of involvement in a plot to blow up tourist sites; a second man with Bosnian citizenship. The Bosnian daily Oslobođenje published in 2001 that three men, believed to be linked to bin Laden, were arrested in Sarajevo in July 2001. In 1998 it was reported that bin Laden was operating his Al Qaeda network out of Albania. By 1998 four members of Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ) were arrested in Albania and extradited to Egypt. 15
ATTACKS BY OSAMA BIN LADEN #It is believed that the first bombing attack involving bin Laden was the December 29, 1992 bombing of the Gold Mihor Hotel in Aden in which two people were killed #In 1992 or 1993 bin Laden sent an emissary, Qari el-Said, with $40,000 to Algeria to aid the Islamists and urge war rather than negotiation with the government. Their advice was heeded but the war that followed killed 150,000–200,000 Algerians and ended with Islamist surrender to the government. #bin Laden funded the Luxor massacre of November 17, 1997, which killed 62 civilians, but outraged the Egyptian public. 16
#Another successful attack was carried out in the city of Mazar-e-Sharif in Afghanistan. Bin Laden helped cement his alliance with the Taliban by sending several hundreds of Afghan Arab fighters along to help the Taliban kill between five and six thousand Hazaras overrunning the city. #In February 1998, Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri co-signed a fatwa in the name of the World Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders which declared the killing of North Americans and their allies an "individual duty for every Muslim" to "liberate the al-Aqsa Mosque (in Jerusalem) and the holy mosque (in Mecca) from their grip". At the public announcement of the fatwa bin Laden announced that North Americans are "very easy targets." He told the attending journalists, "You will see the results of this in a very short time. #Bin Laden and Al-Zawahiri organized an Al-Qaida congress on June 24, 1998. 17
#The 1998 U.S. Embassy bombings were a series of attacks that occurred on August 7, 1998, in which hundreds of people were killed in simultaneous truck bomb explosions at the United States embassies in the major East African cities of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Nairobi, Kenya. The attacks were linked to local members of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, brought Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri to the attention of the US public for the first time, and resulted in the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation placing bin Laden on its Ten Most Wanted list #At the end of 2000, bin Laden had planned a triple attack on January 3, 2000 which would have included bombings in Jordan of the Radisson SAS Hotel in Amman and tourists at Mount Nebo and a site on the Jordan River, the sinking of the destroyer USS The Sullivans in Yemen, as well as an attack on a target within the United States. The plan was foiled by the arrest of the Jordanian terrorist cell 18
SEPTEMBER 11 ATTACKS The September 11 attacks, often referred to as September 11th or 9/11 (pronounced as "nine eleven"), were a series of coordinated suicide attacks by al-Qaeda upon the United States on September 11, 2001. On that morning, 19 al-Qaeda terrorists hijacked four commercial passenger jet airliners. The hijackers intentionally crashed two of the airliners into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City. killing everyone on board and many others working in the buildings. Both towers collapsed within two hours, destroying nearby buildings and damaging others. The hijackers crashed a third airliner into The Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, just outside Washington, D.C. The fourth plane crashed into a field near Shanksville in rural Pennsylvania after some of its passengers and flight crew attempted to retake control of the plane, which the hijackers had redirected toward Washington, D.C., to target either the Capitol Building or the White House. There were no survivors from any of the flights. 19
The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 resulted in 2,996 deaths, including the 19 hijackers and 2,977 victims. The victims were distributed as follows: 246 on the four planes (from which there were no survivors), 2,606 in New York City in the towers and on the ground, and 125 at the Pentagon. All the deaths in the attacks were civilians except for 55 military personnel killed at the Pentagon More than 90 countries lost citizens in the attacks on the World Trade Center. In 2007, the New York City medical examiner's office added Felicia Dunn-Jones to the official death toll from the al-Qaeda terrorist attackof September 9, 2001. 20
