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# Winemaking

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### Winemaking

1. 1. Basic math knowledge and facts you will need to make your own wine.
2. 2.  Conversion Table for Units Sugar Correction Potassium Metabisulfite Acid Reduction of Musts Acid Reduction of Finished Wines Crates of Wine
3. 3. 1 Fluid ounce = 29.573 milliliter1 quart = 16 fluid ounces .946 liter1 milliliter = .0338 fluid ounces1 liter = 1000 milliliters 4.23 cups1 ounce = 28.3 grams1 pound = 16 ounces .455 kilogram10 milligrams = .000353 ounce1 gram = 1000 milligrams .353 ounce1 kilogram = 1000 grams 2.2 pounds1 inch = 2.54 centimeters1 millimeter = .1 centimeters .03937 inch1 gallon = 3.79 liters1 quart = .946 liters * all conversions are approximate equivalents
4. 4. The ideal Brix (sugar concentration) when making wine is 22%. When you test the Brix level it will often be lower then the 22% desired level. You can correct this in two way.1. You can add sugar to water. Add water to 2 pounds of sugar until a gallon mixture is produced. Then add to the wine until the desired level of Brix is achieved.2. You can add sugar to the juice. Add 1.5-1.6 ounces of sugar per gallon for each point short of the desired Brix.
5. 5. o Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) is commonly added to the must after the grapes have first been crushed. Adding SO2 will inhibit wild yeasts and unwanted bacteria, help prevent oxidation, and preserve flavor and freshness in the wine. Potassium Metabisulfite contains SO2 and yields about half its weight, thus, potassium metabisulfite is commonly used during this stage.o 100 parts per million (ppm) is usually the desired standard.o To achieve this, add two grams of potassium metabisulfite for each bushel of grapes or add enough water to 100 grams of potassium metabisulfite to make 1 liter, which would be a 10% solution or 100 ppm.o For those of you trying to achieve other desired levels this might be helpful: o 1 gram of metabisulfite (1/4 teaspoon) = 150 ppm per gallon o 1 Campden tablet (made of potassium metabisulfite) = 30-50 ppm per gallon
6. 6.  Sometimes during fermentation the acid of the must can reach a higher level then desired. If this is the case there are two commonly used chemicals to help reduce the acid. 1. Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) Using 2.4 grams (1.5 tsp) per gallon will lower the acid by 0.1%. If you use more than 5 grams (2 tsp) per gallon you will end up with an undesirable flavor. 2. Potassium Bicarbonate (KHCO3) Use 3.4 grams per gallon to lower the acid per point.
7. 7. To lower the amount of acid in a finished wine, use Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3).To lower acid 0.1% add 230 grams in 500 ml water, then add 5 ml of mixture per gallon of wine.
8. 8. For those of you just starting to learn how to make your own wine we thought we would give you an idea of how much wine a crate of grapes will make. This should help you to calculate how many crates to buy based on how much wine you want to make.1 crate of grapes = approximately 30 pounds3 crates = 90 lbs = 5 gallons of wine5 gallons = 30 bottles of wine