SOLAR    Siting & SustainableDevelopment Guidelines  Tools for the City of Milwaukee        A Report for the Office of Sus...
TABLE OF CONTENTSExecutive Summary ................................................. 02              Solar Certification P...
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY                                                                      These items may be implemented indi...
INTRODUCTIONThe City of Milwaukee was designated as a Solar AmericaCity by the U.S. Department of Energy on March 28,2008....
PROBLEM STATEMENT     The City of Milwaukee currently lacks well-defined building codes and permitting procedures that pro...
OBJECTIVES & CRITERIAObjective 1                                                    Objective 2Create a sample solar build...
and other pertinent information necessary to complete a     solar energy system installation.     Criterion 3.3     Direct...
SECTION 01Public Participation &Research                         07
PUBLIC INPUT     An effective way to identify public values within the     community is to provide opportunities for publi...
“maybe” response. Finally, in support of a future workshop,15 responded “yes” to attending and 5 “no”. A detailedsummary o...
CASE STUDIES     To aid the Office of Environmental Sustainability in     developing strategies to advance the solar movem...
Accomplishments and Highlights                                 For more information:Advocating for State-level Policy and ...
In May 2007, DOE selected San Jose as a Solar American        lease model. In partnership with the County of Santa     Sho...
about clean energy solutions, advance available resources for green collar workforce training, and provide vital training ...
in the public sector— to finance renewable energy              Generation Energy Initiative, legislation that enacted what...
Commerce/Solar_Ready_Building_                                                                      Design_Guidelines_0202...
16
SECTION 02Solar Building Code &Certification                        17
SOLAR BUILDING CODE     While Wisconsin’s state statutes require solar electrical        inspectors certified by the Wisco...
ABC 123.05 Land Use – Solar energy systems must                    Subchapter III – Permitscomply with the zoning code.   ...
evaluate the plans for completeness, and if complete,           been paid.     a building permit file will be created to d...
The following inspections will be required for the               All code requirements shall be in accordance with theinst...
ordinances, the general framework for any Wisconsin   community is in place. As a leader in solar energy, Milwaukee   will...
Program Guide – Solar Water Heating and Photovoltaic Electric GeneratorsInstalled on One or Two Family DwellingsPage 11 of...
SOLAR READY BUILDING     CODE     This building code is similar to the solar building code       dwellings, public buildin...
on the roof; and                                                    a. In instances where the inverter and main service   ...
b. Obstructions should be kept clear of the continuous   connecting the solar array and main service panel.     surface re...
created at the time of the visit. A permit technician will      sheathing are not considered structural members.evaluate t...
Subchapter V – Fees                                                                   MODEL FOR WISCONSIN      Fees for al...
MODEL ORDINANCEHaving solar and solar ready building codes on the books        provided with adequate flashing. The condui...
MODEL FOR WISCONSIN                                                                    Other Wisconsin cities that are ser...
SOLAR BUILDINGCHECKLISTBelow is the proposed Solar Building Checklist. The                                          the Ci...
The inverter and main service panel should be located directly below the roof location of the future     solar array.     ...
Current ratings supplied to the electrical panel must comply with NEC 690.64(B) guidelines.Space for a solar electric feed...
FAST TRACKING                                                   METHOD B: Fast Tracking With an Enforceable Solar         ...
SOLAR CERTIFICATIONPROGRAMTo increase awareness of Milwaukee’s solar initiatives          Applications will be available f...
The cost of the plaque will not be covered by the City and          can market for-sale properties as being Gold, Silver, ...
CERTIFICATION WORKSHEET [summary]City of Milwaukee Office of Sustainability                                               ...
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines
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Developed solar building code and certification, recommended solar developments, compiled case studies, and created a smartphone app & website for the City of Milwaukee. Also hosted public participation meeting. Team Members: Heather Goetsch, Michelle Dolnik, Laura Catherman, Stephen Hudak, See Colin Quintana

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Solar Siting & Sustainable Development Guidelines

  1. 1. SOLAR Siting & SustainableDevelopment Guidelines Tools for the City of Milwaukee A Report for the Office of Sustainability UW-Milwaukee | Urban Planning 811 | Spring 2012 Catherman • Dolnik • Goetsch • Hudak • Quintana
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTSExecutive Summary ................................................. 02 Solar Certification Program .................................. 35Introduction ............................................................. 03 SECTION 03 | Solar Suitability in MilwaukeeProblem Statement ................................................. 04 Solar Development Zones ..................................... 40Objectives & Criteria .............................................. 05 Smartphone App & Website .................................. 45SECTION 01 | Public Participation & Research Conclusion & Recommendations ........................ 49Public Input ............................................................... 08 Appendix A ............................................................... 50 Survey .................................................................. 08 Appendix B ............................................................... 56 Workshop ........................................................... 09 Appendix C ............................................................... 61Case Studies ............................................................. 10 Ann Arbor, MI ..................................................... 10 San José, CA ........................................................ 11 Tucson, AZ .......................................................... 13 Minneapolis / St. Paul, MN ............................... 14SECTION 02 | Solar Building Code & CertificationSolar Building Code ................................................ 18Solar Ready Building Code .................................... 24Model Ordinance .................................................... 29Solar Building Checklist .......................................... 31 01
  3. 3. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY These items may be implemented individually but will be most effective when used together. Solar Certification: Modeled after the LEED Certification program, a solar certification is included to help market solar in Milwaukee. Model Solar District: Development of a model solar district in the 30th Street Industrial Corridor is examined. This can serve as a model for future districts. Smartphone App and Website: A smartphone app and website was created to help aide residents, installers, and developers with solar development in Milwaukee. To help guide the project and gain insight, a survey and workshop was conducted with local installers and professionals in the solar industry. The email-based The City of Milwaukee’s lack of well-defined building codes, survey and in-person workshop were well received and permitting procedures, and clear installation guidelines has proved that strong solar interest does exist in the City of hindered the solar development process in Milwaukee. Milwaukee. These barriers have also prevented Milwaukee Shines Milwaukee is positioning itself to become a model for other from effectively increasing solar usage in the city despite cities in Wisconsin and around the country interested education, training, and cost assistance efforts. in developing solar-ready building codes and permitting Four deliverables, guided by several objectives and criteria, processes. By implementing the deliverables included in were created to address these issues. These deliverables this report, the City of Milwaukee has the potential to were also guided by best practices gleaned from case grow solar energy usage at a rate higher than currently studies in Ann Arbor, MI; Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN; San experienced and become a national leader in solar energy José, CA; and Tucson, AZ. building practices. Solar Building Codes: Two model building codes - one for solar installations and one for solar-ready buildings - are included along with a model ordinance and checklist.02
