Inner City Initiatives

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Inner City Initiatives

  1. 1. Inner City InitiativesInner City Initiatives REVERSING THE DECLINE INREVERSING THE DECLINE IN THE INNER CITIES?THE INNER CITIES?
  2. 2. Stage 1 (1945-67)Stage 1 (1945-67) After the second World war manyAfter the second World war many local authorities were faced withlocal authorities were faced with a housing crisis. This was duea housing crisis. This was due to:to: • Population growth due to thePopulation growth due to the post-war baby boom andpost-war baby boom and increasing immigration.increasing immigration. • Increased life expectancies –Increased life expectancies – people were living longerpeople were living longer
  3. 3. • Family breakdowns and divorceFamily breakdowns and divorce leading to more single-parentleading to more single-parent families and smaller family units –families and smaller family units – more people leaving home earliermore people leaving home earlier and needing accommodation.and needing accommodation. • Army personnel returning afterArmy personnel returning after the war.the war. • Bomb damage during the war.Bomb damage during the war. • Inner city redevelopmentInner city redevelopment schemes which meant thatschemes which meant that displaced people had to be re-displaced people had to be re- housed.housed.
  4. 4. • The government activelyThe government actively followed a policy offollowed a policy of decentralisation,decentralisation, encouraging both people andencouraging both people and industry to move out of cities.industry to move out of cities. • Additional housing for theAdditional housing for the growing population andgrowing population and those displaced from thethose displaced from the inner cities was provided byinner cities was provided by encouraging people to moveencouraging people to move into the newly constructedinto the newly constructed and expanded towns,and expanded towns, constructed by local authorityconstructed by local authority housing in the suburbs.housing in the suburbs.
  5. 5. Comprehensive redevelopmentComprehensive redevelopment • A Comprehensive Development AreasA Comprehensive Development Areas Programme (CDA) involved “knock it allProgramme (CDA) involved “knock it all down and start again” and began in 1947.down and start again” and began in 1947. • The programme involved the large-scaleThe programme involved the large-scale clearance of terraces in order to provideclearance of terraces in order to provide new housing and improve inner citynew housing and improve inner city environments.environments.
  6. 6. • Most Local Authorities followed identicalMost Local Authorities followed identical planning strategies replacing the formerplanning strategies replacing the former terraces and tenements with high-riseterraces and tenements with high-rise flats.flats. • The whole landscape of parts of the innerThe whole landscape of parts of the inner city was transformed with huge concretecity was transformed with huge concrete and glass tower blocks.and glass tower blocks.
  7. 7. • At the time some of these high rise flatsAt the time some of these high rise flats received architectural awards such asreceived architectural awards such as those in Hulme in Manchester.those in Hulme in Manchester. • However the CDA policy was not entirelyHowever the CDA policy was not entirely successful.successful.
  8. 8. • The policy did not keep pace with the rateThe policy did not keep pace with the rate of housing decay and the redevelopmentof housing decay and the redevelopment failed to match the speed of demolition.failed to match the speed of demolition. • This added to the acute housing shortageThis added to the acute housing shortage and left vast expanses of derelict land.and left vast expanses of derelict land.
  9. 9. • The community spirit was lost andThe community spirit was lost and problems emerged with many of the towerproblems emerged with many of the tower blocks.blocks. • The policy also failed to tackle the socialThe policy also failed to tackle the social and economic problems, in particularand economic problems, in particular unemployment.unemployment.
  10. 10. HoweverHowever • The tower blocks fulfilled some of theThe tower blocks fulfilled some of the needs for modern housing in the innerneeds for modern housing in the inner cities.cities. • Flats had proper bathrooms and kitchens,Flats had proper bathrooms and kitchens, central heating and hot and cold runningcentral heating and hot and cold running water.water.
  11. 11. Back to the negatives…..Back to the negatives….. • Much of the housing was poorly designedMuch of the housing was poorly designed and badly built.and badly built. • Many flats suffered from excessiveMany flats suffered from excessive dampness.dampness. • Reinforced concrete used to construct theReinforced concrete used to construct the towers often deteriorated.towers often deteriorated.
  12. 12. • Dark Dingy corridorsDark Dingy corridors • A haven for undesirablesA haven for undesirables • Rubbish was dumped everywhere but theRubbish was dumped everywhere but the collection point.collection point. • Lifts broke…old were people stranded.Lifts broke…old were people stranded. • Noise was a massive problem.Noise was a massive problem.
  13. 13. *sigh**sigh* • No gardensNo gardens • Very little privacy (WallsVery little privacy (Walls were often paper thin)were often paper thin) • Physical and mental healthPhysical and mental health problems continued to beproblems continued to be high due to stress of highhigh due to stress of high rise livingrise living • Electric heating systemsElectric heating systems seemed to be tooseemed to be too expensive for mostexpensive for most households and they usedhouseholds and they used to breakdown frequently.to breakdown frequently.
  14. 14. Stage 2…..finally (1968- 1977)Stage 2…..finally (1968- 1977) • Research in the cities highlighted theResearch in the cities highlighted the complexity of problems including highcomplexity of problems including high unemployment, issues about race andunemployment, issues about race and immigration and the social dislocationimmigration and the social dislocation caused by the CDA Schemes.caused by the CDA Schemes.
  15. 15. • The 1968 urban aid programme gave grants toThe 1968 urban aid programme gave grants to local authorities to expand services in deprivedlocal authorities to expand services in deprived areas and to establish community developmentareas and to establish community development projects using self help.projects using self help. • More emphasis was being placed on improvingMore emphasis was being placed on improving services and attracting employmentservices and attracting employment opportunities.opportunities.
