Industrially custom made clothing

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  • 1. ‘ 08 INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE 21 – 22 November 2008, GABROVO INDUSTRIALLY CUSTOM-MADE CLOTHING Gordana Colovic, Ph.D. The College of Textile-Design, Technology and Management, Belgrade Danijela Paunovic, Ph.D. The College of Textile-Design Technology and Management, Belgrade Goran Savanovic, Ph.D. The College of Textile-Design Technology and Management, Belgrade Abstract Permanent changes that characterizes fashion, mean creativity of designers’ team with the identification of products that are necessary for consumers. The concept of the research into clothing design must be in correlation with designers, consumers and profit in odder to get the base for future business, connect theory and practice in marketing analysis and to determine new product strategy. We are confronted with permanent decrease of garments sale as a result of constant changes of fashion trends, saturated markets, and a small purchasing power as well as of consumers’ habits and taste. In order to stop sale decrease it is necessary to change or improve the current product. European countries evolving around the concepts of made-to-measure garment manufacturing and the new generation of online apparel shopping. The combination of these new services has been made now possible by the emergence of technologies such as 3D whole -body scanners, 3D CAD systems for the customization of existing styles, virtual-try -on visualization techniques and the new generation of smartcards. Keywords: garment, manufacturing, 2D, 3D, quality. INTRODUCTION Despite the globalization and internalization of competition and surplus of apparel production, high labour costs and other economic pressures, apparel products are still being produced using traditional methods and machinery, the mechanics of which have not fundamentally changed since the seventeenth century, even nowadays when the materials produced are very flexibly and diverse in texture and properties. In developing the industry, the nature of interaction between machinery, fabric and operatives has to be taken into account, and this poses some real problems if one has to put forward realistic solutions for future industrial development. Reports on findings in the area of intelligent garment manufacture which is a means of introducing flexibility, quality, production efficiency and maximization of resources in the apparel industry. In the clothing industry, computer aided tools for designing garments are usually in 2D and they do not allow the fitting of a garment on a mannequin. In recent years, there is a great deal of research for 3D garment design. In most of the developed software tools, the user draws the 2D pattern of the garment parts and the system triangulates these patterns and converts them into physically - based models. The purpose of our system is to design various garment models with different textile materials. As in the garment industry, we create garments from 2D patterns and then sew them together. For the 3D simulation of clothes, we have used a spring mass model. Thus, internal forces such as bending, stretching, damping forces of the fabric can be parameterized. This provides us with the ability to implement different types of fabric by playing with parameters. In addition, external forces such as wind, gravity or air resistance can be applied to the cloth and the behaviour of the garment under different conditions can be observed. CAD IN GARMENT INDUSTRY The EU clothing and textile industries are characterised by very intense international competition. EU producers face fierce competition from the exports of new industrialised countries (NICs), whose low wage costs and low social charges give them a considerable competitive advantage. Labour costs probably represent the most important cost factor in the manufacture of clothing, where Международна научна конференция “УНИТЕХ’08” – Габрово II-285
  • 2. labour remains the determining element in the production process. The European clothing industry is therefore handicapped at present in the field of low-cost mass-produced clothing. It needs to seek the development of new market opportunities, based on customisation, combined with the traditional creativity of European designers and the creation of vertical networks of retailers and manufacturers. This is one of the alternatives, based on the exploitation of the competitive advantage of proximity, which is critical for the cost-effectiveness and success of customised services (delivery costs and delivery times). Many of the characteristics of a garment that are decisive in the consumer decision-making process (predominantly fit) are difficult to communicate virtually. Selecting the right size is not a straightforward decision, since different manufacturers use different size charts for different types of garments. Size recommendation is a problem of relating body measurements to individual garment sizes. Internet shopping for clothing products is increasing rapidly in Europe. However, it still represents a minor percentage of total apparel sales through traditional channels. A difficulty that arises in garment construction is that patterns designed for one character cannot easily be adapted to differently sized characters. One approach to alleviating this problem would be to adopt the pattern grading methods used by pattern makers. However, discussion with skilled pattern designers reveals that the grading procedure heavily depends on the specific design of a garment, and there is no automatic or systematic way to modify a given pattern design to fit differently sized bodies. Fig. 1. Internet shopping [1] In practice, the grading procedure used in the fashion industry relies in large part on designers’ experience, and therefore cannot be II-286 straightforwardly transferred to a computational procedure. Another, totally different approach to pattern generation would be to directly modify the 3D design of the garment and project the final result into 2D space to obtain the patterns. Such an approach should be more intuitive, given that the ultimate aim is to design a threedimensional garment. However, this approach has yet to be developed to a practically useful level. The development of an automatic, intuitive pattern generation method remains a research challenge that, when solved, will have a dramatic impact on the fashion industry as well as on character animation. 3D IN GARMENT INDUSTRY The garment is made from 2D patterns of garment surfaces. The approach to garment simulation takes its inspiration from the traditional garment industry, where garments are created from 2D patterns and then seamed together. A 3D garment simulator includes the mechanical model, a collision engine, rendering and animation. The patterns then need to be discredited into a triangular mesh. Once the patterns have been placed around the body, a mechanical simulation is invoked to make the patterns come together along the seam lines. Consequently, the patterns are attached and seamed, obtaining a shape influenced by the body shape. The mechanical simulation results in an animation of the garment on the body, accounting for the collision response and friction with the body surface. The final visual look of the garment is displayed through its material properties, i.e. colours, shininess and texture, which are some of the rendering parameters. Geometrical complexity is another very important consideration, as the rendering time, as well as the computation time for the animation is directly proportional to the number of polygons to be displayed. Fitting generic garment animation to personally sized bodies given a body created from a generic model, the system modifies the animation of the generic garment. As described in the previous section, the program generates bodies from a generic model using the measurement data from the scanned body. The same kind of methodology is applied to garments. A set of generic garments is attached to each generic body. The generic garment animation sequence is then automatically adapted to the personally sized Международна научна конференция “УНИТЕХ’08” – Габрово
  • 3. body. Intelligent pattern will allow shape analysis software to be combined with expert knowledge of traditional pattern cutting. 3D scanned body shape data will provide an electronic mannequin for an individual. This will link to clothing CAD/CAM systems, taking user style preferences into account, to produce madeto-measure fashion. In each frame of the garment animation, the vertex position of the garment is adapted to the skin surface of the personally sized body. Besides its innovative approach to many aspects of project developments (realistic 3D virtual try-on linked to CAD data, virtual prototyping based on scanned bodies, body shape analysis and classification, intelligent pattern alteration and storage of body data on smartcards), the impact of the project is expected to derive mainly from its global approach (technology integration, standard representations and interoperability). Fig. 2. Intelligent pattern [5] The impact is expected to be quite significant for all segments of the clothing industry and fashion retailing industry (infrastructures and standards to support size harmonisation; innovative, interactive visualisation and product description technologies to increase customer confidence in buying clothes online; and integration of critical steps and data for handling and fulfilment of orders for made-to-measure garments). Fashion in the global market today is big business. Globalisation continues to be a major force in developing new fashion strategies. Its component parts, the design, production and distribution of fashion merchandise – form the basis of a highly complex, multibillion-dollar industry. The fashion business includes all the processes involved with producing apparel and the retail stores that sell fashion merchandise to the public. It is a series of buying supplies, creating and developing a new product, and marketing the product. Many important developments have transformed the fashion industry dramatically in recent years, including changes in the economy, globalization, technology, consumer priorities and spending. The fashion industry of the new millennium is one that is quite different from the one that existed only a decade or two ago. This industry has become one of the most globalize of all sectors, with a vast worldwide production and distribution network that includes almost every country of the world as a participant in some way. Today, fashion houses, manufacturers, and retailers are expanding and diversifying. Those that don't will not survive easily. Even though the fashion industry is difficult to break into, opportunities abound in the industry. The apparel industry has been vastly restructured through different shifts in emphases and activities in the last few decades. In the past, each brand of the industry announced its new lines according to the fairly traditional schedule based on several factors; the change of the season; the time required to produce goods after buyers place their orders; and the time required by product developers (whose titles might have been fashion director, stylist or creative director) to assess the pulse of market. Products often took a year or more to get from the design stage to the consumer. In the latter part of the 20th century the textile industry struggled to adjust to globalization and increased competition from overseas producers with lower production costs. In the second half of the 20th century, and particularly since the 1980s, much of the manufacturing division of the Europe fashion and clothing industry has moved overseas [1]. This has been driven by the increasing textiles industry was manufacturing, with other elements as peripheral. Now the core of apparel business is seen as a rise in the importance of design product development, marketing and distribution, with manufacturing transformed into a concern for sourcing production from overseas suppliers. It is now often the case that garments produced by European companies will be designed, marketed and distributed from within the Europe, but will be manufactured abroad [2]. Международна научна конференция “УНИТЕХ’08” – Габрово II-287
  • 4. GARMENT INDUSTRY IN SERBIA Fig. 3. The intelligent textile and garment manufacturing environment [4] The future for more experienced designers with larger companies may focus on the design aspects of this process, with pattern cutters and machinists contributing to the preparation of sample garments. In smaller companies, the designer may do this and other tasks themselves. Designer's tasks will differ between jobs so his or hers responsibilities and can include: • Draw and cut patterns to create sample garments. • Select fabric and trimmings. • Combine basic dressmaking and tailoring principles with flat pattern work and draping techniques. • Supervising the making up of sample garments. • Fit and modify the finished garment with CAD. • Arrange showings for press and buyers when the sample garment line is ready. • Compare merchandise with those of the competitors. • Keep current on trends by reading trade magazines and attending fashion shows. •Visit textile showrooms to keep up to date on latest fabrics. • Analysing trends in fabrics, colours and shapes, range planning and development. • Sourcing, selecting and buying fabrics. • Adapting