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Inner City Initiatives

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Inner City Initiatives.

Inner City Initiatives.

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  • 1. Inner City Initiatives REVERSING THE DECLINE IN THE INNER CITIES?
  • 2. Stage 1 (1945-67)
    • After the second World war many local authorities were faced with a housing crisis. This was due to:
    • Population growth due to the post-war baby boom and increasing immigration.
    • Increased life expectancies – people were living longer
  • 3.
    • Family breakdowns and divorce leading to more single-parent families and smaller family units – more people leaving home earlier and needing accommodation.
    • Army personnel returning after the war.
    • Bomb damage during the war.
    • Inner city redevelopment schemes which meant that displaced people had to be re-housed.
  • 4.
    • The government actively followed a policy of decentralisation, encouraging both people and industry to move out of cities.
    • Additional housing for the growing population and those displaced from the inner cities was provided by encouraging people to move into the newly constructed and expanded towns, constructed by local authority housing in the suburbs.
  • 5. Comprehensive redevelopment
    • A Comprehensive Development Areas Programme (CDA) involved “knock it all down and start again” and began in 1947.
    • The programme involved the large-scale clearance of terraces in order to provide new housing and improve inner city environments.
  • 6.
    • Most Local Authorities followed identical planning strategies replacing the former terraces and tenements with high-rise flats.
    • The whole landscape of parts of the inner city was transformed with huge concrete and glass tower blocks.
  • 7.
    • At the time some of these high rise flats received architectural awards such as those in Hulme in Manchester.
    • However the CDA policy was not entirely successful.
  • 8.
    • The policy did not keep pace with the rate of housing decay and the redevelopment failed to match the speed of demolition.
    • This added to the acute housing shortage and left vast expanses of derelict land.
  • 9.
    • The community spirit was lost and problems emerged with many of the tower blocks.
    • The policy also failed to tackle the social and economic problems, in particular unemployment.
  • 10. However
    • The tower blocks fulfilled some of the needs for modern housing in the inner cities.
    • Flats had proper bathrooms and kitchens, central heating and hot and cold running water.
  • 11. Back to the negatives…..
    • Much of the housing was poorly designed and badly built.
    • Many flats suffered from excessive dampness.
    • Reinforced concrete used to construct the towers often deteriorated.
  • 12.
    • Dark Dingy corridors
    • A haven for undesirables
    • Rubbish was dumped everywhere but the collection point.
    • Lifts broke…old were people stranded.
    • Noise was a massive problem.
  • 13. *sigh*
    • No gardens
    • Very little privacy (Walls were often paper thin)
    • Physical and mental health problems continued to be high due to stress of high rise living
    • Electric heating systems seemed to be too expensive for most households and they used to breakdown frequently.
  • 14. Stage 2…..finally (1968- 1977)
    • Research in the cities highlighted the complexity of problems including high unemployment, issues about race and immigration and the social dislocation caused by the CDA Schemes.
  • 15.
    • The 1968 urban aid programme gave grants to local authorities to expand services in deprived areas and to establish community development projects using self help.
    • More emphasis was being placed on improving services and attracting employment opportunities.
  • 16.
    • The schemes were much more localised in scale and involved local communities to a greater extent.
    • It was unfortunate that an economic downturn limited the funds for these schemes.
  • 17. Stage 3 (1978 – 90)
    • The new town policy was abandoned in an effort to stop further decentralization of people and business.
    • For the first time, inner cities were officially declared problem areas due to economic collapse caused by decentralization and deindustrialization.
  • 18.
    • New policies have all attempted to tackle whole inner-city areas and they have aimed to regenerate inner city economies as well as to improve the environment and local services.
    • In 1987 Margaret Thatcher was re-elected and introduced the “action for cities” policy.
  • 19. There were four main programmes.
    • The urban programme which gave 75 per cent grants to the most needy local authorities.
    • Derelict land grants for reclamation schemes such as garden festivals held in Liverpool, Glasgow and Gateshead.
  • 20.
    • 3.Enterprise Zones in which efforts were made to economic activity by giving businesses tax breaks for 10 years.
    • 4.Urban development corporations were expanded from London to Liverpool. UDCs have been described as the most important attack made on urban decay.
  • 21. Stage 4 (1991 onwards) : City challenge.
    • City challenge was launched in 1991, after urban areas continued to present a challenge to planners and developers.
    • City challenge was launched in 1991.
    • Local authorities, where there are severe urban problems, can bid for funds for specific urban projects.
  • 22. For Example
    • In Sunderland, City Challenge money has been used to redesign parts of the city centre with a new shopping precinct and bus station.
    • In Leicester derelict inner-city land has been transformed into a show piece area with new shops, services and housing.
  • 23. Portsmouth
    • Portsmouth is another example of the city challenge scheme.
    • New developments to the Northern Quarter - centred on the former Tricorn site - and the Commercial Road area will create an outstanding shopping area in the centre of Portsmouth, to complement
    •   Southsea and Gunwharf Quays.
  • 24.
    • In the early 1990s there were many different schemes in operation and urban policy was criticized for being too fragmentary.
    • It was split between six different government departments and was not always good value for money.
  • 25.
    • By the end of the 1990s a single government department, the Urban Regeneration Agency, has been created and in 1994 the Single Regeneration Agency, had been created and in 1994 the Single Regeneration Budget was launched to draw together funding into a single package.
  • 26.
    • The SRB’s money is aimed at activities that make a real and sustained difference in deprived areas.
    • Increasingly public and private joint initiatives are being promoted.
  • 27. And finally….
    • In November 2000 the government released it’s urban white paper setting out it’s vision of urban living where people shape the future, live in attractive well kept towns and cities.
    • They would live in a more environmentally sustainable way and share property and receive good services.
  • 28. It proposed…
    • That there should be stamp duty exemptions in disadvantaged communities.
    • Tax credits for clearing contaminated land.
    • Capital allowances for “flats over shops” schemes and other tax reforms for property conversions.
    • A new neighbourhood renewal fund of £800 million over three years is also to be introduced.