  4. 4. INTRODUCTIONThe City of Milwaukee was designated as a Solar AmericaCity by the U.S. Department of Energy on March 28,2008. Around the same time, climate protection had beena focus of city officials. In 2007, Mayor Barrett createdthe first Cabinet-level office dedicated to the Office ofEnvironmental Sustainability (OES) and signed the Mayor’sClimate Protection Agreement, with a goal of reducing theCity’s energy usage by 15% by 2012.The Milwaukee Shines program, a partnership betweenOES,We Energies, Focus on Energy, and Midwest RenewableEnergy Association (MREA), was created with the goalto lower the cost of installations. This team identifiedvarious obstacles to adopting solar in Milwaukee and todeveloped strategies to address those barriers. The threemain barriers identified were economic, informational, andprocedural barriers. Workers installing a solar panel on a Milwaukee residence Photo: Midwest Renewable Energy AssociationSubstantial efforts have been made to overcome theeconomic barriers.The area saw an increase in the numberof solar PV installers in the area from 7 to 24 and in the Recent developments in 2012 within OES include thenumber of assessors from 9 to 22 from 2009-2010. The announcement of Milwaukee’s Sustainability Plan, whichCity partnered with Summit Credit Union to offer up to includes the vision and action plan. Additionally, Mayor$2 million to help property owners with the upfront costs Barrett has assembled a 15-person joint City-communityof installations, and to host various training workshops for “Green Team” to oversee the planning efforts.solar professionals. Despite all of the program’s accomplishments, assemblingTo address informational barriers, a website for the all the requirements and procedures necessary toMilwaukee Shines program, along with other forms of streamline the permitting process is still an issue. Confusionsocial media, was created to give consumers access among the City departments’ rules regarding processingto information and resources on solar-related issues. permits, building codes, and inspection requirements are aNumerous public events have been held to help Milwaukee hindrance to addressing the procedural barrier.residents gain more insight and understanding of the solarmarket. 03
  5. 5. PROBLEM STATEMENT The City of Milwaukee currently lacks well-defined building codes and permitting procedures that provide clear guidelines pertaining to solar installations for building owners and contractors. This has prevented Milwaukee Shines from effectively increasing solar usage in the city despite education, training, and cost assistance efforts. In addition, Milwaukee is looking to become a model for other cities in Wisconsin and around the country interested in developing solar-ready building codes and permitting processes. By providing clear building codes and an easier permitting procedure, the City of Milwaukee has the potential to grow solar energy usage at a rate higher than currently experienced and become a national leader in solar energy building practices.04
  6. 6. OBJECTIVES & CRITERIAObjective 1 Objective 2Create a sample solar building code that can Develop a solar certification program as a meansbe used by the City of Milwaukee, and other for the City to market Milwaukee Shines toWisconsin municipalities, to provide and clarify residents and developers.requirements and permitting procedures for solar Criterion 2.1energy system installations. Create a model certification program for other cities inCriterion 1.1 Wisconsin to use.Provide best practices and recommendations identified in Criterion 2.2solar energy system research. Create a worksheet for applicants to check eligibility.Criterion 1.2 Criterion 2.3Identify requirement differences for commercial vs. Develop different levels of certification based on the typeresidential buildings and new buildings vs. retrofits. and size of energy-saving methods utilized.Criterion 1.3 Criterion 2.4Identify state building and electrical requirements that Develop marketing strategies to increase participation inmust be included in all solar energy systems. the certification program.Criterion1.4Identify structural requirements necessary to safely Objective 3support rooftop solar energy systems. Develop a web and mobile application to assistCriterion 1.5 building owners and contractors in the permitting,Include all solar energy system installation regulations andrequirements in one location. inspection, and decision-making processes necessary to install a solar energy system.Criterion 1.6Clarify solar energy system installation regulations Criterion 3.1and requirements for building owners, installers, and Inform building owners of their building’s candidacy as acontractors. solar energy building.Criterion 1.7 Criterion 3.2Adapt solar ready building code into checklist format. Provide electrical inspector districts, contact information, 05
  7. 7. and other pertinent information necessary to complete a solar energy system installation. Criterion 3.3 Direct building owners and contractors to required building and electrical permits. Criterion 3.4 Connect building owners to financial resources available to fund solar energy system installation. Objective 4 Identify potential solar development zones where neighborhood solar energy system installation projects can be piloted. Criterion 4.1 Identify solar energy potential for every building within the City of Milwaukee. Criterion 4.2 Determine areas of the City that contain high concentrations of buildings with high solar energy potentials.06
  8. 8. SECTION 01Public Participation &Research 07
  9. 9. PUBLIC INPUT An effective way to identify public values within the community is to provide opportunities for public input. In order to understand how the stakeholders for solar energy systems in the City of Milwaukee value solar, they were asked more broadly about solar energy systems and more specifically about the solar deliverables. The stakeholders consisted of residents of the City of Milwaukee, solar installers, utility representatives, industry experts and supporters, and governmental representatives. Stakeholders were inquired twice: first through an electronic survey and second through a workshop. SURVEY An electronic survey was sent on March 1, 2012, to 38 community members identified by Amy Heart with the Milwaukee Shines program, and 18 people responded. The main purpose of the solar survey was to get a general picture of people’s opinions on solar energy installations, find out if they would take advantage of the solar tools, to give an initial introduction to solar districts, and make community members aware of the solar workshop. Based on the survey responses, the stakeholders value several aspects of solar energy systems: that solar energy can produce fewer greenhouse gases, reduce their local electric bill, support the development of a new energy technology and market, and receiving financial incentives to aid the purchase of systems. Stakeholders supported the idea of “solar-ready” buildings with 12 “yes”, 3 “no”, and 3 “maybe”, in response to building or renovating a building as “solar-ready.” A majority of stakeholders supported the idea of “solar districts” with 14 “yes”, 3 “no”, and 108
  10. 10. “maybe” response. Finally, in support of a future workshop,15 responded “yes” to attending and 5 “no”. A detailedsummary of the questions and responses are in AppendixA..WORKSHOPFollowing the solar survey, on April 3, 2012, a workshopcalled, “Solar Siting and Sustainable DevelopmentGuidelines Workshop” was held at Helios Solar Works inMilwaukee. Fifteen people attended the workshop out ofseventeen registrants. The purpose of the workshop wasto gain detailed feedback for each individual deliverable:1) the solar-ready and solar building code, 2) solarcertification program, 3) solar districts, and 4) solarwebsite and smartphone application.The workshop began with a brief introduction andinstructional for the planned activity.The activity consistedof four stations representing the four deliverablespreviously mentioned. Each of the four stations containeda feedback form and sample of the deliverable. Theattendees were split into four groups and then rotated toeach station, and at each station reviewed the deliverableand gave feedback either on the form or to the groupmember sitting at that station. For a detailed summary ofthe workshop, view Appendix B. 09
  11. 11. CASE STUDIES To aid the Office of Environmental Sustainability in developing strategies to advance the solar movement in the City of Milwaukee, we explored other cities to gain insights on how they have implemented strategies specific to their locale. Four case studies have been conducted to examine successes and best practices in: Ann Arbor, Michigan; San Jose, California; Tucson, Arizona; and St. Paul/ Minneapolis, Minnesota. These cities have demonstrated huge gains in the solar industry by setting specific, measurable goals and policies, implementing action plans by involving stakeholders and utilizing public participation, and developing marketing strategies to accomplish their goals. Several ‘best practices’ from each case study have guided our action plans for Milwaukee, including: Solar specific building codes and ordinances; Building checklists; The “Nature House” at the Leslie Science Center in Ann Arbor, MI, which is an environmental learning center for schoolchildren, features Website development and enhancement; solar hot-water panels and two PV systems among other solar Solar development districts; and technologies Photo: Ann Arbor Area CVB Solar energy rating system. Improve city regulations and building codes to help ANN ARBOR, MI streamline the installation of solar systems Train installers and city staff to properly assess sites Ann Arbor was designated by the U.S. Department of for solar feasibility including accounting for code and Energy (DOE) as a Solar America City in 2007. The city permitting issues set a goal to install 5,000 solar systems and obtain 20% of the city’s energy from renewable sources by 2015. To Increase the number of large-scale solar installations on achieve these goals, the Ann Arbor Solar America Cities city buildings, including highly visible public demonstration partnership identified the following activities: and educational installations Develop an Ann Arbor Solar Plan to identify and remove Establish new partnerships with local organizations barriers to increased solar energy use designed to educate the Ann Arbor community10
