Regional Clusters Crossing Borders

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Presentation at ESPON Workshop, Luxembourg, 5 Nov 2009

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Regional Clusters Crossing Borders

  1. 1. Economy First: Regional Clusters Crossing Borders<br />ESPON Workshop<br />Luxembourg, 5 November 2009Göran LindqvistCSC, Stockholm School of Economics<br />
  2. 2. Agenda<br />The European Cluster Observatory<br />Clusters – spatial and functional dimensions<br />Cluster mapping<br />Measuring spatial industry agglomeration<br />Urban vs. rural agglomeration<br />Future approaches<br />Q&A<br />Lindqvist, ESPON, Luxembourg, 5 Nov 2009<br />2<br />
  3. 3. IVORY TOWER<br />Lindqvist, ESPON, Luxembourg, 5 Nov 2009<br />3<br />
  4. 4. www.clusterobservatory.eu<br />Cluster Mapping<br />Collaboration Platform<br />Regional Framework Conditions<br />Cluster Library<br />Lindqvist, ESPON, Luxembourg, 5 Nov 2009<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Agenda<br />The European Cluster Observatory<br />Clusters – spatial and functional dimensions<br />Cluster mapping<br />Measuring spatial industry agglomeration<br />Urban vs. rural agglomeration<br />Future approaches<br />Q&A<br />Lindqvist, ESPON, Luxembourg, 5 Nov 2009<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Co-location of industries<br />Lindqvist, ESPON, Luxembourg, 5 Nov 2009<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Local (not clustered)<br />The ”cluster sector” represents about 1/3 of all employment<br />About 65% of employment<br />Cluster category 1<br />About 35%of employment<br />Cluster category 2<br />Lindqvist, ESPON, Luxembourg, 5 Nov 2009<br />7<br />
  8. 8. About 250 NUTS-2 regions<br />About 500 industries,<br />38 cluster categories<br />Lindqvist, ESPON, Luxembourg, 5 Nov 2009<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Agenda<br />The European Cluster Observatory<br />Clusters – spatial and functional dimensions<br />Cluster mapping<br />Measuring spatial industry agglomeration<br />Urban vs. rural agglomeration<br />Future approaches<br />Q&A<br />Lindqvist, ESPON, Luxembourg, 5 Nov 2009<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Cluster mapping projects<br />2000<br />2001<br />2002<br />2003<br />2004<br />2005<br />2006<br />2007<br />2008<br />2009<br />v. 1.2<br />US<br />SWE<br />ECO v. 1.0<br />EU-10<br />Porter:<br /><ul><li>US cluster codes
  11. 11. Mapping of the US</li></ul>Lindqvist, Malmberg & Sölvell:<br /><ul><li> Translation of US codes to EU codes
  12. 12. Mapping of Sweden, first application in Europe</li></ul>Ketels, Sölvell, Lindqvist :<br /><ul><li> Mapping of EU-10
  13. 13. Star measurement system developed</li></ul>Sölvell, Ketels, Lindqvist & Protsiv :<br /><ul><li> Mapping of EU-27+4
  14. 14. Launch of the European Cluster Observatory</li></ul>Lindqvist, Protsiv , Sölvell & Ketels :<br /><ul><li> Revision of cluster codes based on European data
  15. 15. Introduction of prioritised sectors (e.g. creative industries)</li></ul>Lindqvist, ESPON, Luxembourg, 5 Nov 2009<br />10<br />
  16. 16. Lindqvist, ESPON, Luxembourg, 5 Nov 2009<br />11<br />
  17. 17. Lindqvist, ESPON, Luxembourg, 5 Nov 2009<br />12<br />
  18. 18. Agenda<br />The European Cluster Observatory<br />Clusters – spatial and functional dimensions<br />Cluster mapping<br />Measuring spatial industry agglomeration<br />Urban vs. rural agglomeration<br />Future approaches<br />Q&A<br />Lindqvist, ESPON, Luxembourg, 5 Nov 2009<br />13<br />
