Food, water , energy nexus,  presentation golam rasul, senior economist
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Food, Water, and Energy Security in the Hindu Kush Himalayan Region: A Nexus Perspective ...

Food, Water, and Energy Security in the Hindu Kush Himalayan Region: A Nexus Perspective
With limited land resources, inadequate energy supply, and growing water stress, South
Asia faces the challenge of providing enough water and energy to grow enough food for the
burgeoning population. Using secondary data from diverse sources, this paper explores the
food, water, and energy nexus from a regional dimension, emphasizing the role of Hindu
Kush Himalayan (HKH) ecosystem services in sustaining food, water, and energy security
downstream. The analysis reveals that the issues and challenges in the food, water, and
energy sectors are interwoven in many complex ways and cannot be managed effectively
without cross-sectoral integration. The most distinctive feature of the nexus in South Asia is
the high degree of dependency of downstream communities on upstream ecosystem
services for dry-season water for irrigation and hydropower, drinking water, and soil fertility
and nutrients. This finding suggests that along with cross-sectoral integration to improve
the resource-use efficiency and productivity of the three sectors, regional integration
between upstream and downstream areas is critical in food, water, and energy security.
Within the nexus approach in South Asia, equal attention should be paid to management of
HKH ecosystems–especially the watersheds, catchments, and headwaters of river systems–
and to tapping the potential of collaborative gains in water, hydropower, and other
ecosystem services through coordination across HKH countries.

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Food, water , energy nexus,  presentation golam rasul, senior economist Food, water , energy nexus, presentation golam rasul, senior economist Presentation Transcript

