Diabetes Militus


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Diabetes Militus

  1. 1. Diabetes Miletus Amani.M.AL Bohisi
  2. 2. Amani.M.AL Bohisi Prediabetes Blood glucose levels that are higher than normal but not yet high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. People almost always develop it before being diagnosed by Type 2 diabetes. Recent research has shown that some long-term damage to the body, especially the heart and circulatory system, may already be occurring during prediabetes.
  3. 3. Amani.M.AL Bohisi Top 4 Things You Need to Know about Prediabetes 1- People with prediabetes often don’t have symptoms: - Unusual thirst - Frequent urination - Blurred vision - Extreme fatigue - Frequent infections - Cuts/bruises that are slow to heal - Tingling/numbness in the hands/feet - Recurring skin, gum or bladder infections
  4. 4. Amani.M.AL Bohisi Con ….Top 4 Things You Need to Know about Prediabetes 2- Know your risk: Are you overweight and 45 years old or older? Are you normal weight and 45 years old and older? What if you are younger than 45 but overweight? Any other risks? 3- There are three different tests you can take to determine if you have prediabetes: Doctors can use a fasting plasma glucose test (FPG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), or an A1C test to detect prediabetes. 4- You will not develop type 2 diabetes automatically if you have prediabetes. Normal BG ---------- get checked every 3 years Prediabetes --------- check for Type 2 DM every 1 or 2 years.
  5. 5. Amani.M.AL Bohisi Do you know? -Research shows that you can lower your risk for type 2 diabetes by 58% by: A- Losing 7% of your body weight. B- Exercising moderately.
  6. 6. Amani.M.AL Bohisi Blood Glucose control There are three different tests can be used to determine whether you have prediabetes or diabetes: 1- The A1C test. 2- The fasting plasma glucose test (FPG). 3- or the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).
  7. 7. Amani.M.AL Bohisi Con…. Blood Glucose control
  8. 8. Amani.M.AL Bohisi RBS ( Random Blood Sugar) v.s. Postprandial blood Sugar - RBS :measures blood glucose regardless of when you last ate. The reference values for a "normal" random glucose test in an average adult are 70 - 141 mg/dl (3.9 - 7.8 mmol/l), between 140 - 200 mg/dl is considered pre- diabetes, and > 200 mg/dl is considered diabetes according to ADA guidelines. - 2-hour postprandial blood sugar : measures blood glucose exactly 2 hours after you start eating a meal.
  9. 9. Amani.M.AL Bohisi Fasting blood glucose: Less than or equal to 110 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) (6.1 millimoles per liter, or mmol/L). 2 hours after eating (postprandial): Less than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) for people age 50 and younger; less than 150 mg/dL (8.3 mmol/L) for people ages 50-60; less than 160 mg/dL (8.9 mmol/L) for people age 60 and older. Random (casual): Levels vary depending on when and how much you ate at your last meal. In general: 80-120 mg/dL (4.4-6.6 mmol/L) before meals or when waking up; 100-140 mg/dL (5.5-7.7 mmol/L) at bedtime.
  10. 10. Amani.M.AL Bohisi Tips Q 1: Why did my doctor start me on a cholesterol-lowering drug even though my cholesterol levels are only borderline high? A 1: People with diabetes tend to develop heart disease with lower lipid levels than nondiabetic patients, so some doctors try early on to lower blood lipid levels in their patients with diabetes. Q2: Why is it so much harder to control my blood glucose when I am sick? A2: Being sick stresses your body, and stress can raise your blood glucose. Any kind of stress—physical or mental—can have that effect. Q3: Why is my blood glucose high while I am taking prednisone for my asthma? A3: It acts like a hormone that your body makes called "cortisol." Cortisol and prednisone both cause the body to make glucose when you're not eating (like during the night).
  11. 11. Amani.M.AL Bohisi Q4: Why did my doctor recently start me on a blood pressure medication even though my blood pressure is only slightly elevated? A4: High blood glucose combined with high blood pressure increases your risk of getting diabetic kidney disease. Q5: What can I take for a cough that is caused by my ACE inhibitor medication? A5: One of their side benefits is to reduce blood pressure in the kidneys and to protect them from damage. Studies have shown that these medications actually reduce the rate of kidney damage caused by diabetes. Q6: Should I take an aspirin daily if I have diabetes? A6: Probably. Q7: How high is my risk for heart attack with type 2 diabetes? A7: A recent study has shown that people with type 2 diabetes who have not had a heart attack still have as high a risk for a future heart attack as a person without diabetes who has already had a heart attack.
  12. 12. Amani.M.AL Bohisi Q8: Why do my feet burn at night when I'm trying to go to sleep? A8: It is due to "Painful neuropathy“. Q9: Should I be concerned about a small red blister on my foot from walking in new shoes? A9: Yes! If it breaks, this blister in the skin can allow germs into your foot. Q10: Is it safe to exercise if my blood glucose is high? A10: If your blood glucose is higher than 300 mg/dl, you should not exercise until you have taken some fast-acting insulin and your blood glucose level is below 250 mg/dl. Q11: During a meal, why do I get filled up before I finish eating? A11: It is due to "diabetic gastroparesis."
  13. 13. Amani.M.AL Bohisi Myth v.s Facts
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  19. 19. Amani.M.AL Bohisi Thank you