  12. 12. Accomplishments and Highlights For more information:Advocating for State-level Policy and Legislation http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy12osti/50192.pdf Enacted legislation to enable cities to develop Property http://www.epa.gov/P3/success/michigan.pdf Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing programsUsing a Solar Feasibility Study as a Training Opportunity SAN JOSE, CA Criteria used for evaluating municipal buildings: available California Solar Initiative roof area, roof age and condition, shading factors, electrical interconnection access, conduit routing, As part of California’s efforts to increase renewable facility energy consumption, electrical meter location, energy, in 2006, Governor Schwarzenegger signed the potential inverter and disconnect mounting locations, Million Solar Roofs Initiative, aka the California Solar structural roof issues, and potential thermal applications. Initiative (CSI), which established three goals: (1) to install Experts conducting the site evaluations trained a rep 3,000 megawatts (MW) or approximately one million from Recycle Ann Arbor, a local non-profit charged with solar roofs by the end of 2016; (2) to establish a self- promoting green building practices in Ann Arbor. sufficient solar industry in which solar energy systems are a viable mainstream option in ten years; and (3) to placeCost-Conscious Solar Mapping solar energy systems on 50 percent of new homes within A group of university students used aerial photographs 13 years. to analyze the solar potential of single-family houses in Ann Arbor and concluded that 86% of the 22,000 Ann Arbor rooftops would be feasible sites for solar hot water installationsWorking with the Historic District Commission Ann Arbor’s first community-funded installation was developed for the historic Michigan Theater. The proposal was unanimously approved by the commission. The rationale for approving the installation was that they are reversible and could be removed in the future without any permanent impact to the structure. It also establishes important precedents for when the commission does allow solar installation in the future. The commission also formed a committee to study solar, identifying best practices for mounting systems and types of solar panels available. This will allow the commission to balance aesthetic and historic preservation needs A new PV array system is installed on a home of a city employee who with sustainability objectives. participated in the group buy pilot in 2010 Photo: City of San José, NREL/PIX 19492 11
  13. 13. In May 2007, DOE selected San Jose as a Solar American lease model. In partnership with the County of Santa Showcase. At the time of the city’s designation in Clara and Joint Venture Silicon Valley, San Jose developed 2008, approximately 500 solar installations totaling 3.7 and implemented a workshop on Power Purchase megawatts (MW) existed within city boundaries. The Agreement project management, and a regional solar City of San José (City) has long been a leader in green Power Purchase Agreement Procurement project. San policies and environmentally-friendly programs. City Jose also received a 2010 Community Development Council adoption of San José’s Green Vision in October Block Grant for PV on six municipal facilities that serve 2007 aligned and strengthened the City’s focus on energy, low-income residents with specific and aggressive goals related to the use of energy, implementation of renewable technologies and the Increased Consumer Awareness creation of green collar workforce opportunities: San Jose has provided education, training, and curriculum to more than 60 K-12 educators, along with hands-on Goal 1: Create 25,000 Clean Tech jobs. solar cooking workshops to schools and afterschool Goal 2: Reduce per capita energy use by 50%. programs. Scholarships for local teachers to attend the Rahus Institute Solar Schoolhouse Summer Institute for Goal 3: Receive 100% of our electrical power from Educators and the U.S. Dept. of Energy Solar Trainer clean renewable sources. Institute in Florida. The Silicon Valley Energy Map was developed in collaboration with the city’s Energy Watch Goal 4: Build or retrofit 50 million square feet of green program to provide information on energy use, solar buildings. and renewable energy, and green buildings in Santa Clara Among the Green Vision’s ten goals, one of the more County. San Jose also created a solar website to provide ambitious is ensuring that 100% of the City’s electricity resources on the basics of solar, incentives, workshops, needs are met by renewable energy sources by 2022. San and events to help the community learn about solar José is working to develop programs for the community technologies and how to “go solar” in San Jose. that will remove barriers to solar adoption and enable Workforce Readiness residents and businesses to contribute to achieving the City’s Green Vision goals. Clean Energy Tech Strategy from October 2007-2010 assisted in the creation of more than 3,000 clean tech Accomplishments and Highlights jobs. Additionally, in partnership with Pacific Gas and As of October 2010, a cumulative total of 2,035 PV systems Electric, San Jose has held multiple solar-related training have been installed in San Jose, totaling 27 MW. courses for the general public. Training workshops have also been developed in PV and firefighter safety Financing San Jose Green Vision Clean Energy Showcase In 2008, San Jose’s Mayor, Chuck Reed issued a challenge These showcases provide visitors with hands-on to the industry calling on solar companies to develop experience with advanced solar, wind, and energy ways for residents to install solar with no upfront cost efficiency technologies. They seek to educate consumers within 60 days, leading the way for zero-down solar12
  14. 14. about clean energy solutions, advance available resources for green collar workforce training, and provide vital training and education for San Jose’s students.For more information: http://energy.sanjoseca.gov/solar/default.asp http://www.sanjoseca.gov/planning/pdf/Ord28320.pdf http://www.energy.ca.gov/2009publications/CEC-180- 2009-005/CEC-180-2009-005.PDFTUCSON, AZ Tucson adopted an ordinance in June 2008 that requiresall new single-family homes and duplexes in Tucsonto be “solar-ready” before a building permit is issued.The ordinance requires all new homes either to have a Tucson promotes solar in the community through highly visible installations on city-owned buildingsphotovoltaic (PV) and solar water heating system installed, Photo: iStock 10405326,View of the City of Tucsonor to have the necessary hardware installed so that asystem can easily be installed at a later date. and cooling loads.The new rules require: 4. Show an Electrical Panel Schedule with a 240 volt circuit 1. Provide a Site Plan showing the best space available breaker space labeled “reserved for Photo Voltaic”. for accommodating Photo Accomplishments and Highlights Voltaic (PV) equipment (meter, disconnect & inverter) City of Tucson Residential Green Building Rating System with minimum area of 4 square feet. Locate the PV equipment adjacent to the electrical service panel if Single family, duplex, and triplex homes no more than feasible or on a wall close to the proposed collector three stories in height may apply for certification. The panel space. rating system provides four levels of certification: 2. Show on the Site Plan the best roof space available Bronze: 75-100 points for accommodating PV solar collector panels. Provide a Silver: 101-130 points roof structure designed for the additional collector dead loading (typically 4 lbs/SF). Gold: 131-160 points 3. Show a minimum 3,800 volt-ampere PV electrical load Emerald: over 160 points entry on the Service Financing with Clean Renewable Energy Bonds (CREBS) Load Calculation.This load is continuous as with heating CREBs may be used by certain entities— primarily 13
