Inner City InitiativesInner City Initiatives
REVERSING THE DECLINE INREVERSING THE DECLINE IN
THE INNER CITIES?THE INNER CITIES?
Stage 1 (1945-67)Stage 1 (1945-67)
After the second World war manyAfter the second World war many
local authorities were faced withlocal authorities were faced with
a housing crisis. This was duea housing crisis. This was due
• Population growth due to thePopulation growth due to the
post-war baby boom andpost-war baby boom and
increasing immigration.increasing immigration.
• Increased life expectancies –Increased life expectancies –
people were living longerpeople were living longer
• Family breakdowns and divorceFamily breakdowns and divorce
leading to more single-parentleading to more single-parent
families and smaller family units –families and smaller family units –
more people leaving home earliermore people leaving home earlier
and needing accommodation.and needing accommodation.
• Army personnel returning afterArmy personnel returning after
the war.the war.
• Bomb damage during the war.Bomb damage during the war.
• Inner city redevelopmentInner city redevelopment
schemes which meant thatschemes which meant that
displaced people had to be re-displaced people had to be re-
• The government activelyThe government actively
followed a policy offollowed a policy of
encouraging both people andencouraging both people and
industry to move out of cities.industry to move out of cities.
• Additional housing for theAdditional housing for the
growing population andgrowing population and
those displaced from thethose displaced from the
inner cities was provided byinner cities was provided by
encouraging people to moveencouraging people to move
into the newly constructedinto the newly constructed
and expanded towns,and expanded towns,
constructed by local authorityconstructed by local authority
housing in the suburbs.housing in the suburbs.
Comprehensive redevelopmentComprehensive redevelopment
• A Comprehensive Development AreasA Comprehensive Development Areas
Programme (CDA) involved “knock it allProgramme (CDA) involved “knock it all
down and start again” and began in 1947.down and start again” and began in 1947.
• The programme involved the large-scaleThe programme involved the large-scale
clearance of terraces in order to provideclearance of terraces in order to provide
new housing and improve inner citynew housing and improve inner city
• Most Local Authorities followed identicalMost Local Authorities followed identical
planning strategies replacing the formerplanning strategies replacing the former
terraces and tenements with high-riseterraces and tenements with high-rise
• The whole landscape of parts of the innerThe whole landscape of parts of the inner
city was transformed with huge concretecity was transformed with huge concrete
and glass tower blocks.and glass tower blocks.
• At the time some of these high rise flatsAt the time some of these high rise flats
received architectural awards such asreceived architectural awards such as
those in Hulme in Manchester.those in Hulme in Manchester.
• However the CDA policy was not entirelyHowever the CDA policy was not entirely
• The policy did not keep pace with the rateThe policy did not keep pace with the rate
of housing decay and the redevelopmentof housing decay and the redevelopment
failed to match the speed of demolition.failed to match the speed of demolition.
• This added to the acute housing shortageThis added to the acute housing shortage
and left vast expanses of derelict land.and left vast expanses of derelict land.
• The community spirit was lost andThe community spirit was lost and
problems emerged with many of the towerproblems emerged with many of the tower
• The policy also failed to tackle the socialThe policy also failed to tackle the social
and economic problems, in particularand economic problems, in particular
• The tower blocks fulfilled some of theThe tower blocks fulfilled some of the
needs for modern housing in the innerneeds for modern housing in the inner
• Flats had proper bathrooms and kitchens,Flats had proper bathrooms and kitchens,
central heating and hot and cold runningcentral heating and hot and cold running
Back to the negatives…..Back to the negatives…..
• Much of the housing was poorly designedMuch of the housing was poorly designed
and badly built.and badly built.
• Many flats suffered from excessiveMany flats suffered from excessive
• Reinforced concrete used to construct theReinforced concrete used to construct the
towers often deteriorated.towers often deteriorated.
• Dark Dingy corridorsDark Dingy corridors
• A haven for undesirablesA haven for undesirables
• Rubbish was dumped everywhere but theRubbish was dumped everywhere but the
collection point.collection point.
• Lifts broke…old were people stranded.Lifts broke…old were people stranded.
• Noise was a massive problem.Noise was a massive problem.
• No gardensNo gardens
• Very little privacy (WallsVery little privacy (Walls
were often paper thin)were often paper thin)
• Physical and mental healthPhysical and mental health
problems continued to beproblems continued to be
high due to stress of highhigh due to stress of high
rise livingrise living
• Electric heating systemsElectric heating systems
seemed to be tooseemed to be too
expensive for mostexpensive for most
households and they usedhouseholds and they used
to breakdown frequently.to breakdown frequently.
Stage 2…..finally (1968- 1977)Stage 2…..finally (1968- 1977)
• Research in the cities highlighted theResearch in the cities highlighted the
complexity of problems including highcomplexity of problems including high
unemployment, issues about race andunemployment, issues about race and
immigration and the social dislocationimmigration and the social dislocation
caused by the CDA Schemes.caused by the CDA Schemes.
• The 1968 urban aid programme gave grants toThe 1968 urban aid programme gave grants to
local authorities to expand services in deprivedlocal authorities to expand services in deprived
areas and to establish community developmentareas and to establish community development
projects using self help.projects using self help.
• More emphasis was being placed on improvingMore emphasis was being placed on improving
services and attracting employmentservices and attracting employment
• The schemes were much more localisedThe schemes were much more localised
in scale and involved local communities toin scale and involved local communities to
a greater extent.a greater extent.
• It was unfortunate that an economicIt was unfortunate that an economic
downturn limited the funds for thesedownturn limited the funds for these
Stage 3 (1978 – 90)Stage 3 (1978 – 90)
• The new town policy was abandoned in anThe new town policy was abandoned in an
effort to stop further decentralization ofeffort to stop further decentralization of
people and business.people and business.
• For the first time, inner cities were officiallyFor the first time, inner cities were officially
declared problem areas due to economicdeclared problem areas due to economic
collapse caused by decentralization andcollapse caused by decentralization and
• New policies have all attempted to tackleNew policies have all attempted to tackle
whole inner-city areas and they havewhole inner-city areas and they have
aimed to regenerate inner city economiesaimed to regenerate inner city economies
as well as to improve the environment andas well as to improve the environment and
local services.local services.
• In 1987 Margaret Thatcher was re-electedIn 1987 Margaret Thatcher was re-elected
and introduced the “action for cities”and introduced the “action for cities”
There were four mainThere were four main
1.1. The urban programme which gave 75The urban programme which gave 75
per cent grants to the most needy localper cent grants to the most needy local
2.2. Derelict land grants for reclamationDerelict land grants for reclamation
schemes such as garden festivals held inschemes such as garden festivals held in
Liverpool, Glasgow and Gateshead.Liverpool, Glasgow and Gateshead.
• 3.Enterprise Zones in which efforts were made3.Enterprise Zones in which efforts were made
to economic activity by giving businesses taxto economic activity by giving businesses tax
breaks for 10 years.breaks for 10 years.
• 4.Urban development corporations were4.Urban development corporations were
expanded from London to Liverpool. UDCs haveexpanded from London to Liverpool. UDCs have
been described as the most important attackbeen described as the most important attack
made on urban decay.made on urban decay.
Stage 4 (1991 onwards) : CityStage 4 (1991 onwards) : City
• City challenge was launched in 1991, after urbanCity challenge was launched in 1991, after urban
areas continued to present a challenge toareas continued to present a challenge to
planners and developers.planners and developers.
• City challenge was launched in 1991.City challenge was launched in 1991.
• Local authorities, where there are severe urbanLocal authorities, where there are severe urban
problems, can bid for funds for specific urbanproblems, can bid for funds for specific urban
For ExampleFor Example
• In Sunderland, City Challenge money hasIn Sunderland, City Challenge money has
been used to redesign parts of the citybeen used to redesign parts of the city
centre with a new shopping precinct andcentre with a new shopping precinct and
bus station.bus station.
• In Leicester derelict inner-city land hasIn Leicester derelict inner-city land has
been transformed into a show piece areabeen transformed into a show piece area
with new shops, services and housing.with new shops, services and housing.
• Portsmouth is another examplePortsmouth is another example
of the city challenge scheme.of the city challenge scheme.
• New developments to theNew developments to the
Northern Quarter - centred onNorthern Quarter - centred on
the former Tricorn site - andthe former Tricorn site - and
the Commercial Road area willthe Commercial Road area will
create an outstandingcreate an outstanding
shopping area in the centre ofshopping area in the centre of
Portsmouth, to complementPortsmouth, to complement
Southsea and GunwharfSouthsea and Gunwharf
• In the early 1990s there were manyIn the early 1990s there were many
different schemes in operation and urbandifferent schemes in operation and urban
policy was criticized for being toopolicy was criticized for being too
• It was split between six differentIt was split between six different
government departments and was notgovernment departments and was not
always good value for money.always good value for money.
• By the end of the 1990s a singleBy the end of the 1990s a single
government department, the Urbangovernment department, the Urban
Regeneration Agency, has been createdRegeneration Agency, has been created
and in 1994 the Single Regenerationand in 1994 the Single Regeneration
Agency, had been created and in 1994 theAgency, had been created and in 1994 the
Single Regeneration Budget was launchedSingle Regeneration Budget was launched
to draw together funding into a singleto draw together funding into a single
• The SRB’s money is aimed at activitiesThe SRB’s money is aimed at activities
that make a real and sustained differencethat make a real and sustained difference
in deprived areas.in deprived areas.
• Increasingly public and private jointIncreasingly public and private joint
initiatives are being promoted.initiatives are being promoted.
And finally….And finally….
• In November 2000 the government released it’sIn November 2000 the government released it’s
urban white paper setting out it’s vision of urbanurban white paper setting out it’s vision of urban
living where people shape the future, live inliving where people shape the future, live in
attractive well kept towns and cities.attractive well kept towns and cities.
• They would live in a more environmentallyThey would live in a more environmentally
sustainable way and share property and receivesustainable way and share property and receive
good services.good services.
It proposed…It proposed…
• That there should be stamp dutyThat there should be stamp duty
exemptions in disadvantagedexemptions in disadvantaged
• Tax credits for clearing contaminatedTax credits for clearing contaminated
• Capital allowances for “flats overCapital allowances for “flats over
shops” schemes and other taxshops” schemes and other tax
reforms for property conversions.reforms for property conversions.
• A new neighbourhood renewal fundA new neighbourhood renewal fund
of £800 million over three years isof £800 million over three years is
also to be introduced.also to be introduced.