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Etiology, types of cancers, prevention and control of cancer.

Etiology, types of cancers, prevention and control of cancer.

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  • 1. CANCER Dr. Gopalrao Jogdand, M.D. Ph.D. Professor & Head, Community Medicine
  • 2. Definition
    • A group of diseases characterized by:
    • a. abnormal growth of the cells.
    • b. ability of these cells to invade the adjacent cells and tissues.
    • c. involving distant organs through metastasis.
    • d. Death of the patient in the event of growth of the tumor beyond the stage, when it could be removed.
  • 3. Magnitude of the problem
    • Global:- Accounts for 13% of all deaths.
    • 7.9 million deaths due to cancer.
    • Approximately 30.4 million people living with cancer.
    • Statistics indicates 19% increase in incidence of the disease.
    • 18% increase in the mortality in the last decade (2005).
  • 4. South East Asia Region
    • 3.4% of all deaths are due to cancer in India.
    • 6.6% from Indonesia.
    • 5.5% from Thailand.
    • 4.2% from Sri Lanka.
    • 2.9% from Myanmar.
    • 0.8% from Nepal.
    • Statistics for 2002.
  • 5. Cancer deaths S.E.A.R.
    • Statistical reports of W.H.O. 2005 show following mortality statistics for SEAR.
    • India- 8 lakh 66 thousand deaths.
    • Indonesia- 2 lakh 6 thousand deaths.
    • Thailand- 66000 deaths.
    • Myanmar- 39000 deaths.
    • Sri Lanka- 21000 deaths.
  • 6. Five leading cancers & their mortality in the world, 2005.
    • Lung cancer- 1.4 million deaths.
    • Stomach cancer- 8 lakh 66 thousand deaths.
    • Colon cancer- 6 lakh 77 thousand deaths.
    • Liver cancer- 6 lakh 53 thousand deaths.
    • Breast cancer- 5 lakh 48 thousand.
  • 7. Global pattern of cancers
    • Globally lung cancer is very common.
    • Stomach cancer is very common in Japan.
    • Breast and colorectal cancer is very common in European countries.
    • S.E.A.R. great majority of cancers are the oral and Ca. uterine cervix.
  • 8. Origin of major categories of cancers
    • Carcinomas- arising from epithelial lining of the internal surface of the organs, mouth, esophagus, intestine, uterus and skin.
    • Sarcomas- arising from mesodermal cells of various connective tissues, fibrous tissues, fat and bone.
    • Lymphomas, mylomas and leukemia's- arising from the cells of bone marrow and immune system.
  • 9. Causes of cancer
    • Environmental factors:
    • Use of tobacco: for smoking or chewing purpose causes cancer after long term use.
    • Alcohol: Excessive use of alcoholic drinks can cause cancer, a causal relationship is shown between beer consumption and rectal cancer.
  • 10. Causes……
    • Dietary factors:
    • Consumption of smoked fish is related to stomach cancer.
    • Beef consumption is related to bowel cancer.
    • High dietary fat consumption to breast cancer.
  • 11. Causes….
    • Occupational exposure:
    • Exposure to benzene, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, asbestos, vinyl chloride, poly cyclic hydrocarbons and aniline dyes cause various types of cancers.
    • Viruses: Hepatitis b, c and d virus, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, human papilloma virus.
    • Parasites: Schistosomiasis causing ca. bladder in Egypt.
  • 12. Causes….
    • Habits and life style factors:
    • Smoking, tobacco chewing, betel chewing, smoking and alcohol intake.
    • Genetic factors: Retinoblastoma amongst siblings, leukemia in Mongols is suggestive of a genetic linkage.
  • 13. Prevention and control of cancer
    • Cancer screening: In affluent countries community based or clinic based screening for cancer is done.
    • Breast cancer: 1. Breast Self Examination.
    • 2. Mammography. 3. Thermo-mammography.
    • Lung cancer: Mass radiography and sputum cytology.
    • Ca. Cervix: Pap smear screening of women over 35 years of age.
  • 14. Prevention and control
    • Strategy for cancer control:
    • 1. Public information and education.
    • 2. Legislative and restrictive measures.
    • 3. Community based cessation programs.
    • 4. National and international coordination.
    • 5. Better diagnostic and treatment facilities.
  • 15. Warning signs of cancer
    • Any change in the bowel and bladder habits.
    • Persistent cough or hoarseness of voice.
    • Bleeding form natural orifices.
    • Any change in the size of a mole or wart.
    • Hard and palpable lump in any part of the body.
    • Chronic non healing ulcer.
    • Excessive bleeding during menses.
    • Sudden and unexplained loss of body weight.
  • 16. Thank you