  16. 16. • The schemes were much more localisedThe schemes were much more localised in scale and involved local communities toin scale and involved local communities to a greater extent.a greater extent. • It was unfortunate that an economicIt was unfortunate that an economic downturn limited the funds for thesedownturn limited the funds for these schemes.schemes.
  17. 17. Stage 3 (1978 – 90)Stage 3 (1978 – 90) • The new town policy was abandoned in anThe new town policy was abandoned in an effort to stop further decentralization ofeffort to stop further decentralization of people and business.people and business. • For the first time, inner cities were officiallyFor the first time, inner cities were officially declared problem areas due to economicdeclared problem areas due to economic collapse caused by decentralization andcollapse caused by decentralization and deindustrialization.deindustrialization.
  18. 18. • New policies have all attempted to tackleNew policies have all attempted to tackle whole inner-city areas and they havewhole inner-city areas and they have aimed to regenerate inner city economiesaimed to regenerate inner city economies as well as to improve the environment andas well as to improve the environment and local services.local services. • In 1987 Margaret Thatcher was re-electedIn 1987 Margaret Thatcher was re-elected and introduced the “action for cities”and introduced the “action for cities” policy.policy.
  19. 19. There were four mainThere were four main programmes.programmes. 1.1. The urban programme which gave 75The urban programme which gave 75 per cent grants to the most needy localper cent grants to the most needy local authorities.authorities. 2.2. Derelict land grants for reclamationDerelict land grants for reclamation schemes such as garden festivals held inschemes such as garden festivals held in Liverpool, Glasgow and Gateshead.Liverpool, Glasgow and Gateshead.
  20. 20. • 3.Enterprise Zones in which efforts were made3.Enterprise Zones in which efforts were made to economic activity by giving businesses taxto economic activity by giving businesses tax breaks for 10 years.breaks for 10 years. • 4.Urban development corporations were4.Urban development corporations were expanded from London to Liverpool. UDCs haveexpanded from London to Liverpool. UDCs have been described as the most important attackbeen described as the most important attack made on urban decay.made on urban decay.
  21. 21. Stage 4 (1991 onwards) : CityStage 4 (1991 onwards) : City challenge.challenge. • City challenge was launched in 1991, after urbanCity challenge was launched in 1991, after urban areas continued to present a challenge toareas continued to present a challenge to planners and developers.planners and developers. • City challenge was launched in 1991.City challenge was launched in 1991. • Local authorities, where there are severe urbanLocal authorities, where there are severe urban problems, can bid for funds for specific urbanproblems, can bid for funds for specific urban projects.projects.
  22. 22. For ExampleFor Example • In Sunderland, City Challenge money hasIn Sunderland, City Challenge money has been used to redesign parts of the citybeen used to redesign parts of the city centre with a new shopping precinct andcentre with a new shopping precinct and bus station.bus station. • In Leicester derelict inner-city land hasIn Leicester derelict inner-city land has been transformed into a show piece areabeen transformed into a show piece area with new shops, services and housing.with new shops, services and housing.
  23. 23. PortsmouthPortsmouth • Portsmouth is another examplePortsmouth is another example of the city challenge scheme.of the city challenge scheme. • New developments to theNew developments to the Northern Quarter - centred onNorthern Quarter - centred on the former Tricorn site - andthe former Tricorn site - and the Commercial Road area willthe Commercial Road area will create an outstandingcreate an outstanding shopping area in the centre ofshopping area in the centre of Portsmouth, to complementPortsmouth, to complement   Southsea and GunwharfSouthsea and Gunwharf Quays.Quays.
  24. 24. • In the early 1990s there were manyIn the early 1990s there were many different schemes in operation and urbandifferent schemes in operation and urban policy was criticized for being toopolicy was criticized for being too fragmentary.fragmentary. • It was split between six differentIt was split between six different government departments and was notgovernment departments and was not always good value for money.always good value for money.
  25. 25. • By the end of the 1990s a singleBy the end of the 1990s a single government department, the Urbangovernment department, the Urban Regeneration Agency, has been createdRegeneration Agency, has been created and in 1994 the Single Regenerationand in 1994 the Single Regeneration Agency, had been created and in 1994 theAgency, had been created and in 1994 the Single Regeneration Budget was launchedSingle Regeneration Budget was launched to draw together funding into a singleto draw together funding into a single package.package.
  26. 26. • The SRB’s money is aimed at activitiesThe SRB’s money is aimed at activities that make a real and sustained differencethat make a real and sustained difference in deprived areas.in deprived areas. • Increasingly public and private jointIncreasingly public and private joint initiatives are being promoted.initiatives are being promoted.
  27. 27. And finally….And finally…. • In November 2000 the government released it’sIn November 2000 the government released it’s urban white paper setting out it’s vision of urbanurban white paper setting out it’s vision of urban living where people shape the future, live inliving where people shape the future, live in attractive well kept towns and cities.attractive well kept towns and cities. • They would live in a more environmentallyThey would live in a more environmentally sustainable way and share property and receivesustainable way and share property and receive good services.good services.
  28. 28. It proposed…It proposed… • That there should be stamp dutyThat there should be stamp duty exemptions in disadvantagedexemptions in disadvantaged communities.communities. • Tax credits for clearing contaminatedTax credits for clearing contaminated land.land. • Capital allowances for “flats overCapital allowances for “flats over shops” schemes and other taxshops” schemes and other tax reforms for property conversions.reforms for property conversions. • A new neighbourhood renewal fundA new neighbourhood renewal fund of £800 million over three years isof £800 million over three years is also to be introduced.also to be introduced.

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