  15. 15. in the public sector— to finance renewable energy Generation Energy Initiative, legislation that enacted what projects. CREBs may be issued by electric cooperatives, some considered at that time the nation’s most aggressive government entities (states, cities, counties, territories, renewable energy standard. Then the state only had 1 Indian tribal governments, or any political subdivision megawatt (MW) of solar capacity. thereof), and by certain lenders. CREBs are theoretically issued with a 0% interest rate, where the borrower pays The following key activities were identified to meet the back only the principal of the bond, and the bondholder cities’ solar goals: receives federal tax credits in lieu of the traditional bond Implement change in policies and standards relevant to interest. Eventually, Tucson was able to issue a 13-year solar deployment bond that covered $7.6 million for seven projects. The Develop financing mechanisms for solar projects seven projects will net the city more than $3.4 million Elevate public awareness and interest in solar over the 25-year life of the solar equipment. The City of technologies Tucson used the bond funds to expand its solar capacity from 220 kilowatts (kW) to more than 1.2 MW. Identify ways to integrate solar technologies into city infrastructure For additional information: Provide education and training for solar installers http://solaramericacommunities.energy.gov/pdfs/tucson. pdf Accomplishments and Highlights http://cms3.tucsonaz.gov/files/dsd/ District Energy Saint Paul Solar Thermal Project CityofTucsonGreenBuildingProgram.pdf The Twin Cities Solar America Cities team worked http://cms3.tucsonaz.gov/devnews/news/tucson039s- with District Energy Saint Paul to acquire a $1 million green-building-program Solar America Cities Special Projects grant. The grant leveraged more than $1.2 million in matching funds http://cms3.tucsonaz.gov/files/agdocs/20090805/aug5- from District Energy Saint Paul to create a unique solar 09-432.pdf thermal installation (1.2 MW, the largest in the Midwest) http://cms3.tucsonaz.gov/files/agdocs/20080617/june17- on the Saint Paul RiverCentre in downtown Saint Paul. 08-311.pdf http://cms3.tucsonaz.gov/energy/solarintucson http://www.dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive. Solar Friendly Zoning and Solar Permitting Process cfm?Incentive_Code=AZ26R&re=1&ee=1 Improvements The Twin Cities already recognized solar energy as MINNEAPOLIS / ST. PAUL, allowed accessory uses in all zoning districts. The cities now have developed new regulations that distinguish MN solar energy from other accessory uses and clarify where accessory use regulation is inappropriate or needs The Twin Cities also benefits from statewide Next additional consideration. The Minneapolis ordinance14
  16. 16. Commerce/Solar_Ready_Building_ Design_Guidelines_020211042659_ SolarBuildingDesignGuidelines.pdf http://www.state.mn.us/mn/externalDocs/ Commerce/Solar_Ready_Construction_ Specification_020211035322_SolarConstructionSpec.pdfA rooftop solar array system is displayed on a Minneapolis businessPhoto: Meet Minneapolis/NREL PIX 18698 gives explicit consideration to solar access for existing solar systems when considering rezoning or conditional use applications on adjacent properties. It also creates a “solar carveout” within lot coverage standards for pole- or ground-mounted systems, and exempts building- integrates solar systems from accessory use or solar systems standardsA solar permitting guidance document was createdfor use in both cities to ensure consistent permittingrequirements for solar electric systems, with a clear setof requirements to demonstrate compliance with buildingand electric codes and can obtain a permit with a singlevisit for qualifying systems.For more information:http://solaramericacommunities.energy.gov/pdfs/minneapolis_saint_paul.pdfhttp://www.state.mn.us/mn/externalDocs/ 15
  17. 17. 16
  18. 18. SECTION 02Solar Building Code &Certification 17
  19. 19. SOLAR BUILDING CODE While Wisconsin’s state statutes require solar electrical inspectors certified by the Wisconsin Department of systems to be allowed on buildings, there is no one-stop Commerce. shop for solar regulations anywhere in the state. A solar installation building code will substantially improve the 3. Establish and collect fees to defray administrative permitting and decision-making processes for building and enforcement costs. owners, contractors, and installers by having all regulations 4. Establish remedies and penalties for violations. clearly outlined in one location. Making this information accessible and easy to understand is the first step towards ABC 123.03 Adoption of Codes – the following increasing solar installations in the City of Milwaukee. Wisconsin Statutes and Administrative Codes, including all Examples of sites plan from Portland, Oregon are included referenced codes and standards, and future amendments to illustrate potential submissions the city can anticipate thereto, are incorporated by reference as if fully set forth receiving. herein, copies thereof being on file in the Department of City Development: CODE SPS 371 Solar Energy Systems ABC 123.04 Solar Energy System Description – Chapter ABC 123 A solar energy system is defined for the purpose of this SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS code as a solar electric, also known as a photovoltaic or PV, system. Subchapter I – Administration 1. A solar electric system produces electricity that ABC 123.01 Scope – This code applies to all dwellings, is distributed to the building via the main electrical public buildings, and places of employment. panel, offsetting electric energy that would otherwise ABC 123.02 Intent and Purpose – The intent and be purchased from the utility. It consists of two primary purpose of this code is to: components: a. Photovoltaic panels, which are commonly installed 1. Protect the health, safety and welfare of the public by on the roof; and establishing minimum standards for the design, installation, maintenance, and inspection of solar energy systems on b. An inverter, which converts direct current electricity dwellings, public buildings, and places of employment. produced by the panels into alternating current electricity that can be used by the building. 2. Provide plan review and on-site inspections for dwellings, public buildings, and places of employment by Subchapter II – Installation Requirements18
  20. 20. ABC 123.05 Land Use – Solar energy systems must Subchapter III – Permitscomply with the zoning code. ABC 123.06 General Provisions 1. Height – In all instances installations of solarenergy equipment, including the rails and panels, are 1. Alterations – When a solar energy system issubject to the height limitations of the specific zone in added to an existing dwelling, public building, or place ofwhich they are being installed. Roof-mounted solar panels employment, the installation is considered an alteration.are not included in height calculations, and may exceed the Under the provisions of the respective building code, allmaximum height of the zone if the following are met: alterations must meet the code requirements for new construction. Permits for alterations may be processed in a. For flat roofs or the horizontal portion of mansard one of two ways:roofs, the panels may extend up to seven (7) feet abovethe highest point of the roof. a. Through the traditional permitting system; or b. For pitched, hipped, or gambrel roofs, the panels b. Through the Solar Fast-tracking Permitting (SFP)must be mounted no more than twelve (12) inches from Programthe surface of the roof at any point, and may not extend 2. New Construction – Solar energy systems thatabove the ridgeline of the roof. The twelve (12) inches is are included in the construction of a new dwelling, publicmeasured from the upper side of the solar panel. building, or place of employment will be processed in 2. Design Review – Installations in design overlay conjunction with the new construction permit.zones, historic districts, conservation districts, or individual 3. All Installations – The type of solar energyhistoric or conservation landmarks may require design system to be installed shall be clearly indicated with thereview. Installations exceeding height requirements may application documents and all necessary permits shall bealso be subject to design review. obtained before installation of the system. a. Notice requirements – Design review is a ABC 123.07 Application Process – All solar energydiscretionary review that requires a public notice and system installations shall be submitted for permit review.generally takes about 8 weeks to complete. 1. Traditional Permitting System 3. Structural – Solar collectors and underlyingsubstructure (mounts, rails, etc.) must be designed and a. All permits for new construction and alterations areinstalled in accordance with the requirements of the latest required to be processed through the City of Milwaukeeversion of State of Wisconsin Solar Energy Systems Code Department of City Development located at 809 N.(SPS 371). Broadway Milwaukee,WI 53202 on the first floor. All solar panels that are installed as a part of a new construction 4. Electrical – An electrical plan review is required project will be processed in conjunction with the otherfor the installation of all solar energy systems. Electrical work being permitted.permits must be obtained as separate from the residential b. A building permit and an electrical permit will bebuilding permit. In all instances, field inspection is required created at the time of the visit. A permit technician willto verify code compliance. 19
