Big History<br />History 140<br />By: Cara Treneer<br />
Existence of Man<br />Dr. Spencer Wells uses DNA to trace existence of humans to one single man over 60,000 years ago. <br />Giving us a window into our past and building a history map of our species (biological evolution). <br />Showing we came from a African bushman that was forced to migrate in search of food, during a small ice age. <br />Development of an extensive family tree showing us we are all related. <br />
Advancing with Curiosity<br />We are curious that is why we advance, is James Burke’s explanation. <br />We protect what we believe in, freedom for example.<br />Always thinking “our” version is the best, can be our greatest weakness or our trait of success. <br />We can thank the Greeks for our curiosity with questioning everything, debating, and the use of geometry. Our reasoning comes from the Greeks and our search for order.<br />
Advancing with Curiosity<br />We protect important things by creating rituals, such as marriage ceremonies and death. Creating institutions to run rituals like the church, schools, and government. <br />We love change and we look for it. “The only constant in life is change in everything…here today gone tomorrow.” James Burke.<br />
Climate change, natural disasters, and diseases changing history.<br />Using tree ring samples to prove extreme decrease in temperature.<br />Cause by a volcano and/or decreased strength of the sun.<br />Affecting civilizations with drought<br />Causing migration of many in search of food, increasing diseases because of influx of germs with immune systems compromised with starvation, decreased temperature, and close living conditions. <br />
Expansion & Exploration<br />Before exploration regions were separated from each other.<br />Greeks believed… Voyaging=equals wisdom Travel=means to possession<br />In the 1400’s the push for “Global Domination” began.<br />Europe pushed for exploring while China (the wealthiest empire) dropped out.<br />
Expansion & Exploration<br />The world’s wealth in trade is what pushed many cultures to explore.<br />Fighting the world is flat theory, went from flat to round with Columbus, Vespucci, Verrazzano, and Thome.<br />Spain competed with Portugal for exploration, but took advantage when Portugal slowed down.<br />In 1492 Columbus proved to be the savior of Christianity giving the western hemisphere to Spain.<br />The “Spice Islands” being the ultimate goal of Portugal and Spain’s exploration competition, but it was the Portuguese who finally reached them.<br /> Muslim empires grew in wealth when the Spaniards expelled the Jew’s.<br />
Conquering New Civilizations<br />With new technologies brings success.<br />Exposure of new diseases brings destruction and also success.<br />Discovery of profitable commodities.<br />Explorers profiting and natives suffering.<br />
Columbus Sailed the Ocean Blue<br />Columbus grew up in a maritime city<br />Was influenced by Marco Polo, because he was one of the few allowed into the Orient.<br />The Spice Islands and Gold drove Columbus’s need to reach Eastern Asia. <br />Europeans needed a way around to East Asia because the Muslims dominated eastern trade.<br />At age 25 Columbus sailed to what he thought would be the east Orient. <br />In 1492 Columbus found the Americas.<br />
World Trade<br />The world full of different crops and commodities drives the worlds economy. <br />Trade being both positive and negative for societies, bringing both wealth and destruction. <br />Trade built commercial networks and also destroyed them.<br />Early on China was seen as the wealthiest empire with silk, paper, gunpowder, and other commodities. China exported their goods but trade was not essential for them.<br />
World trade<br />Muslims dominated Eastern trade before the 1500’s and mark up was 5000%! Their economy was dependent on their eastern trade and their European sells.<br />Early on in the America’s Mayan’s traded but had no interest otherwise in travelers. Inca’s were traders along the cost, with their death brought postal trade through Ecuador.<br />With American trade brought Positive influence to global trade, but the globes trade brought disaster to the Americas. Exchange of plants and animals brought disease to the Americas<br />
The world’s Crops<br />Spices<br />Spices from the orient were extremely valuable because the Orients whereabouts were kept secret and spices were only shipped into Asia. <br />The uses of spices was very diverse from cloves that preserved meat to spices used as medicines. <br />Rich Europeans would pay almost anything for them, making them so valuable you could even buy land in Europe with them.<br />Wheat, Rice, and Corm<br />All three were very important impacts on societies. <br />Wheat-West Europe Rice- East Eurasia Corn-Americas<br />Rice could feed more people per paddy than wheat or corn.<br />Corn takes little man time, but less nutritional value.<br />
The world’s Crops<br />In 1492 western hemisphere increased global nutrition.<br />Today 60% of the world’s food is of American origin.<br />New world crops such as tobacco, coffee, cocoa sugar, were seen as drugs.<br />Potatoes also discovered in the Americas were seen as a lower class food, a poison, and even an aphrodisiac. But today they are the second largest crop in the world.<br />
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