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  • 1. Nervous System Part 2 Chapter 17
  • 2. Limbic System
    • tracts & nuclei
    • parts of cerebrum ( prefrontal lobe), basal nuclei, thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus
    • the emotional/visceral brain
  • 3. Limbic System
    • links basic emotions and higher functions
    • e.g. stress causing high BP, gut irritability
  • 4. Limbic System
    • prefrontal lobes (highest mental functions)
    • modify behaviour in response to emotions
    • amygdala/hippocampus important in memory
  • 5. Memory & Learning
    • Memory
    • storing thoughts, events, facts
    • Learning
    • using memories to change behaviour
  • 6. Memory
    • short term - as in remembering a phone number you have just looked up
    • long term - as in remembering your own name
    697-???? ?Jackie?
  • 7. Memory
    • improved by
    • repetition - - - - -
    • linking with known facts
    • strong
    • emotions
    AHA!
  • 8. Memory
    • stored throughout the cortex
    • found in association areas
  • 9. Memory
    • hippocampus links association areas with prefrontal lobes where memories are used
    • amygdala links pain/pleasure/fear with memories
  • 10. Long Term Potentiation
    • neurons at well used synapses change physically
    • they transmit information from one neuron to another more easily
  • 11. Peripheral Nervous System
    • everything outside the CNS:
    • sensory nerves
    • motor nerves
    • ganglia
  • 12.  
  • 13. Peripheral Nervous System
    • sensory nerves (afferent) carry information from receptors…
    • TO the CNS
    • motor nerves (efferent) carry information
    • FROM the CNS to muscles & glands
  • 14. Peripheral Nervous System
    • sensory nerves (afferent) special and general senses
    • motor nerves (efferent) somatic (skeletal muscle) & autonomic (smooth &
    • cardiac muscle) and glands
  • 15. Peripheral Nervous System Definitions
    • ganglia - collections of neuron cell bodies in the PNS
    • nerves - bundles of axons and/or dendrites in the PNS
  • 16. Peripheral Nervous System Definitions
    • sensory nerve - bundle of sensory neuron dendrites
    • motor nerve - bundle of motor neuron axons
    • mixed nerve - bundle of both sensory dendrites & motor axons
  • 17. Nerve
  • 18. Peripheral Nervous System
    • includes sensory & motor
    • sensory: special & general senses
    • motor: somatic (skeletal muscles) and autonomic (cardiac & smooth muscles and glands)
  • 19. Cranial Nerves
    • 12 pairs
    • come out of the brain
    • sensory, motor & mixed
    • control/sense head & neck except X, the vagus , which runs to organs of thorax & abdomen
  • 20. Cranial Nerves
  • 21. Spinal Nerves
    • 31 pairs all mixed
    • come out of the spinal cord
    • each has 2 roots - ventral root (motor) &
    • dorsal root (sensory) and dorsal root ganglion (sensory neuron cell bodies)
  • 22. Spinal Nerves
  • 23. Reflexes
    • there are a number of reflexes in the body - they are
    • automatic, rapid and involuntary
    • e.g. sneezing, knee jerk, eye blink (often protective)
  • 24. Reflexes Dorsal root Ventral root Synapse (Brain or Spinal cord) (Interneuron)
  • 25. Spinal Reflex Arc
    • 5 components (somatic)
    • 1) sensory receptor
    • 2) sensory neuron
    • 3) Interneuron (association)
    • in brain or spinal cord
    • 4) motor neuron
    • 5) effector organ
    • (muscle or gland)
  • 26. Spinal Reflex Arc Dorsal root ganglion
  • 27. Somatic Nervous System
    • controls skeletal muscles
    • under voluntary conscious control e.g. jumping
    • one neuron motor
    • pathway from spinal cord
    • ( efferent pathway )
  • 28. Autonomic Nervous System
    • controls cardiac & smooth muscle and glands
    • automatic, involuntary & unconscious e.g.digestion
  • 29. ANS Reflex Arc
    • 6 components :
    • 1 ) sensory receptor
    • 2 ) sensory (afferent neuron)
    • 3 ) interneuron
    • 4 ) motor neuron (preganglionic)
    • 5 ) motor neuron (postganglionic)
    • 6 ) effector organ (cardiac & smooth muscle. glands
  • 30. ANS Motor Neurons ganglia
  • 31. Autonomic Nervous System Structure
    • a motor or efferent system
    • 2 neuron motor pathway
    • neurons synapse in
    • ganglia - near the spinal cord (sympathetic) or in the organ (parasympathetic)
  • 32. Autonomic Nervous System Structure ganglia
  • 33. Autonomic Nervous System Structure
    • 2 divisions:
    • sympathetic(stress)
    • (fight/flight)
  • 34. Autonomic Nervous System Structure
    • 2 divisions:
    • parasympathetic(peace)
    • (feed/breed or rest /digest)
  • 35. Sympathetic
    • acts during stress
    • activates the adrenal medulla - epinephrine
    • arises from the thoracolumbar cord
    • paravertebral ganglia (near spinal cord)
  • 36. Sympathetic
    • short preganglionics secrete ACh in ganglia
    • long postganglionics secrete noradrenaline (norepinephrine) in organ
    • mass activation
  • 37. Parasympathetic
    • acts during
    • arises from cranio sacral CNS
    • terminal ganglia near organ
    REST
  • 38. Parasympathetic
    • long preganglionics secrete ACh in ganglia
    • short postganglionics secrete ACh in organ
  • 39. Actions Of ANS
  • 40.  
  • 41.  
  • 42. Drug Abuse
    • mood altering drugs can affect the N.S. 2 ways:
    • affecting the limbic system
    • increasing or decreasing neurotransmitter action
  • 43. Drug Abuse
    • stimulants excite neuronal activity e.g caffeine
    • depressants suppress neuronal activity e.g. alcohol
  • 44. Drug Abuse
    • the neurotransmitter dopamine affects mood
    • some mood altering drugs prolong dopamine activity
    • e.g. cocaine
  • 45. Drug Abuse
    • psychological/physical dependencies can be developed which
    • cause addictions
  • 46. Drug Abuse
    • addictions cause
    • the person to require more and more of the drug to get the same effect and
    • the person to suffer from withdrawal symptoms if the drug is not available
  • 47. Drug Abuse
    • Commonly abused drugs:
    • alcohol
    • nicotine
    • cocaine
    • heroin
    • marijuana
  • 48. Drug Abuse
  • 49. Drug Abuse
    • Indicate which are stimulants (s) and which are depressants (d)
    • alcohol
    • nicotine
    • cocaine
    • heroin
    • marijuana
  • 50. Chapter 17: Part 2 Internet Resources :
    • http://www.hon.ch/HONselect/Selection/A08.html
    • http://courses.ncsu.edu/VMA913/
    • http:// www.webref.org/psychology/l/limbic_system.htm
    • http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/P/PNS.html
    • http:// www.ndrf.org/ans.htm
    • http:// www.nida.nih.gov /