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# Logic Design - Chapter 6: Flip Flops

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### Logic Design - Chapter 6: Flip Flops

1. 1. Sequential Logic and Flip-Flops
2. 2. SEQUENTIAL CIRCUITS AND FEEDBACK
3. 3. SET- RESET (S-R) LATCHES : Cross- NOR S-R latch ( active high )  Cross- NAND S-R latch ( active low ) 
4. 4. Cross-NOR S-R latch ( active high )
5. 5. truth table of the NOR gate A B (A + B)’ 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 if any of the inputs of the NOR gate is high (logic 1), the output is low (logic 0)
6. 6. No-Change condition in S-R latch
7. 7. Forbidden condition in S-R latch
8. 8. function table of the NOR S-R latch R S Q Q’ Comments 0 0 Q Q’ 0 1 1 0 No change ( hold ) condition Set 1 0 0 1 Reset 1 1 0 0 Forbidden, Not used , race
9. 9. the race situation    If we go from SR = 11 to SR = 00, then we may have two cases. Case 1: R changes first: SR = 10 then SR = 00 Case 2: S changes first: SR = 01 then SR = 00 1 1 0
10. 10. Cross- NAND S-R latch ( active low ) – S’-R’  The truth table of NAND gate
11. 11. Functions table of the NAND latch .
12. 12. S – R Timing Analysis
13. 13. EXAMPLE  If the S and R waveforms shown in Fig (11.a) are applied to the inputs of the NOR latch, determine the waveform that will be applied on the Q output. Assume that Q is initially low.
14. 14. Switch Debouncing Circuits  Switch bounce occurs as a mechanical switch lever snaps to a new position. After reaching the new contact point, the pole bounces on a micrometer scale of millisecond duration (Fig (12)). Bounce can cause problems in circuits that are expecting an input to stabilize without oscillating, such as counters.
15. 15. Debouncing using S’-R’ latch  When the switch is neither connected to the lower pin nor to the upper pin, both S’ and R’ equal + 5v ( Logic 1 ) and the latch is in the no change state .
16. 16. Debouncing using S’-R’ latch (cont.)
17. 17. Clocked SR latches ( flip – flops )
18. 18. clocked (gated) latch using cross – NAND gates
19. 19. Function table of gated S-R flip – flop
20. 20. EXAMPLE  Determine the Q output waveform if the inputs shown in Fig (17-a) are applied to a clocked (gated) S-R latch that is initially RESET.
21. 21. GATED D- latch
22. 22. EXAMPLE  Sketch the output waveform at Q for the inputs at D and G of the gated D latch in Fig (20).
23. 23. EXAMPLE  Construct a D flip-flop using NOR and AND gates.
24. 24. J–K FLIP – FLOPS
25. 25. J–K FLIP – FLOPS
26. 26. T. (TOGGLE) FLIP–FLOP
27. 27. Race problem in level-clocked J-K flip-flop
28. 28. Clock edge and level   edge – triggered FFs Master – slave FFs .
29. 29. MASTER – SLAVE FLIP-FLOPS
30. 30. Timing diagram of a master-slave FF
31. 31. EDGE – TRIGGERED J K FFS +ve edge triggered -ve edge triggered
32. 32. EXAMPLE  Determine the Q output waveform if the inputs shown in Fig (32) are applied to a clocked S-R flip-flop that is initially RESET. The flip-flop is triggered at the positive edge.
33. 33. MASTER-SLAVE FLIP-FLOP AND 1S CATCHING
34. 34. DIRECT ( ASYNCHRONOUS ) INPUTS
35. 35. FLIP- FLOP OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS  Propagation Delay times:   SET-UP TIME HOLD TIME
36. 36. Propagation Delay times:
37. 37. Propagation Delay times:
38. 38. SET-UP TIME
39. 39. HOLD TIME