  21. 21. evaluate the plans for completeness, and if complete, been paid. a building permit file will be created to document all necessary reviews and approvals. ABC 123.08 Permit Submittal Requirements – The following information shall be submitted for each c. After the initial permits have been created, the respective permit as noted. applicant will proceed through the planning and zoning and plan review departments to verify that the design 1. Building Plan – submittal documents shall include: meets all of the necessary requirements. a. A framing plan showing and specifying existing and d. In more complex cases, it may be necessary for a new framing providing support. particular project to be reviewed more closely before a b. Construction details of anchorage, interconnection permit can be issued. In these instances, the necessary of elements and weather proofing of roof perforations as reviews will be completed within 7 business days. After applicable. all necessary reviews have been completed the applicant c. Structural calculations verifying capacity of proposed will be notified of any additional questions, or the reviews system to resist vertical and lateral loads. will be approved. The applicant will be notified when the permit has been approved. d. A building plan review and permit are required for all ballasted installations. e. The permits will be issued after all permit fees have been paid. e. All non-ballasted installations shall specify the method of mechanical attachment to supporting structural 2. Solar Fast-tracking Permitting (SFP) elements, including but not limited to roof rafters, trusses, Program purlins, beams, and blocking. Plywood sheathing and a. The SFP Program is for applicants who can answer spaced sheathing are not considered structural members. “yes” to all of the questions asked on the Solar Installation 2. Electrical Plan – submittal documents shall Check Sheet provided by the Department of City include: Development. Applicants who cannot answer “yes” to all of the questions must apply for a building permit via the a. System configuration; traditional permitting system. b. Site drawings showing locations of photovoltaic and b. Applications received via this method will be exempt utility interconnection point; from a building plan review and a building permit. c. Location of modules, array, equipment configuration c. A site plan for installations must be submitted with showing location of balance of system; the completed Solar Installation Check Sheet showing the d. Conduit sizes and routing, location of disconnecting building footprint and location of the solar energy system. means, and required overcurrent devices; and d. Electrical permits for multifamily and commercial/ e. Short circuit current and open circuit voltage clearly industrial projects will be subject to the same requirements shown and summarized. as the traditional permitting process. Subchapter IV – Inspections e. The permits will be issued after all permit fees have20
  22. 22. The following inspections will be required for the All code requirements shall be in accordance with theinstallation of all solar energy systems unless notified as applicable permitting and inspection procedures.exempt.ABC 123.09 Building – Building inspections are required IMPLEMENTATIONto verify that the solar support system is properly installed. Like any other city ordinance, the solar building code 1. For alterations, two building inspections, listed in will have to be approved by city council and any otherorder, are required to verify that the system has been necessary administrative bodies. Upon receipt of thisinstalled properly: sample code, the Office of Environmental Sustainability a. Final Structural should review the code with staff from the Department of City Development to tailor it specifically to the City b. Final Building of Milwaukee. Any sections that do not agree with the 2. For new construction or for permits that include City’s current codes and ordinances should be modifiedadditional work beyond the installation of the solar energy so as to avoid any potential conflicts. After any necessarysystem additional work may be required. modifications are made, the code should be voted on by city council to become law. The Office of EnvironmentalABC 123.10 Electrical – An electrical inspection is Sustainability should take the lead on bringing the code torequired in all instances where the solar energy system the council’s attention and getting it on a meeting agenda.provides power to a dwelling, public building, or place ofwork electrical system. The inspection will verify that the Once the code is passed by city council, the Officecircuits and feeders have been installed properly and the of Environmental Sustainability should maintainsystem has been connected properly. communication with the Department of Community Development to evaluate the effectiveness of the code 1. Three electrical inspections, listed in order, are and decide if certain sections need to be modified afterrequired to verify that the system has been installed it has been implemented. In addition, it may be beneficialproperly: to the City to hire an engineer to verify roof loads for a. Circuits/Feeders solar installations as a means to reduce costs incurred by building owners who must hire a private engineer. By b. Permanent Electrical reducing the costs, the City may see more installations c. Service/Reconnect occur. d. Final ElectricalSubchapter V – Fees MODEL FOR WISCONSINFees for all required building and electrical permits will be As the first city in the state to have a comprehensive solarcalculated using the current and applicable Department of building code, Milwaukee can anticipate other municipalitiesCity Development fee schedule. using it as an example. While some sections of the code may need to be adapted each municipalities’ currentSubchapter VI – Enforcement 21
  23. 23. ordinances, the general framework for any Wisconsin community is in place. As a leader in solar energy, Milwaukee will have to prove that the code is easy to use and has led to an increase in solar installations. Therefore, it will be important for the Office of Environmental Sustainability Bureau of Development Services to collect data on installations prior to and after the codeBureau of Development Services Program Guide – Solar Water Heating and Photovoltaic Electric GeneratorsProgram Guide – Solar Water Heating and Photovoltaic Electric Generators Installed on One or Two Family Dwellings is passed by city council.Installed on One or Two Family Dwellings Page 12 of 14Page 10 of 14 December 1, 2010December 1, 2010 Solar Water Heating and Photovoltaic Electric Generators Installed on One or Two Family Dwellings Source: City of Portland22
  24. 24. Program Guide – Solar Water Heating and Photovoltaic Electric GeneratorsInstalled on One or Two Family DwellingsPage 11 of 14December 1, 2010 23
  25. 25. SOLAR READY BUILDING CODE This building code is similar to the solar building code dwellings, public buildings, and places of employment. in that it will set a precedent for the state of Wisconsin by providing all solar ready regulations in one location. 2. Provide plan review and on-site inspections for Solar ready buildings offer a potentially high return on dwellings, public buildings, and places of employment investment for little additional cost to a building owner; by inspectors certified by the Wisconsin Economic however, the current lack of information for making a Development Corporation. building solar ready has significantly hampered the growth 3. Establish and collect fees to defray administrative of solar ready buildings in the City of Milwaukee. By and enforcement costs. providing key information in one code, building owners and contractors will be able to more easily decide to 4. Establish remedies and penalties for violations. make their building solar ready by being informed about ABC 123.03 Adoption of Codes – The following the regulations. Wisconsin Statutes and Administrative Codes, including all referenced codes and standards, and future amendments CODE thereto, are incorporated by reference as if fully set forth herein, copies thereof being on file in the Department of Chapter ABC 123 City Development: SOLAR READY BUILDINGS SPS 371 Solar Energy Systems Subchapter I – Administration ABC 123.04 Solar Energy System Description – A solar energy system is defined for the purpose of this ABC 123.01 Scope – This code applies to all newly code as a solar electric, also known as a photovoltaic or constructed and retrofitted dwellings, public buildings, and PV, system. places of employment. 1. A solar electric system produces electricity that ABC 123.02 Intent and Purpose – The intent and is distributed to the building via the main electrical purpose of this code is to: panel, offsetting electric energy that would otherwise 1. Protect the health, safety and welfare of the be purchased from the utility. It consists of two primary public by establishing minimum standards for the design, components: construction, maintenance, and inspection of solar ready a. Photovoltaic panels, which are commonly installed24