Criminal charges #On March 16, 1998, Libya issued the first official Interpol arrest warrant against bin Laden charged for killing two German citizens in Libya on March 10, 1994 #charges of killing five Americans and two Indians in the November 14, 1995 truck bombing of a US-operated Saudi National Guard training center in Riyadh #Bin Laden was charged with "conspiracy to attack defense utilities of the United States" and prosecutors further charged that bin Laden is the head of the terrorist organization called al QaedIDA #On November 4, 1998, charges of Murder of US Nationals Outside the United States, Conspiracy to Murder US Nationals Outside the United States, and Attacks on a Federal Facility Resulting in Death #he was added to the FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list on June 7, 1999 and Years later, on October 10, 2001, bin Laden appeared as well on the initial list of the top 22 FBI Most Wanted Terrorists. Bin Laden remains the only fugitive ever to be listedon both FBI fugitive lists. # 21
Attempted capture by the United States Clinton administration After the September 11 attacks President Clinton had signed a directive authorizing the CIA ( Special Activities Division) to apprehend bin Laden and bring him to the United States to stand trial after the 1998 United States embassy bombings in Africa; if taking bin Laden alive was deemed impossible, then deadly force was authorized On August 20, 1998, 66 cruise missiles launched by United States Navy ships in the Arabian Sea struck bin Laden's training camps nearKhost in Afghanistan, narrowly missing him by a few hours In 1999 the CIA, together with Pakistani military intelligence, had prepared a team of approximately 60 Pakistani commandos to infiltrate Afghanistan to capture or kill bin Laden, but the plan was aborted by the 1999 Pakistani coup d'état; 22
Bush administration During the battle of Tora Bora, Afghanistan in late 2001, failure by the US to commit enough US ground troops to hunt him led to his escape and was the gravest failure by the US in the war against al Qaeda US and Afghanistan forces raided the mountain caves in Tora Bora between August 14–16, 2007. The military was drawn to the area after receiving intelligence of a pre-ramadan meeting held by al Qaeda members. After killing dozens of al Qaeda and Taliban members, they did not find either Osama bin Laden or Ayman al-Zawahiri. Immediately after the 9/11 attacks, US government officials named bin Laden and the Al-Qaeda organization as the prime suspects and offered a reward of $25 million for information leading to his capture or death.On July 13, 2007, this figure was doubled to $50 million, The Airline Pilot Association and the Air Transport Association had offered an additional $2 million reward 23
Obama administration U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates said in December 2009 that officials had had no reliable information on Bin Laden's whereabouts for years One week later, General Stanley McChrystal, the top U.S. commander in Afghanistan said in December 2009 that al-Qaeda will not be defeated unless its leader, Osama Bin Laden, is captured or killed. Obama's deployment of 30,000 extra troops to Afghanistan meant that success would be possible In April 2011, Obama approved an operation to capture bin Laden. On May 1, 2011 (23:30 EDT), Obama released a statement saying that American forces had killed bin Laden 24
Death of Osama bin Laden On May 1, 2011, in Washington, D.C. (May 2, Pakistan Standard Time), U.S. President Barack Obama announced that Osama bin Laden had been killed by "a small team of Americans" acting under Obama's direct orders, in a covert operation dubbed Geranimo in Abbottabad, Pakistan about 50 km (31 mi) north of Islamabad DNA from bin Laden's body, compared with DNA samples on record from his dead sister's brainconfirmed bin Laden's identity the following day according to assertions to ABC News by unnamed sources. The 193 cm long body was recovered by the U.S. military and was in its custody until his body was buried in the North Arabian Sea from the USS Carl Vinson, within 24 hours of his death in accord with Islamic traditions. One U.S. official stated that, "finding a country willing to accept the remains of the world's most wanted terrorist would have been difficult. MSNBC reported, "There also was speculation about worry that a grave site could have become a rallying point for militants. 25
26 Conclusion Why do people resort to such violent acts as bombing, assassinations, and hi-jacking? How do individuals and organizations justify these acts of terror? These acts can be described as terrorist actions. Terrorism is a growing international problem. During the last twenty years, new terrorist groups have sprung up al lover the world. Governments have had little success in their attempts to resolve issues in which terrorism is used. A major problem in discussing terrorism is establishing a generally accepted definition. Terrorism can be described as the unlawful use of fear or force to achieve certain political, economical, or social aims. Because it is so hard to define, organizations like the United Nations have had great difficulty drawing up policies against terrorism. Within the recent century, the subject of terrorism has risen as a major problem for all major countries. The United States is a nation that is not exempt from terrorism but actually a key target for many terrorist groups. The radicals of Islam believe that our nation, he United States of America, is responsible for polluting the minds of their youth and having them stray from Islam.
27 BIBLIOGRAPHY #GOOGLE #WIKIPEDIA #TIMES OF INDIA #SPECIAL ADDITION BY INDIA TODAY FOR HUNTING OF LADEN