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# Maths vocabulary Comenius Why Maths

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The file was prepared as a part of the Comenius project Why Maths

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### Maths vocabulary Comenius Why Maths

1. 1. A whole number that has more than two factors 6 is a composite number because it has three factors: 1, 3, and 6 A number greater than 1 that has exactly two different factors, 1 and itself 5 is a prime number, as its only factors are 1 and 5. Any one of the ten numerals: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9. A whole number that is divisible by 2; a number that has 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 in the ones place A number that is not divisible by 2; a number that has 1, 3, 5, 7, or 9 in the ones place A number or expression that is multiplied by another to yield a product All the factors of 6 are: 1, 2, 3, and 6
2. 2. A number placed to the top right of another number (base) to indicate the number of times the base is multiplied by itself 4 3 A method of writing or displaying numbers in terms of a decimal number between 1 and 10 multiplied by a power of 10 The scientific notation of the number 5,300,000 is 5.3 ∙ 106 A number (factor) that, when multiplied by itself, produces the given square 2 3 2
3. 3. The set of counting numbers. Natural numbers include 1, 2, 3, 4, . . . . The set of counting numbers plus 0 {0, 1, 2, 3, . . . }. The set of numbers consisting of the whole numbers: 1, 2, 3, 4, . . ., their opposites -1, -2, -3, - 4, . . ., and 0. Any number that can be expressed as a fraction in the form a/b where a and b are integers and b ≠ 0. All rational numbers can be expressed as a terminating or repeating decimal. A real number that cannot be represented as an exact ratio of two integers; the decimal form of the number never terminates and never repeats The set of numbers that includes all rational and irrational numbers.
4. 4. 2  9 2 0 83 7 4  5 1.23456789... 0.7 5 8
5. 5. subtraction + – multiplication  division  = addition equal Any of the numbers in a designated sum of two or more numbers The result of adding two or more quantities 18  13  24  55
6. 6. 35  13  22 Factors are numbers you can multiply together to get another number 15  4  60
7. 7. A number to be divided by another number (divisor) The number by which the dividend is divided 54 : 9  6 Remainder is the amount left over after division when one divisor does not divide the dividend exactly 14 : 3  4 r 2 A method of approximating a number to its nearest place value
8. 8. 5 8 Numerator Denominator A proper fraction is a fraction where the numerator (the top number) is less than the denominator (the bottom number) 5 8 smaller larger An improper fraction is a fraction where the numerator (the top number) is greater than or equal to the denominator (the bottom number). 8 5 larger (or equal) smaller (or equal)
9. 9. also called mixed numbers A mixed fraction is a whole number and a proper fraction combined. 3 2 4 Fractions that represent the same amount. When we multiply or divide both the top and bottom by the same number, the fraction keeps it's value 1 2 3   2 4 6 Common denominators for ½ and 2/5 and are 10, 20, 30, . . .
10. 10. A fractional number written in base ten form 0.56 is a decimal number 4.7 is a mixed decimal number 452.76 A decimal in which one .or more digits repeat infinitely e.g., 0.777777 . . . , or 0.7 Percent means parts per 100. The symbol is %
11. 11. The addends of an algebraic expression involving constant(s) and at least one variable. Examples 3xy contains one algebraic term: 3xy 5x2 — 3y contains two algebraic terms: 5x2 and —3y 4x  5  7 In Algebra a term is either: * a single number, or * a variable, or * numbers and variables multiplied together. A polynomial with just one term. Example: 5x2 A polynomial is a monomial or a sum or difference of two or more monomials. Example: 3x + 8, 4a2 + 2a – 5, 3x2 – 12xy + 15y2
12. 12. A constant that multiplies a variable In 3x + 4y = 14, 3 is the coefficient of x and 4 is the coefficient of y. A symbol used to represent a number in an expression In 2n + 3 the variable is n 3x  4  5 A mathematical sentence stating that two expressions are equal. 3x  4  5 x  5x  6  0 2  2 x  4  10
13. 13. A particular side or face of a geometric figure. Lying on the same straight line. In the illustration below, A, B, and C are collinear
14. 14. Two figures that have the same shape and size. Two angles are congruent if they have the same measure Triangles are congruent when they have exactly the same three sides and exactly the same three angles. The perpendicular distance from a vertex to the line containing the opposite side of a plane figure; the length of a perpendicular from the vertex to the plane containing the base of a pyramid or cone
15. 15. The side of a right triangle opposite the right angle; the longest side of a right triangle. One of the two sides that form the right angle of a right triangle; the sides that are not the hypotenuse. A part of a line between two endpoints along the line. A line segment is named by the endpoints. A B
16. 16. A line that divides a figure into two congruent parts so that they can be matched by folding the shape in half. Line AB and line CD are parallel The total distance around a closed figure. Lines, faces, or edges that intersect at right angles (90°) to each other.
17. 17. A line, segment, or ray that meets a line segment at a right angle and divides the line segment into two equal pieces. A B A set of points forming a flat surface that extends without end in all directions. Part of a line that has one endpoint and extends infinitely in one direction.
18. 18. A line segment joining two adjacent vertices of a polygon. AB is a side of ΔABC The common endpoint of two sides of a polygon. The common endpoint of two rays that form an angle. All points on a flat surface that are the same distance from a fixed point. The fixed point is called the centre of the circle. The distance around (perimeter of) a circle, calculated by multiplying the length of the diameter (d) of the circle by pi (π)
19. 19. A line segment of a circle passing through the centre of the circle. A line segment that extends from the centre of a circle to any point on the circle; equal to half the diameter. A line segment joining two points on a cirlce. A straight line that touches the cirlce at one point. A
20. 20. A geometric figure formed by two rays or line segments (also called arms) with a common endpoint (called a vertex). An angle whose measure is greater than 0° and less than 90°. A 90° angle; an angle formed by two perpendicular lines. An angle whose measure is greater than 90° and less than 180°. An angle with a measure of 180°. An angle whose measure is greater than 180° and less than 360°.
21. 21. Two angles are supplementary if they add up to 180 degrees. Two angles are complementary if they add up to 90 degrees (a right angle).
22. 22. β1 γ1 α1 δ1 β2 γ2 α2 α1 and α2 β1 and β2 γ1 and γ2 δ1 and δ2 δ2 γ1 and α2 β1 and δ2 α1 and γ2 δ1 and β2
23. 23. A line segment or ray that divides an angle into two congruent angles. An angle on the inside of a polygon formed by two adjacent sides of the polygon. An angle between any side of a shape, and a line extended from the next side.
24. 24. An angle whose vertex is at the centre of a circle and whose sides contain radii of the circle. An angle whose vertex is at the centre of a circle and whose sides contain radii of the circle.
25. 25. A triangle in which all three angles are acute. A triangle with one right angle. A triangle containing one obtuse angle.
26. 26. A triangle with three congruent sides and three congruent angles. A triangle with at least two congruent sides and two congruent angles. A triangle with no congruent sides and no congruent angles.
27. 27. Polygons with four sides and four angles. A quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides. A quadrilateral with four right angles; a parallelogram with a right angle. A parallelogram with all four sides congruent.
28. 28. A rectangle with all sides congruent (equal in measure); a rhombus with a right angle. A quadrilateral with at least one pair of parallel sides.
29. 29. A closed plane figure formed by three or more line segments. A polygon with ten sides. A polygon with seven sides and seven angles. A polygon with six sides and six angles.
30. 30. A polygon with nine sides and nine angles. A polygon with eight sides and eight angles. A polygon with five sides and five angles.
31. 31. A polygon in which all sides and all angles are congruent (equal). A line segment connecting two non-adjacent vertices of a polygon convex polygon concave polygon
32. 32. The plane formed by a horizontal axis and a vertical axis, often labelled the x-axis and y-axis respectively; contains quadrants 1 to 4 (the quadrants are often labelled using Roman numerals I to IV). An ordered pair of numbers that identifies, or is used to locate, a point on a coordinate plane, written as (x, y). The point on the coordinate plane where the x- and y-axes intersect; has coordinates (0, 0). One of four sections of a coordinate grid separated by horizontal and vertical axes.
33. 33. Solid A regular 3-D object with 6 congruent square faces, 12 congruent edges, and 8 vertices.
34. 34. A 3-D figure that is bounded by four or more polygonal faces. A polyhedron whose base is a polygon and whose lateral faces are triangles that share a common vertex. A 3-D figure (solid) that has two congruent and parallel faces that are polygons (the bases); the remaining faces are parallelograms. A prism with a triangular base. A prism whose six faces are rectangles; a prism with a rectangular base
35. 35. The sum of the areas of the faces or curved surface of a 3-D object. The amount of 3-dimensional space an object occupies. A line segment where two faces of a 3-D figure intersect. A flat surface of a solid The 2-D set of polygons of which a 3-D object is composed.
36. 36. A graph that uses horizontal or vertical bars to display data. A graph in which the data is represented by sectors (parts) of a circle (whole); the total of all the sectors should be 100% of the data. Each section of the circle represents a part or percentage of the whole.
37. 37. A graph that uses pairs of bars to compare and show the relationship between data. A bar graph that displays the frequency of data that has been organized into equal intervals; the intervals cover all possible values of data; therefore, there are no spaces between the bars of the graph; the horizontal axis is divided into continuous equal intervals.
38. 38. A graph that uses line segments to show changes in data; the data usually represents trends, relationships, or a quantity changing over time. A measure of central tendency; the quotient obtained when the sum of the numbers in a set is divided by the number of addends; the arithmetic average. Example: Four tests results: 15, 18, 22, 20 The sum is: 75 Divide 75 by 4: 18.75 The mean (average) is 18.75 The middle value in an ordered list. If there is no middle value, the median is the average of the two middle values. Example: Scores: 2, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10 Median = 6 The number or members of a data set that occur(s) most frequently in the set of data. Example: In scores: 2, 2, 2, 4, 6, 6, 6, 6, 8, 9, 10 Mode = 6
39. 39. The difference between the greatest and the least values in a set of numbers. Example: Find the of the following data set: 9, 4, 17, 5, 7, 10, 13 The lowest number is 4. The highest number is 17. Range = 17 - 4 = 13 To ask either written or verbal questions for the purpose of acquiring information/data. The results of a question or questions answered by a group of people. An event that has a 100% chance of occurring Example: A die numbered 1-6 is rolled. It is certain that the die will land on a number 1 - 6. An event that has a 0% chance of occurring Example: Rolling the number 7 when tossing a six-sided number cube labelled 1 to 6