  26. 26. on the roof; and a. In instances where the inverter and main service b. An inverter, which converts direct current electricity panel cannot be located directly below the solar array,produced by the panels into alternating current electricity these components must be in a location having a directthat can be used by the building. vertical direction to the solar array.Subchapter II – Site Planning for New Construction ABC 123.07 Roof Requirements - Roofs must allow for continuous space with solar access and must be ableABC 123.05 Solar Access - Maximizing access to solar to support solar arrays.energy is critical to future installations of solar energy 1. Materialssystems. a. Roof types allowed: 1. The impact of surrounding buildings and vegetation i. Flat roofson and off-site must be considered when determining ifsufficient solar access is available. 1. Membrane roofing is preferred. 2. Built up roofing can be accommodated after a 2 - 3 2. Building height and roof projections must be built year curing process.to maximize the amount of solar access for a future solarenergy system. ii. Sloped roofs a. Building height is subject to restrictions specific to 1. Standing seam metal roofing is preferred.the zone in which the parcel is located. 2. Asphalt roofing can be accommodated. 3. Building orientation must allow for a future solar b. Roof types not allowed:energy system to have a southern, western, or eastern i. Ballasted roofing systemsaspect. ii. Tile roofsSubchapter III - Structural Requirements for New 2. PitchConstruction and Retrofits a. Pitched roofs must maintain an angle of 25-45ABC 123.06 Space Requirements - Adequate spacing degrees to maximize solar absorption.for installation and maintenance of all future solar energy b. 12:12 pitch is not required but will provide thesystem components, including inverters, disconnects, and greatest number of options for future installations.solar arrays, is to be provided. 3. Continuous area 1. A minimum wall space of 3’ by 3’ and a clear floor a. Between 200 - 400 square feet of continuous roofarea of 3’ wide must be provided for the inverter and AC surface must be available for future installations.disconnect. 4. Obstructions 2. The inverter and main service panel should belocated directly below the roof location of the future solar a. All obstructions, including exhaust vents, chimneys,array. and gables, should be located on the north side of a pitched roof. 25
  27. 27. b. Obstructions should be kept clear of the continuous connecting the solar array and main service panel. surface referenced above. ABC 123.09 Electrical Requirements 5. Structure 1. Electrical Panel a. The roof must be able to support a load of 30 - 40 psf in the area reserved for the future solar array. a. Space for a power input breaker must be provided in the electrical panel. 6. Mounting Systems b. Current ratings supplied to the electrical panel a. Pitched roofs must comply with NEC 690.64(B) guidelines. i. Standing seam metal roofs 2. Breaker Box 1. S-5 clips must be attached to the raised seam. a. Space for a solar electric feed breaker must be 2. Roof penetrations must be sealed. provided in the breaker box. ii. Composite asphalt shingle roofs 3. Production Meter 1. Stand-off brackets must be bolted to structural a. Space for a production meter must be provided members. adjacent to the electrical panel. 2. Roof penetrations must be sealed. 4. Solar Electrical System Grounding b. Flat roofs a. Grounding wire meeting UL 467 requirements must i. Mounting systems are not required to be pre- be provided. installed. ii. Curb mounts may be installed. Subchapter III – Permits 7. Roof Lifetime and Warranty ABC 123.10 General Provisions a. The lifetime of the roof should be long enough 1. All Installations – All solar ready installations that to accommodate the average lifespan of a solar energy are part of a new construction or retrofitting project will system. be processed in conjunction with the other work being b. The roof manufacturer and installer warranties must permitted. provide provisions for solar ready constructions. ABC 123.11 Application Process – All solar ready Subchapter IV Mechanical and Electrical installations shall be submitted for permit review. Requirements for New Construction and Retrofits 1. All permits for new construction and retrofits are ABC 123.08 Mechanical Requirements required to be processed through the City of Milwaukee Department of City Development located at 809 N. 1. Metal Conduit Broadway Milwaukee, WI 53202 on the first floor. a. A minimum 2” empty metal conduit must be installed 2. A building permit and an electrical permit will be26
  28. 28. created at the time of the visit. A permit technician will sheathing are not considered structural members.evaluate the plans for completeness, and if complete,a building permit file will be created to document all 2. Electrical Plan – submittal documents shallnecessary reviews and approvals. include: a. System configuration; 3. After the initial permits have been created, theapplicant will proceed through the planning and zoning b. Site drawings showing locations of inverter andand plan review departments to verify that the design main service panel; andmeets all of the necessary requirements. c. Conduit sizes and routing. 4. In more complex cases, it may be necessary for a Subchapter IV – Inspectionsparticular project to be reviewed more closely before a The following inspections will be required for thepermit can be issued.After all necessary reviews have been installation of all solar energy systems unless notified ascompleted the applicant will be notified of any additional exempt.questions, or the reviews will be approved. The applicantwill be notified when the permit has been approved. ABC 123.13 Building – Building inspections are required to verify that the solar support system is properly installed. 5. The permits will be issued after all permit fees havebeen paid. 1. Two building inspections, listed in order, are required to verify that the roof has been installed properly:ABC 123.12 Permit Submittal Requirements –The following information shall be submitted for each a. Final Structuralrespective permit as noted. b. Final Building 1. Building Plan – submittal documents shall include: 2. For new construction or for permits that include a. A framing plan showing and specifying existing additional work beyond the installation of the solar readyand new framing providing support. components additional work may be required. b. Construction details of anchorage, interconnection ABC 123.14 Electrical – The inspection will verify thatof elements and weather proofing of roof perforations as the circuits and feeders have been installed properly andapplicable. the solar energy system can be connected properly. c. Structural calculations verifying capacity of roof to 1. Three electrical inspections, listed in order, areresist vertical and lateral loads. required to verify that the system has been installed d. A building plan review and permit are required for properly:all ballasted installations. a. Circuits/Feeders e. All non-ballasted installations shall specify the b. Permanent Electrical Service/Reconnectmethod of mechanical attachment to supporting structuralelements, including but not limited to roof rafters, trusses, c. Final Electricalpurlins, beams, and blocking. Plywood sheathing and spaced 27
  29. 29. Subchapter V – Fees MODEL FOR WISCONSIN Fees for all required building and electrical permits will Solar ready buildings differ greatly from solar electric be calculated using the current and applicable Department buildings in that the photovoltaic (PV) system is not of City Development fee schedule. yet installed. However, solar ready buildings have the Subchapter VI – Enforcement infrastructure in place to support a PV system should the building owner ever decide to take that step. More All code requirements shall be in accordance with the solar ready buildings may lead to more solar installations applicable permitting and inspection procedures. within the city over the next few years. As the leader in Wisconsin for solar ready buildings, Milwaukee will likely IMPLEMENTATION be emulated by other municipalities wishing to implement similar building codes. Again, it will be very important for Implementation steps for the solar ready building code the Office of Environmental Sustainability to collect data should follow those of the solar building code. A review on solar ready buildings before and after the code made should be done by staff from the Department of City law to determine if it does have any effect on the amount Development to determine compliance with current of solar ready buildings and solar installations within the ordinances. Afterwards, city council will have to adopt city. In order for other Wisconsin municipalities to follow the code during one of its meetings. Again, the Office Milwaukee’s lead, a successful outcome is critical. of Environmental Sustainability should take the lead in these efforts and maintain open communication with the Department of Community Development to determine which parts of the code may not be working and need modification.28
  30. 30. MODEL ORDINANCEHaving solar and solar ready building codes on the books provided with adequate flashing. The conduit shall notmay not be enough to cause a significant increase in solar be located on or in the direction of a north-facing roof.installations in the City of Milwaukee. In order to have ameaningful increase in solar installations and solar ready Sufficient access and working space shall be providedbuildings, an ordinance mandating solar ready requirements and maintained around all electrical equipment to permitshould be imposed. Requiring new buildings and large- safe installation, operation and maintenance of a solarscale remodels to incorporate solar ready requirements energy system. A minimum of 3’ by 3’ of wall space andwill cause a large increase in solar ready buildings and, 3’ of floor space shall be provided for a future inverterpotentially, solar installations. near the main service panel. Service equipment shall be sized and space provided soORDINANCE that one 240 volt circuit breaker may be back-fed from a photovoltaic system.City of Milwaukee, WisconsinMunicipal Code (2012) New building construction and major remodels whereTitle XX Buildings and Construction the roof and/or electrical systems are affected shall follow roof and electrical system guidelines as statedChapter XX.XX Electrical Code and Regulations in the City of Milwaukee’s Solar Ready Building CodeSection XX.XX.XXX Photovoltaic Pre-Wiring (Chapter 123).Requirements No building permit shall be issued unless theNew buildings and major remodels, whereby more than requirements of this section are incorporated into thefifty percent of the existing interior and/or exterior walls approved building plans.are removed, shall include electrical conduit for the futureinstallation of a solar energy system. Owners of existing The provisions of this chapter can be modified orbuildings who wish to make their property solar-ready are waived when it can be satisfactorily demonstrated tosubject to the same requirements. The property owner the Building Official that the requirements of this sectionshall follow the requirements below: are impractical due to shading, building orientation, construction constraints or configuration of the parcel. Installation of 2” minimum conduit leading from an exterior south-facing, east-facing, or west-facing roof, (Ord. XXXX § X, 2012) where a minimum of four hours of direct sunlight is achieved, to a stubbed junction box next to the main service panel. All exposed conduit shall be capped and 29
  31. 31. MODEL FOR WISCONSIN Other Wisconsin cities that are serious about increasing solar ready buildings and solar installations within their communities may wish to adopt a similar ordinance. Because the ordinance is likely to be more difficult to gain city council approval than the building codes, other cities may only adopt certain parts of the ordinance or make it less aggressive. Like the building codes, it will be essential to collect data on the effects of the ordinance in order to prevent it from being repealed. Once other cities see that the ordinance is successful at increasing solar ready buildings and solar installations, they will be more likely to adopt a similar ordinance. If the City of Milwaukee adopts a solar ready ordinance it is likely to become an example for other Midwestern cities looking IMPLEMENTATION to increase solar ready buildings within their jurisdictions. It will be very important for the Office of Environmental Sustainability to perform its due diligence in assuring that the model ordinance will be able to pass with city council’s approval. Working closely with the Department of City Development to determine if the ordinance violates any current city ordinances or state statutes is the first step. Next, the Office of Environmental Sustainability should gather evidence from other cities that have implemented similar ordinances to support its case when it brings the ordinance to city council. Using the case studies in this report would be a good starting point. Emphasizing the escape clause at the end of the ordinance will be important when selling it to alderpersons who may find it too oppressive. As with the building codes, the Office of Environmental Sustainability must take the lead to see that the ordinance is passed and to maintain good communication with the Department of City Development. Modifications should be made as necessary.30
  32. 32. SOLAR BUILDINGCHECKLISTBelow is the proposed Solar Building Checklist. The the City of Milwaukee. The intent of the checklist is tochecklist is based off of the proposed Solar Building Code, assist residents with building a solar project and to guideSolar Ready Building Code, and Model Ordinance. If changes them through the permitting and approval processes. Theto the ordinance or either code occur, the Solar Building checklist has been designed to reflect the differencesChecklist should be modified to reflect those changes. between residential and non-residential projects as wellThe Solar Building Checklist has been created as a guide as the differences between new construction and existingfor property owners, developers, and project managers in properties or retrofits. Non-Res: New Non-Res: Ex. Please mark all boxes that apply to your project. If documentation is required to prove compliance,Res: New please include all necessary materials along with your application and this checklist. Res: Ex. SOLAR ACCESS Document impact (if any) to surrounding buildings and vegetation with photos and a brief explanation. Building height and roof projections must be built to maximize the amount of solar access for a future solar energy system. Installation height may exceed the maximum height in the zoning code if (a) for flat roofs or the horizontal portion of mansard roofs, the panels may extend up to 7’ above the highest point of the roof or (b) for pitched, hipped, or gambrel roofs, the panels must be mounted no more than 12” from the surface of the roof at any point, and may not extend above the ridgeline of the roof (12” is measured from the upper side of the solar panel). Building orientation must allow for a future solar energy system to have a southern, western, or eastern aspect. SPACE A minimum wall space of 3’ by 3’ and a clear floor area of 3’ wide must be provided for the inverter and AC disconnect. 31
  33. 33. The inverter and main service panel should be located directly below the roof location of the future solar array. In instances where the inverter and main service panel cannot be located directly below the solar array, these components must be in a location having a direct vertical direction to the solar array. ROOF Must be a flat or sloped roof. Flat: membrane roofing preferred; built up roofing can be accommodated after a 2-3 year curing process. Sloped: standard seam metal roofing preferred; asphalt roofing can be accommodated. Pitched roofs must maintain an angle of 25-45 degrees to maximize solar absorption. 12:12 pitch is not required but will provide the greatest number of options for future installations. Between 200 - 400 square feet of continuous roof surface must be available for future installations. All obstructions, including exhaust vents, chimneys, and gables, should be located on the north side of a pitched roof. Obstructions should be kept clear of the continuous surface referenced above. The roof must be able to support a load of 30 - 40 psf in the area reserved for the future solar array. Mounting system: Pitched roofs: (a) standing seam metal roofs: S-5 clips must be attached to the raised seam and roof penetrations must be sealed, (b) composite asphalt shingle roofs: stand-off brackets must be bolted to structural members and roof penetrations must be sealed. Flat roofs: (a) mounting systems are not required to be pre-installed (curb mounts may be installed). The lifetime of the roof should be long enough to accommodate the average lifespan of a solar energy system. The roof manufacturer and installer warranties must provide provisions for solar ready constructions. MECHANICAL A minimum 2” empty metal conduit must be installed connecting the solar array and main service panel. ELECTRICAL Space for a power input breaker must be provided in the electrical panel.32
  34. 34. Current ratings supplied to the electrical panel must comply with NEC 690.64(B) guidelines.Space for a solar electric feed breaker must be provided in the breaker box.Space for a production meter must be provided adjacent to the electrical panel.Grounding wire meeting UL 467 requirements must be provided.SOLAR SYSTEMSolar energy equipment, including the rails and panels, are subject to the height limitations of thespecific zone in which they are being installed.Roof-mounted solar panels are not included in height calculations, and may exceed the maximumheight of the zone if the following are met: For flat roofs or the horizontal portion of mansard roofs, the panels may extend up to five (5) feet above the highest point of the roof. For pitched, hipped, or gambrel roofs, the panels must be mounted no more than twelve (12) inches from the surface of the roof at any point, and may not extend above the ridgeline of the roof. The twelve (12) inches is measured from the upper side of the solar panel.Solar collectors and underlying substructure (mounts, rails, etc.) must be designed in accordance withthe requirements of the latest version of State of Wisconsin Solar Energy Systems Code (SPS 371).OTHERAll work must be compliant with current zoning regulations. Building plans are drawn to City’s required standards. A framing plan showing and specifying existing and new framing providing support Construction details of anchorage, interconnection of elements, and weather proofing of roof perforations Structural calculations verifying capacity of roof to resist vertical and lateral loads A building plan review and permit are required for all ballasted installations All non-ballasted installations shall specify the method of mechanical attachment to supporting structural elements, including but not limited to roof rafters, trusses, purlins, beams, and blocking. Plywood sheathing and spaced sheathing are not considered structural members.Electrical plans are drawn to City’s required standards. System configuration Site drawings showing locations of inverter and main service panel Conduit sizes and routing 33
