Existence of Man Dr. Spencer Wells uses DNA to trace existence of humans to one single man over 60,000 years ago. Giving us a window into our past and building a history map of our species (biological evolution). Showing we came from a African bushman that was forced to migrate in search of food, during a small ice age. Development of an extensive family tree showing us we are all related.
Advancing with Curiosity We are curious that is why we advance, is James Burke’s explanation. We protect what we believe in, freedom for example. Always thinking “our” version is the best, can be our greatest weakness or our trait of success. We can thank the Greeks for our curiosity with questioning everything, debating, and the use of geometry. Our reasoning comes from the Greeks and our search for order.
Advancing with Curiosity We protect important things by creating rituals, such as marriage ceremonies and death. Creating institutions to run rituals like the church, schools, and government. We love change and we look for it. “The only constant in life is change in everything…here today gone tomorrow.” James Burke.
Climate change, natural disasters, and diseases changing history. Using tree ring samples to prove extreme decrease in temperature. Cause by a volcano and/or decreased strength of the sun. Affecting civilizations with drought Causing migration of many in search of food, increasing diseases because of influx of germs with immune systems compromised with starvation, decreased temperature, and close living conditions.
Expansion & Exploration Before exploration regions were separated from each other. Greeks believed… Voyaging=equals wisdom Travel=means to possession In the 1400’s the push for “Global Domination” began. Europe pushed for exploring while China (the wealthiest empire) dropped out.
Expansion & Exploration The world’s wealth in trade is what pushed many cultures to explore. Fighting the world is flat theory, went from flat to round with Columbus, Vespucci, Verrazzano, and Thome. Spain competed with Portugal for exploration, but took advantage when Portugal slowed down. In 1492 Columbus proved to be the savior of Christianity giving the western hemisphere to Spain. The “Spice Islands” being the ultimate goal of Portugal and Spain’s exploration competition, but it was the Portuguese who finally reached them. Muslim empires grew in wealth when the Spaniards expelled the Jew’s.
Conquering New Civilizations With new technologies brings success. Exposure of new diseases brings destruction and also success. Discovery of profitable commodities. Explorers profiting and natives suffering.
Columbus Sailed the Ocean Blue Columbus grew up in a maritime city Was influenced by Marco Polo, because he was one of the few allowed into the Orient. The Spice Islands and Gold drove Columbus’s need to reach Eastern Asia. Europeans needed a way around to East Asia because the Muslims dominated eastern trade. At age 25 Columbus sailed to what he thought would be the east Orient. In 1492 Columbus found the Americas.
World Trade The world full of different crops and commodities drives the worlds economy. Trade being both positive and negative for societies, bringing both wealth and destruction. Trade built commercial networks and also destroyed them. Early on China was seen as the wealthiest empire with silk, paper, gunpowder, and other commodities. China exported their goods but trade was not essential for them.
World trade Muslims dominated Eastern trade before the 1500’s and mark up was 5000%! Their economy was dependent on their eastern trade and their European sells. Early on in the America’s Mayan’s traded but had no interest otherwise in travelers. Inca’s were traders along the cost, with their death brought postal trade through Ecuador. With American trade brought Positive influence to global trade, but the globes trade brought disaster to the Americas. Exchange of plants and animals brought disease to the Americas
The world’s Crops Spices Spices from the orient were extremely valuable because the Orients whereabouts were kept secret and spices were only shipped into Asia. The uses of spices was very diverse from cloves that preserved meat to spices used as medicines. Rich Europeans would pay almost anything for them, making them so valuable you could even buy land in Europe with them. Wheat, Rice, and Corm All three were very important impacts on societies. Wheat-West Europe Rice- East Eurasia Corn-Americas Rice could feed more people per paddy than wheat or corn. Corn takes little man time, but less nutritional value.
The world’s Crops In 1492 western hemisphere increased global nutrition. Today 60% of the world’s food is of American origin. New world crops such as tobacco, coffee, cocoa sugar, were seen as drugs. Potatoes also discovered in the Americas were seen as a lower class food, a poison, and even an aphrodisiac. But today they are the second largest crop in the world.