Nuclear power


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  • City – Hiroshima after the explosion
  • On top – APS-1, Obninsk, 1954At the bottom – Obninsk Control Room, I can also put EBR-1 in Idaho Falls instead
  • Nuclear power

    1. 1. Nuclear Power<br />History of Nuclear Physics and Weapons;<br />Nuclear Power Today<br />By: Evelina Skarp & Martha van Schaik, 9C<br />
    2. 2. Introduction<br />Nuclear power was discovered over 100 years ago. <br />Everything related to nuclear power has not been a positive invention.<br />Right now nuclear power is being developed towards the benefit of mankind.<br />
    3. 3. Introduction to the Basic History of Nuclear Physics<br />The late 20’s and early 30’s are known for discovering radioactivity and the huge steps forward in the techniques and instrumentation of nuclear physics.<br />Scientists had to create large electric fields to be able to continue their research.<br />1930’s- Ernest Lawrence invented the cyclotron (=circular magnetic accelerator). <br />
    4. 4. Nuclear PhysicsBasic History<br />It is very difficult to date the birth of nuclear physics.<br />The year 1932 is considered to be the birth year of nuclear physics due to the discovery of the neutron, positron, deuteron and the completion of the first particle accelerator.<br />
    5. 5. Fission<br />Fission is the splitting of a heavy nucleus into lighter nuclei.<br /> Does not require a lot of energy.<br /> The energy released by fission is many times greater than the energy released by a chemical reaction.<br />
    6. 6. Fusion<br />Fusion is the fusing of light nuclei into a heavier nucleus.<br /> It requires a lot of energy to bring the protons close enough to overcome their electrostatic repulsion. <br />The energy released by fusion is many times greater than the energy released by nuclear fission.<br />
    7. 7. Nuclear Weapons<br />fission and fusion weapons<br />
    8. 8. Atomic Bomb in History<br />Nazi Germany was the first to start the development of an atomic bomb<br />1944 – invention of atomic bomb (USA) <br />1945, 6 of August, 8:15 – the first atomic explosion in Hiroshima (USA) (Little Boy)<br />1949- USSR tested their first fission weapon<br />The first person who seriously started to think about the possibility of an atomic bomb was Leó Szilárd (1898-1964) in the 1930’s.<br />USA were first to invent the atomic fission bomb. Russians stole the technology.<br />
    9. 9. Atomic Bomb, Little Boy<br />Fission weapons get their energy by blasting u-235 (an isotope of uranium) together forming a chain reaction. When the u-235 is blasted the nuclei split, giving out energy<br />
    10. 10. Atomic Bomb, Fat Man<br />There is another way to form critical mass.<br />Using shock-waves from shaped explosives the sub-critical mass is compressed. Fewer electrons are lost and the chain reaction begins<br />
    11. 11. Hydrogen Bomb<br />Deuterium and/or tritium are the fuel of a fusion weapon. It would have been risky to store either of these gases in a bomb. This problem was solved when scientists figured out that lithium could be turned into tritium by adding one neutron. A fusion bomb works by having a fission bomb as a trigger. When the fission bomb explodes, it gives out heat and neutrons, which turn the lithium into tritium, and compresses the tritium<br />Idea to create a more powerful fusion weapon appeared in 1950s.<br />This was the time of the Cold War so it is hard to tell who was first in the H-bomb development.<br />American sources say that they have performed a first explosion on the 1 of November of 1952.<br />Russian sources say that they made it on the 21 of September 1955 and that USA made it in 1956 at Bikini<br />
    12. 12. First Nuclear Power Plant<br />The rapid development of nuclear power was due to the nuclear arms race between USA and USSR during the Cold War.<br />After the war people started thinking of domestic uses for nuclear power, thus inventing commercial power plants.<br />December 1951- the first electricity was generated from atomic power at EBR-1 Idaho National Engineering Lab, Idaho Falls, USA<br />June 1954- the world’s first nuclear power plant to generate electricity for commercial use, APS-1, was connected to the power grid at Obninsk, Russia.<br />August 1956- the world’s first commercial power plant, Calder Hall 1, was connected to the power grid in England. <br />December 1957- USA’s first commercial power plant, Shippingport, goes into use in Pennsylvania. <br />
    13. 13. FrontiersBiographies<br />
    14. 14. Henri Becquerel(1852–1908)<br />Was a French physicist.<br />Born on 15th of December 1852 in Paris, France.<br />Best known for discovering radioactivity in 1896.<br />Discovered radioactivity by putting a key that was under some dark piece of paper in a closet that had radioactive material in it.<br />
    15. 15. Sir Ernest Rutherford(1871–1937)<br />Was a British physicist-chemist.<br />Born on 30th August 1871 in Nelson, New Zealand.<br />In the late 1890’s he suggested that the disintegration of atoms results in radioactivity. <br />In 1917 he discovered that the nuclei of light elements can be disintegrated, leading to the discovery of alpha and beta particles.<br />
    16. 16. Sir James Chadwick(1891–1974)<br />Was a British physicist.<br />He was born 20th October 1891 in Cheshire, England.<br />He helped Rutherford with the properties and structure of atomic nuclei.<br />In 1932 he proved the existence of neutrons.<br />
    17. 17. George Gamow(1904–1968)<br />Was an American physicist-theorist and astronomer. <br />He was born on 4 of March in 1904 in Odessa, USSR.<br />His first success was the formation of the fusion theory.<br />He lived and worked in USA. <br />He was the first one to work out star models with thermonuclear sources of energy.<br />He did research on alpha decay.<br />He made a model of the “Hot Universe”.<br />He was the first to formulate the problem of the genetic code.<br />He died on 19 of August in 1968, in Colorado, USA.<br />
    18. 18. Further Development of Nuclear Power<br />Today nuclear physics is developing in a more peaceful direction<br />We are starting to become more and more dependant on nuclear power. <br />Nuclear power produces more than 25% of the total electricity made in over 15 countries<br /> There is a total of about 440 nuclear reactors around the world.<br />
    19. 19. Nuclear Weapons Policies<br />After the end of Cold War, USA, G-7 and Russia established the Cooperative Threat Reduction Programs to:<br /><ul><li>dismantle strategic nuclear weapons
    20. 20. strengthen the security of nuclear weapons and materials
    21. 21. employ key scientists in weapons of mass destruction (WMD) complexes.</li></ul>Russia and USA did not become allies. Despite the signed agreement of de-targeting, each country has suspicions over other’s missiles explaining the sizes of their nuclear arsenals.<br />
    22. 22. Nuclear Power Stations in the World<br />
    23. 23. Pros & Cons<br />Many oppose nuclear power. The example how dangerous it is the disaster in Chernobyl.<br /><br />In future scientists are planning to use fusion as an ecological source of energy<br /><br />
    24. 24. Conclusion<br />Nuclear power was discovered over 100 years ago.<br />It has developed at a rapid speed thanks to the invention of nuclear arms.<br />Everything related to nuclear power has not been a positive invention <br />Now nuclear power is being developed towards the benefit of mankind.<br />
    25. 25. Bibliography<br />Frontiers. twentieth-century physics, Steve Adams, 2000, London and New York<br /> BSE (Big Soviet Encyclopedia, huge list of authors,)<br />The Dictionary of Battles. the world's key battles from 405 BC to today, general editor David Chandler, 1987, Ebury Press, London<br />Building the Universe, a new scientist guide. edited by Christine Sutton, 1985, Oxford<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />