• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
B17 ns03part2
 

B17 ns03part2

on

  • 597 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
597
Views on SlideShare
597
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    B17 ns03part2 B17 ns03part2 Presentation Transcript

    • Nervous System Part 2 Chapter 17
    • Limbic System
      • tracts & nuclei
      • parts of cerebrum ( prefrontal lobe), basal nuclei, thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus
      • the emotional/visceral brain
    • Limbic System
      • links basic emotions and higher functions
      • e.g. stress causing high BP, gut irritability
    • Limbic System
      • prefrontal lobes (highest mental functions)
      • modify behaviour in response to emotions
      • amygdala/hippocampus important in memory
    • Memory & Learning
      • Memory
      • storing thoughts, events, facts
      • Learning
      • using memories to change behaviour
    • Memory
      • short term - as in remembering a phone number you have just looked up
      • long term - as in remembering your own name
      697-???? ?Jackie?
    • Memory
      • improved by
      • repetition - - - - -
      • linking with known facts
      • strong
      • emotions
      AHA!
    • Memory
      • stored throughout the cortex
      • found in association areas
    • Memory
      • hippocampus links association areas with prefrontal lobes where memories are used
      • amygdala links pain/pleasure/fear with memories
    • Long Term Potentiation
      • neurons at well used synapses change physically
      • they transmit information from one neuron to another more easily
    • Peripheral Nervous System
      • everything outside the CNS:
      • sensory nerves
      • motor nerves
      • ganglia
    •  
    • Peripheral Nervous System
      • sensory nerves (afferent) carry information from receptors…
      • TO the CNS
      • motor nerves (efferent) carry information
      • FROM the CNS to muscles & glands
    • Peripheral Nervous System
      • sensory nerves (afferent) special and general senses
      • motor nerves (efferent) somatic (skeletal muscle) & autonomic (smooth &
      • cardiac muscle) and glands
    • Peripheral Nervous System Definitions
      • ganglia - collections of neuron cell bodies in the PNS
      • nerves - bundles of axons and/or dendrites in the PNS
    • Peripheral Nervous System Definitions
      • sensory nerve - bundle of sensory neuron dendrites
      • motor nerve - bundle of motor neuron axons
      • mixed nerve - bundle of both sensory dendrites & motor axons
    • Nerve
    • Peripheral Nervous System
      • includes sensory & motor
      • sensory: special & general senses
      • motor: somatic (skeletal muscles) and autonomic (cardiac & smooth muscles and glands)
    • Cranial Nerves
      • 12 pairs
      • come out of the brain
      • sensory, motor & mixed
      • control/sense head & neck except X, the vagus , which runs to organs of thorax & abdomen
    • Cranial Nerves
    • Spinal Nerves
      • 31 pairs all mixed
      • come out of the spinal cord
      • each has 2 roots - ventral root (motor) &
      • dorsal root (sensory) and dorsal root ganglion (sensory neuron cell bodies)
    • Spinal Nerves
    • Reflexes
      • there are a number of reflexes in the body - they are
      • automatic, rapid and involuntary
      • e.g. sneezing, knee jerk, eye blink (often protective)
    • Reflexes Dorsal root Ventral root Synapse (Brain or Spinal cord) (Interneuron)
    • Spinal Reflex Arc
      • 5 components (somatic)
      • 1) sensory receptor
      • 2) sensory neuron
      • 3) Interneuron (association)
      • in brain or spinal cord
      • 4) motor neuron
      • 5) effector organ
      • (muscle or gland)
    • Spinal Reflex Arc Dorsal root ganglion
    • Somatic Nervous System
      • controls skeletal muscles
      • under voluntary conscious control e.g. jumping
      • one neuron motor
      • pathway from spinal cord
      • ( efferent pathway )
    • Autonomic Nervous System
      • controls cardiac & smooth muscle and glands
      • automatic, involuntary & unconscious e.g.digestion
    • ANS Reflex Arc
      • 6 components :
      • 1 ) sensory receptor
      • 2 ) sensory (afferent neuron)
      • 3 ) interneuron
      • 4 ) motor neuron (preganglionic)
      • 5 ) motor neuron (postganglionic)
      • 6 ) effector organ (cardiac & smooth muscle. glands
    • ANS Motor Neurons ganglia
    • Autonomic Nervous System Structure
      • a motor or efferent system
      • 2 neuron motor pathway
      • neurons synapse in
      • ganglia - near the spinal cord (sympathetic) or in the organ (parasympathetic)
    • Autonomic Nervous System Structure ganglia
    • Autonomic Nervous System Structure
      • 2 divisions:
      • sympathetic(stress)
      • (fight/flight)
    • Autonomic Nervous System Structure
      • 2 divisions:
      • parasympathetic(peace)
      • (feed/breed or rest /digest)
    • Sympathetic
      • acts during stress
      • activates the adrenal medulla - epinephrine
      • arises from the thoracolumbar cord
      • paravertebral ganglia (near spinal cord)
    • Sympathetic
      • short preganglionics secrete ACh in ganglia
      • long postganglionics secrete noradrenaline (norepinephrine) in organ
      • mass activation
    • Parasympathetic
      • acts during
      • arises from cranio sacral CNS
      • terminal ganglia near organ
      REST
    • Parasympathetic
      • long preganglionics secrete ACh in ganglia
      • short postganglionics secrete ACh in organ
    • Actions Of ANS
    •  
    •  
    • Drug Abuse
      • mood altering drugs can affect the N.S. 2 ways:
      • affecting the limbic system
      • increasing or decreasing neurotransmitter action
    • Drug Abuse
      • stimulants excite neuronal activity e.g caffeine
      • depressants suppress neuronal activity e.g. alcohol
    • Drug Abuse
      • the neurotransmitter dopamine affects mood
      • some mood altering drugs prolong dopamine activity
      • e.g. cocaine
    • Drug Abuse
      • psychological/physical dependencies can be developed which
      • cause addictions
    • Drug Abuse
      • addictions cause
      • the person to require more and more of the drug to get the same effect and
      • the person to suffer from withdrawal symptoms if the drug is not available
    • Drug Abuse
      • Commonly abused drugs:
      • alcohol
      • nicotine
      • cocaine
      • heroin
      • marijuana
    • Drug Abuse
    • Drug Abuse
      • Indicate which are stimulants (s) and which are depressants (d)
      • alcohol
      • nicotine
      • cocaine
      • heroin
      • marijuana
    • Chapter 17: Part 2 Internet Resources :
      • http://www.hon.ch/HONselect/Selection/A08.html
      • http://courses.ncsu.edu/VMA913/
      • http:// www.webref.org/psychology/l/limbic_system.htm
      • http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/P/PNS.html
      • http:// www.ndrf.org/ans.htm
      • http:// www.nida.nih.gov /