existing designs for mass production; • Liaising closely with sales, buying and production teams. • Negotiating with customers and suppliers. II-288 There are great problems in our fashion industry as far as market research, following competition, investment in its own development, making its own designs, and scientific way of introducing fashion products on the market are concerned. Fast changes in technology as well as customers' expectations make a producer keeping improving his/her fashion products and quality in order to keep his/her position on the market. It is not necessary only to apply the latest technological achievements in the production of high quality garments, although garment production is a very complex process. The problem that exists in our garment industry is that we analyze and follow trends that have already taken place on the fashion scene so while a collection is being accepted and the preparation for production is getting completed a new fashion demand is here, and the old one hasn't got accustomed yet. Fashion companies that do not invest in the development of products and production technology get into danger and can't "keep place" with fashion trend although they try hard. [3] There is no true standardization of sizing in the fashion industry. What is a size eight to one designer or clothing manufacturer is not necessarily a size eight to another. With no standardization of sizing, each and every designer has license to create their interpretation of each size. And it isn't just the size number itself that affects how clothing will fit you; it is what the designer is basing their original fit on that plays an equally important role. Even more frustrating is when a designer or retailer uses standard measurements to make their garments, then translates those numbers differently when converting to the popular "letter sizing" - S, M, L, XL, 1X, 2X, 3X - a sizing concept that has no universal standards. Generally speaking, more companies usually use a thinner and leaner fit model for their standard, and companies who are targeting an older or more classic customer usually choose a fit model with a rounder, curvier figure. There are also plus-sized fit models, petite fit models and junior sized fit models in the industry. In Serbia from the 2007 existed new standards SRPS ISO and SRPS EN for dimension size clothes, figure 4. Международна научна конференция “УНИТЕХ’08” – Габрово
  • 5. both by quality and prices. Many garment producers use know-how (available technical knowledge) and flexibility as well as closeness of the West-European market. In order to survive in European fashion industry, existing factories in Serbia understands problems and they byes CAD systems and attention with to the following 5 rules: 1. Innovation of products, Fig. 4. Comparison new (SRPS EN and SRPS ISO) and old standard in Serbia (JUS) The coordination of fashion designers' solution of ideas, possibilities to prepare construction, objective analysis of technicaltechnological possibilities of firms and management teams gives a chance to get to the strategy that will bring expecting placement and sale of goods on a fashion market for a long time in merciless completion that exist in fashion industry. The greatest faults and expense quality of products grow up in defining clothes, working out of products and planning technological process. It is thought the 75 % faults on product grow up in construction preparation because: influence atmosphere, the large capacity of work, understanding sketch of model or understanding with designer, not realized control of material or control dimension of patterns and control of all parts for production clothes. CAD system (virtual sewing) gives us a quality production without faults, figure 5. Fig. 5. Virtual sewing Working expenses in southeast Europe are still attractive for European conditions, so efforts are made in order to satisfy market demands as well as to accept challenges of Asiatic producers 2. Authenticity creativity, of fashion designers' 3. Small series, 4. Flexibility and 5. Production of special products (sport wear, special and protective clothes) and the use of special markets instead of standard products supply - industrial production to measure, garments for special ages and height. CONCLUSION Globalisation continues to be a major force in the apparel industry and is often the reason for important developments have dramatically transformed the fashion industry in recent years. In the latter part of the 20th century the textile industry struggled to adjust to globalisation and lower production costs and much of the manufacturing division of the Europe fashion and clothing industry has moved overseas. In the past, the core part of the fashion and textiles industry was manufacturing, now the core of apparel business is seen as a rise in the importance of design product development, marketing and distribution. The future of apparel industry shows towards adding high value, maintaining high quality production for niche markets whilst balancing the need for low value/volume production with effective sourcing and manufacture abroad. The recruitment of the suitable specialist in the fashion field and building a successful creative team has already became an essential tool for providing company's success and development. The CAD system in garment industry enables to give: - Material characterisation for simulation and fabric behaviour. Международна научна конференция “УНИТЕХ’08” – Габрово II-289
  • 6. - Human body characterisation - simply digital models of human shape for the development of standard patterns. - Development of a revolutionary design methodology and tools enabling direct garment design in 3D which will automatically be flattened into 2D patterns. - Radical rethinking of the design process. - Development of simulation, animation and design optimisation components for virtual prototyping. - Development cutting and sewing garments. II-290 REFERENCE [1] Euratex, Bulletin 2000/5, The European Textile/Clothing Industry on the eve of the New Millennium, Brussels, 2000. [2] Paunovic, D., Colovic, G., Virtual Technology in Online Retailing of Made-to-Measure Garment, Management of technology and innovation, pp (256-261), FON, Beograd, 2006. [3] Martinović, M. Colović, G., System PPORF in garment industry, Serbian Journal of Management, 2 (1), pp (73-81), 2007. [4] Dickerson, K.G., Jarnow, J., Inside the Fashion Business (7th Edition), Prentice Hall, New Jersey G.A. Kartsounis 1, N. Magnenat-Thalmann, 2 Hans-Christian Rodrian3, 2002. [5] E-TAILOR: Integration of 3D Scanners, CAD and Virtual-Tryon Technologies for Online Retailing of Made-to-Measure Garment Международна научна конференция “УНИТЕХ’08” – Габрово