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  • 1. Climate and Climate Change Chapter 25
  • 2. Temperature and Precipitation • Climates describe by average temperature and precipitation • Yearly average temperature range • Precipitation - months with greatest amount focused on
  • 3. Global Wind Patterns • Solar energy (or lack of) cause pooling of either warm, less dense air (equator) or cold dense air w/ high pressure (poles) • These differences in air pressure create winds • Air close to the equator (the doldrums) air rises and cools and water vapor condenses causing greater amounts of precipitation • The amount fof precipitation decreases then, as you increase in latitude
  • 4. Climates and Latitude • 20 - 30 degrees - subtropical highs (air sinks, warms and dries) with little precip. • 45-60 degrees - mid latitudes - polar air and warm tropical air meet, causing greater precip. • Above 60 degrees - cold and dry
  • 5. Heat Absorption • Land heats faster than water (which is moving and mixing constantly, changing the temperature) • Specific Heat is higher for water - meaning that it takes greater energy to raise 1 g of water 1 degree - meaning too, that the water will hold onto heat a longer time. • This difference in land and water heating/cooling rates also contributes to precip. And winds
  • 6. El Nino Oscillation (ENSO) • Cycle of changing wind and water-current patterns in the Pacific • El Nino the warm water phase of the cycle causes temperatures along the west coast of South America to rise, causing the interaction of the ocean and atmosphere to change • Typhoons, cyclones, and floods are common during the El Nino cycle • Cool water phase is called El Nina
  • 7. Special Circumstances • Rain Shadows – Air that moves up a mountain slope condenses as it cools, causing precipitation – As that same air moves over the mountain range and moves down along its slope the air compresses and warms, causing dry hot conditions – Deserts
  • 8. Climate Zones Tropical Climates High Temp, high rainfall Equator Rainforest, desert, Savanna Middle Latitude Moderate 0-60 degrees Temp. range, north varying precip. 0-60 degrees south Polar Climates Can have 60-80 degrees
  • 9. Climate CHange • Page 641, table 1 • Understanding Isotopes – Atoms of the same elements that have the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons – Indicate change - temp increases, O 18 decreases, temp. decreases, O16 increases
  • 10. Just the Facts Climate Change Plate Tectonics Volcanic Activity Orbital Changes Tilt of the Earth Human Activity Increased Emissions
  • 11. Latitude • The higher the latitude the smaller the angle of the sun’s rays hitting the Earth • The smaller the angle the less solar energy received and the lower the temperature • Less range of temperatures influences the amount of varying heat on the Earth, thus changing the winds/precipition • The longer the daylight the greater the amount of solar energy and higher temperatures - the equator has constant warm temperatures due to direct sun rays