  • International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development Kathmandu, Nepal Food, Water, and Energy Security in the Hindu Kush Himalayan Region: A Nexus Perspective International Workshop on Adaptations and Resilience of Local Communities in the HKH, Hamburg, Germany 9th-11th October, 2011 Golam Rasul, Theme Leader, Livelihoods
  • Outline 1. Background & motivation 2. Nexus challenges 3. Different aspects of Nexus approach 4. Role of Himalayas in Nexus security 5. Challenge in sustaining HKH ecosystems 6. Conclusions & Recommendations
  • 1. Background and Motivation
  • Food, Water, Energy Security: A common challenge • Over 40% of the world's poor live in SA • Food-energy deficiency- 51% • Growing water stress- 20% lack access to safe drinking water • Food, Water & Energy security is a common challenge for SA
  • Food, Water, Energy Security: A common challenge • With 3% of land, SA has to feed 20% population • Per capita agricultural land has been declining • Population will reach 2.2 billion in 2050 • Cereal demand will increase from 241 476 million MT in 2050 • Increased production needs to come from limited or shrinking areas of cultivable lands • Water demand for irrigation will increase about 70% • Fertilizer demand will increase over 100%
  • Food, Water, Energy Security: A common challenge • About 7080% of agricultural production depends on groundwater irrigation • Electricity consumption in irrigation has increased several times • Food production highly sensitive & vulnerable to climate changes • Climate change likely to increase water & energy demand for food production & land demand for bio-fuel production
  • Food, Water, Energy Security: A common challenge • Himalayas major source of water & diverse ecosystem service critical for food, water, energy security in SA • Inadequate understanding about the nexus between food, water & energy in Upstream- downstream context- • Concept of Food, Water, Energy is critically important for SA
  • Motivation of the study • Missing link in the Nexus Discourse – Role of Ecosystems in sustaining food, water, energy security – Regional dimensions- transboundary water management • Key motivation – To understand the nexus between food, water & energy in SA • Role of the Himalayas ecosystem services in addressing the growing challenges of water, energy & food security.
  • • 2. Nexus Challenges
  • Nexus Challenges: Food Security • Food production needs to be doubled in next 25 years • Per capita agricultural land has been declining • Rice & wheat- high water & energy demanding • Increased production needs to come from limited or shrinking areas of cultivable lands • Intensification of agriculture has led to a great dependence on water & energy • Competition for land for food and bio-energy crops & ecosystem services
  • Nexus Challenges: Water Security • Growing water demand for agriculture, energy, industry, human & livestock • Uneven endowment of water resources • Almost 90% water is consumed by the agriculture sector • About 20% of the population lack access to safe drinking water • Groundwater depletion: 70-80% of the agricultural production depends on groundwater irrigation • Water pollution – arsenic, water borne diseases, high child mortality, poor human health, salinization • Growing water stress- Pakistan, India
  • Challenges: Irrigation Trend, Water Stress Irrigated land as % of arable land, India 501 1841 4509 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 1965 1985 2002 Irrigated area in Bangladesh ‘000 ha 5.8 20.8 56 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1965 1985 2002 Irrigated land as % of arable land, Bangladesh 25,523 40,637 57,178 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 1965 1985 2002 Irrigated area in India ‘000 ha 16 25 35 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 1965 1985 2002
  • Challenges: Irrigation Trend, Water Stress 77 673 1,135 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1965 1985 2002 4 29 36 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 1965 1985 2002 Irrigated land as % of arable land, Nepal Irrigated land in Nepal, ‘000 ha 11,139 15,548 17,810 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000 18,000 20,000 1965 1985 2002 62.9 77.6 83 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1965 1985 2002 Irrigated land in Pakistan, ‘000 ha Irrigated land as % of arable land, Pakistan
  • Challenges: Changing irrigation sources in SA Net irrigated area served by groundwater (000' ha) Groundwater irrigation as % of surface irrigation in 2000-2001 1993-94 2000- 01 Change % Key Indian states 17,413 21,760 + 25 197 Pakistan 8760 10,340 18 276 Sindh 140 200 42.9 Bangladesh 2124 3462 63 721 Increased extraction of groundwater has lowered the groundwater table in some parts of SA (Jaitly 2009).
  • Nexus Challenges: Energy Security • Widening demand - supply gap • 63% no electricity -65% use biomass for cooking • Shortage of energy impedes economic growth • Meeting growing energy demand for agriculture, water, industry & other economic activities • High dependence on traditional sources, fossil fuels, imported energy • Reducing reliance upon fossil fuels & carbon intensity
  • Nexus Challenge: Climate change • Climate change is a major concern - alterations in SA - temperature & precipitation, melting Himalayan glaciers, and degradation of natural resources & environment • Fresh water availability is projected to decrease • Increased frequency of extreme events, drought, floods, variability in climate, affecting monsoon patterns 1990-2080 (% change) World -0.6 to -0.9 Developed Countries 2.7 to 9.0 Developing Countries -3.3 to -7.2 Southeast Asia -2.5 to -7.8 South Asia -18.2 to -22.1 Sub-Saharan Africa -3.9 to -7.5 Latin America 5.2 to 12.5
  • • 3. Different Aspects of Nexus Approach
  • Nexus Approach • Nexus approach is a system-wise approach • Provide a framework for assessing trade-offs & synergies, resource use efficiency • Support minimizing trade-offs, maximizing synergies, generating additional benefits.
  • Different aspects of Food, Water, Energy and HKH Ecosystem Interface Himalayan Ecosystem Services Provisioning Regulating Supporting Cultural • Food, fodder, fuel • Fresh water • Minerals • Raw materials • Pollination • Genetic resources • Climate regulation • Water regulation • Biological control • Disturbance regulation • Regulating precipitation, monsoon • Recharging ground water • Soil formation • Erosion control • Water retention • Nutrient cycling, movement • Traditional knowledge and practices of conservation • recreation, • Agro-biodiversity Food and Agriculture Water Energy Enhanced Food, Water , Energy Security
  • Food, water, Energy: Trade-off & Synergies • Competition – Land - for food, energy, hydropower, ecosystem – Water – for food, energy – Energy - for agriculture, water • Complementarities – Agriculture contributes to energy-biomass, energy crops, biofuels. – Better agricultural practices > conserve watersheds > water availability in dry season – Good water management, e.g., irrigation efficiency > reduce demand for water & energy – Growing biofuels in unused land > energy security, food security
  • Food, water, Energy: Trade-off & Synergies • Policy linkages – Agric. Policy > water & energy demand – Energy policy > energy & water demand – Water policy > irrigation, agric., energy supply – Energy prices may divert land for energy crops– affect food security • Challenge- minimize trade-offs, maximize synergies • Subsidizing energy for irrigation > agric production > overexploitation of groundwater - threatened long-term agricultural sustainability.
  • 4. Role of Himalayas in Food, Water, Energy Security in South Asia
  • Himalayas – the water tower of Asia
  • Indo-Gangetic Plain- bread basket of SA • World’s largest irrigated agriculture in IGBP • Rice-wheat system produces the bulk of the food-grains of SA
  • Ground water recharge •Himalayan watersheds are natural storage of water •Himalayas influences the ground water condition of IGBP - Recharge deep aquifers •IGBP is rich in ground water – replenish by rainfall, snow & ice melting & seepage from Himalayan watershed
  • Monsoon Regulation • Himalayas regulates micro- climates, win d & monsoon circulation,
  • Energy Security • Himalayas have vital role in energy security in SA • Hydropower potential 500 GW (Vaidya, 2012) • Himalayas can provide access to green energy • Of the total hydropower potential in India, 79% is in the Himalayan region • Micro-hydropower
  • Agriculture & Food Security • Himalayas play significant role in agriculture & food security in SA through – Water supply-groundwater recharge – Sustaining wetland ecosystems – Maintaining biological diversity, agro-biodiversity – Himalayan rivers carry soils & nutrients to downstream – Himalayan river systems harbour richest fish biodiversity – Connecting Himalayan headwaters with the sea – Serve as biological corridors for migration of fish & other aquatic species – Supporting biological diversity & livelihoods.
  • Challenges of sustaining HKH Ecosystems • Degradation of natural resources- forest, rangeland, soil, watershed, headwaters of Himalayan rivers • Environmental degradation- biodiversity loss, ecosystem degradation, siltation, silting river beds, declining ground water recharge, drying up streams, • Socio-economic impacts- topsoil loss, declining productivity, water shortages, livelihoods insecurity, food insecurity, energy insecurity
  • Conclusions • Regional interdependencies of the food, water, energy nexus in the HKH mountain systems & downstream. • Inter-country coordination & collaboration is critical for long- term solutions for food, water, and energy security in SA. • Himalayan ecosystem services are vital to both upstream & downstream food, water & energy security • A basin-level approach is required to manage synergies & trade-offs in food, water, & energy nexus. • The Himalaya is a regional public good, it is common interest & shared responsibility to protect the Himalayan ecosystems
  • Recommendations • Strengthen inter-sectoral coordination • Recognize the role of HKH mountain ecosystems, upstream-downstream interdependencies • Optimum development & sustainable use of Himalayan water for water, energy & food security • Manage headwaters of the Himalayan rivers- Himalayan watersheds, forests, rangelands & farmlands. • Provide incentives to local communities for sustainable use & management of the headwaters
  • Recommendations • Provide alternative energy sources - to reduce black carbon emissions • Develop micro & macro hydropower optimally- identify potential hydropower areas, demarcate fragile zones . • Framework for regional cooperation for multiple uses of water for irrigation, energy, navigation, fisheries, domestic uses & for benefit-sharing. • Promote interdisciplinary research & a nexus knowledge base to support decision-making in managing trade-offs & promoting synergies
  • Thank you