  35. 35. FAST TRACKING METHOD B: Fast Tracking With an Enforceable Solar Building Code in Place The City of Milwaukee could use the Solar Building Checklist If the City of Milwaukee has an enforceable solar building as an incentive tool.This tool would allow projects utilizing code in place, the Solar Building Checklist could serve the checklist to receive priority treatment. Since the Solar as an optional incentive tool. The checklist must reflect Building Checklist may be implemented with or without the current solar building code regulations. Projects using an enforceable building code, fast tracking, or priority the tool and meeting all required solar building code incentives, must reflect the status of the building code. regulations will be fast tracked ahead of projects not using the solar building code checklist. Since the solar building METHOD A: Fast Tracking Without an Enforceable Solar code in place would be enforceable, projects would not Building Code in Place be encouraged to submit an application with a checklist If the City of Milwaukee does not have an enforceable meeting less than 100% of the required items. solar building code in place, the Solar Building Checklist could serve as an optional incentive tool. Projects that choose to use the Solar Building Checklist will receive MODEL FOR WISCONSIN administrative priority over those projects without the The Solar Building Checklist could serve as a model for Solar Building Checklist. Additionally, projects will be other municipalities in Wisconsin as well as other states. prioritized based on the number of items accomplished This tool would be especially useful for municipalities on the Solar Building Checklist. without a solar building code or other method of EXAMPLE enforcement in place. Additionally, this could serve as a first step towards getting an enforceable solar building Project A: uses checklist and accomplishes 75% of items code in place. Project B: uses checklist and accomplishes 100% of items For example, a municipality without an enforceable solar Project C: does not use checklist building code in place could use the checklist as a “trial Project B would be fast tracked to the front of the line run” for solar projects. The “trial run” would enable the because more items were accomplished on the checklist municipality to work out any issues with the checklist than Project A. Project A would be fast tracked ahead of process and modify the checklist items to best fit the Project C because Project C did not use the checklist. community. Working out issues before writing and enforcing a solar building code would ensure a smoother The fast tracking process must respect projects that are implementation process for government officials and already “in line.” Project B would be fast tracked past all residents. projects meeting less than 100% of the checklist items but it would not be given an advantage over projects that were previously submitted and also met 100% of the items. If a tie occurs, the date of project submittal will be the tie- breaker.34
  36. 36. SOLAR CERTIFICATIONPROGRAMTo increase awareness of Milwaukee’s solar initiatives Applications will be available for download on the Cityand celebrate property owner’s who have installed of Milwaukee’s Office of Sustainability website. Applicantssolar systems, we recommend implementing a Solar may download the application in Excel or PDF format.Certification Program. The Solar Certification Program The Excel-based application is designed to auto-calculatecould also be used as a marketing program for the City line items for the applicant. Applicant’s using the PDF-and property owners. based application will be required to perform their own calculations.Similar to the US Green Building Council’s Leadership inEnergy and Environmental Design (LEED) Certification Applicants will be required to fill out property details,Program, the Solar Certification Program will consist of general information, and building code information. Linemultiple certification levels and would require a formal items relating to energy and the environment are optional.application process. The City of Milwaukee’s Office ofSustainability will be the administrative and fiscal agencycharged with overseeing and implementing the Solar CERTIFICATION LEVELSCertification Program. Applicants scoring in the following ranges will receive either gold, silver, or bronze level certifications. CertifiedAPPLICATION PROCESS properties will receive a certificate from the City and will also be eligible to order a building plaque for the property.The Solar Certification Program application process willbe as simple and as straightforward as possible. However,to ensure that the process is fair and the certification Gold SOLAR Gold Ratingholds meaning, applicants will be required to substantiate Rating MKE [2012] 150+ pointsall claims made on applications. Requiring applicants tosubstantiate claims will reduce the chance of fraud. Silver SOLAR Silver RatingAll property owners in the City of Milwaukee will be eligible Rating MKE [2012] 115 - 149 pointsto apply to the program. Only the applicants meetingminimum requirements will be awarded certifications.Applicants not receiving certification status may make an Bronze SOLAR Bronze Ratingappeal with the Office of Sustainability. Rating MKE [2012] 80 - 114 points 35
  37. 37. The cost of the plaque will not be covered by the City and can market for-sale properties as being Gold, Silver, or must be paid by the applicant. Bronze Rated. This may entice buyers who are looking to reduce utility costs or who are environmentally Applicants are required to reapply every five years to conscious. prove that their property is still in compliance. Properties may have their certification upgraded or downgraded City of Milwaukee: The City of Milwaukee can use based on performance. Additionally, property owners may the number of certified properties as bragging rights reapply at any time if upgrades made to the property post- and to help obtain additional solar funding or grants. application will qualify the property for a new certification level. Installers: Installers could advertise the number of solar certified properties they have worked on or For example, if a property owner applies to the program have assisted property owners obtain certification. and receives 147 points (Silver Rating) and installs a passive solar system one year after filing an application which If Milwaukee’s Solar Certification Program is adopted in would then qualify the property owner for 150 points, the other areas, additional marketing opportunities will be property owner may reapply for a Gold Rating. available. Municipalities: Municipalities in Wisconsin could use MODEL FOR WISCONSIN the number of solar properties as bragging rights or to position themselves for obtaining new solar-based Milwaukee’s Solar Certification Program could be used as a businesses or industries. model for other municipalities in Wisconsin. Municipalities could use the same certification spreadsheet, modified State of Wisconsin: Similar to municipalities, the State to their municipality’s code requirements. Municipalities of Wisconsin could use the number of solar certified could also use the same certification levels for uniform properties in the state to position Wisconsin as a recognition (i.e., a Gold Rating in Milwaukee is equivalent leader in solar energy and solar-based businesses and to a Gold Rating in Madison). The certification level logos industries. could be modified to reflect each municipality (e.g., SOLAR Shorewood) or to reflect the state (e.g., SOLAR WI). MARKETING OPPORTUNITIES A Solar Certification Program would provide several marketing opportunities for property owners, the City of Milwaukee, and installers. Property Owners: Property owners and developers36
  38. 38. CERTIFICATION WORKSHEET [summary]City of Milwaukee Office of Sustainability Application No.: 0 Solar Certification Checklist Date: 1/0/1900*See Appendix C for all spreadsheet tabs. TOTALS (details) Total Possible Points Total Item # Description Res-New Res-Ex NonRes-New NonRes-Ex Points GENERAL G-R-1.1 Main Building Roof Orientation or Location of Accessible Ground Space 2 2 2 2 0 (South = 2, West or East = 1, North = 0) G-R-1.2 Accessory Building Roof Orientation (South = 2, West or East = 1, North 2 2 2 2 0 = 0) G-R-1.3 Ratio of Usable Roof Space : Installation Size (1 or less = 2, >1 and <2 2 2 2 2 0 =1, >2 = 0) G-R-2.1 Solar District (Yes = 1, No = 0) 1 1 1 1 0 G-R-2.2 Incentive District (Yes = 1, No = 0) 1 1 1 1 0 G-R-3.1 Type of Solar (PV = 5, Hot Water = 3, Passive = 1) 9 9 9 9 0 Solar system was installed by NABCEP (North American Board of Certified G-R-3.2 3 3 3 3 0 Energy Practitioners) certified installer(Yes = 3, No = 0) BUILDING CODE BC-R-1.1 1 1 1 1 0 Installation Height (Less than maximum =1, Greater than maximum = 0) BC-R-1.2 Design Review (Yes = 1, No = 0) 1 1 1 1 0 BC-R-1.3 Structural Review (Yes = 1, No = 0) 1 1 1 1 0 BC-R-1.4 Electrical Review (Yes = 1, No = 0) 1 1 1 1 0 BC-R-2.1 Permits Secured (Yes = 1, No = 0) 1 1 1 1 0 BC-R-2.2 Building Plan on File (Yes = 1, No = 0) 1 1 1 1 0 BC-R-2.3 Electrical Plans on File (Yes = 1, No = 0) 1 1 1 1 0 BC-R-3.1 Number of Outstanding Code Violations (-1 per violation, None = 1) 1 1 1 1 0 ORDINANCE O-R-1.1 Conduit Installed in Building (Yes = 1, No = 0) 1 1 0 O-R-1.2 Maintenance Access Provided (Yes = 1, No = 0) 1 1 1 1 0 ENERGY En-B-1.1 Insulation in Livable Spaces (R-value > 18 = 3, R-value between 10 and 3 3 3 3 0 17 = 1, R-value < 10 = 0) En-B-1.2 Shadings / Overhangs (Yes = 1, No = 0) 1 1 1 1 0 37 En-B-1.3 Skylights (Yes = 1, No = 0) 1 1 1 1 0

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