  19. 19. Ind. A: 140<br />Ind. B: 130<br />Ind. C: 0<br />Ind. D: 110<br />Ind. E: 230<br />Ind. A: 120<br />Ind. B: 250<br />Ind. C: 80<br />Ind. D: 0<br />Ind. E: 0<br />Disproportionalitymeasures:Gini, Krugman, Theil, etc.<br />Ind. A: 260<br />Ind. B: 310<br />Ind. C: 100<br />Ind. D: 190<br />Ind. E: 240<br />Agglomeration<br />measures:Ripley’s K,“Lindqvist’s Q”<br />Ind. A: 130<br />Ind. B: 110<br />Ind. C: 90<br />Ind. D: 0<br />Ind. E: 0<br />Regional totals vs. geo-coded data<br />Lindqvist, ESPON, Luxembourg, 5 Nov 2009<br />14<br />
  20. 20. Agglomeration and co-location<br />Lindqvist, ESPON, Luxembourg, 5 Nov 2009<br />15<br />
  21. 21. Agenda<br />The European Cluster Observatory<br />Clusters – spatial and functional dimensions<br />Cluster mapping<br />Measuring spatial industry agglomeration<br />Urban vs. rural agglomeration<br />Future approaches<br />Q&A<br />Lindqvist, ESPON, Luxembourg, 5 Nov 2009<br />16<br />
  22. 22. Rural<br />Urban<br />rural, dispersed<br />urban, dispersed<br />rural, concentrated<br />urban, concentrated<br />Ref: Lindqvist (2009) “Disentangling Clusters”<br />Lindqvist, ESPON, Luxembourg, 5 Nov 2009<br />17<br />
  23. 23. Concentration:<br />the tendency of firms to co-locate with firms of the same industrymore than with firms in general<br />Urbanisation:<br />the tendency of firms to co-locate with firms of any industrymore than firms in general do<br />Clusters<br />Ref: Lindqvist (2009) “Disentangling Clusters”<br />Lindqvist, ESPON, Luxembourg, 5 Nov 2009<br />18<br />
  24. 24. Lindqvist, ESPON, Luxembourg, 5 Nov 2009<br />19<br />
  25. 25. Agglomeration depends on the range<br />Lindqvist, ESPON, Luxembourg, 5 Nov 2009<br />20<br />
  26. 26. Concentrated<br />The urban-rural shift<br />swine farmers<br />1 km<br />egg farmers<br />meat wholesalers<br />1 km<br />5 km<br />security brokers<br />1 km<br />25 km<br />1 km<br />1 km<br />125 km<br />agricultural wholesalers<br />non-life insurance<br />Dispersed<br />Rural<br />Urban<br />Ref: Lindqvist (2009) “Disentangling Clusters”<br />
  27. 27. Agenda<br />The European Cluster Observatory<br />Clusters – spatial and functional dimensions<br />Cluster mapping<br />Measuring spatial industry agglomeration<br />Urban vs. rural agglomeration<br />Future approaches<br />Q&A<br />Lindqvist, ESPON, Luxembourg, 5 Nov 2009<br />22<br />
  28. 28. A flexible online cluster mapping tool<br />User-defined regions<br />Combine NUTS-2<br />Specialregions<br />Baltic, Mediterranean, Danube<br />Defaultregions<br />mostly NUTS-2<br />User-defined<br />sectors<br />Combine NACE-4<br />Specialsectors<br />Creative industries, eco, etc.<br />Defaultsectorsabout 40 categories = allconcentrated industries<br />Lindqvist, ESPON, Luxembourg, 5 Nov 2009<br />23<br />
  29. 29. Agenda<br />The European Cluster Observatory<br />Clusters – spatial and functional dimensions<br />Cluster mapping<br />Measuring spatial industry agglomeration<br />Urban vs. rural agglomeration<br />Future approaches<br />Q&A<br />Lindqvist, ESPON, Luxembourg, 5 Nov 2009<br />24<br />
  30. 30. ?<br />!<br />Lindqvist, ESPON, Luxembourg, 5 Nov 2009<br />25<br />
  31. 31. Contact<br />Göran Lindqvist, PhD<br />Center for Strategy and Competitiveness<br />Stocholm School of Economics<br />www.sse.edu/csc<br />goran.lindqvist@hhs.se<br />+46 8 7369524<br />Lindqvist, ESPON, Luxembourg, 5 Nov 2009<br />26<br />

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