0
Nervous System Part 2 Chapter 17
Limbic System <ul><li>tracts & nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>parts of cerebrum ( prefrontal lobe), basal nuclei, thalamus, hypo...
Limbic System <ul><li>links basic emotions and higher functions </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. stress causing high BP, gut irritab...
Limbic System <ul><li>prefrontal lobes (highest mental functions)  </li></ul><ul><li>modify behaviour in response to emoti...
Memory & Learning <ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><li>storing thoughts, events, facts </li></ul><ul><li>Learning  </li></ul><...
Memory <ul><li>short term  - as in remembering a phone number you have  just looked up </li></ul><ul><li>long term  - as i...
Memory <ul><li>improved by </li></ul><ul><li>repetition - - - - - </li></ul><ul><li>linking with known facts </li></ul><ul...
Memory <ul><li>stored throughout the cortex </li></ul><ul><li>found in association areas </li></ul>
Memory <ul><li>hippocampus links association areas with prefrontal lobes where memories are used </li></ul><ul><li>amygdal...
Long Term Potentiation <ul><li>neurons at well used synapses change physically </li></ul><ul><li>they transmit information...
Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>everything outside the CNS:   </li></ul><ul><li>sensory nerves </li></ul><ul><li>motor n...
 
Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>sensory nerves (afferent)  carry information from receptors… </li></ul><ul><li>TO the CN...
Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>sensory nerves (afferent)   special  and  general  senses </li></ul><ul><li>motor nerves...
Peripheral Nervous System Definitions  <ul><li>ganglia  -  collections of neuron cell bodies in the PNS </li></ul><ul><li>...
Peripheral Nervous System Definitions <ul><li>sensory nerve  -  bundle of sensory neuron dendrites </li></ul><ul><li>motor...
Nerve
Peripheral Nervous System  <ul><li>includes sensory & motor </li></ul><ul><li>sensory:  special & general senses </li></ul...
Cranial Nerves <ul><li>12 pairs </li></ul><ul><li>come out of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>sensory, motor & mixed </li></ul...
Cranial Nerves
Spinal Nerves <ul><li>31 pairs all mixed </li></ul><ul><li>come out of the spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>each has  2 roots...
Spinal Nerves
Reflexes <ul><li>there are a number of  reflexes  in the body - they are </li></ul><ul><li>automatic, rapid and involuntar...
Reflexes Dorsal   root Ventral root Synapse (Brain or Spinal cord) (Interneuron)
Spinal Reflex Arc <ul><li>5 components  (somatic) </li></ul><ul><li>1) sensory receptor </li></ul><ul><li>2) sensory neuro...
Spinal Reflex Arc Dorsal root ganglion
Somatic Nervous System <ul><li>controls  skeletal muscles </li></ul><ul><li>under  voluntary  conscious control e.g. jumpi...
Autonomic Nervous System <ul><li>controls  cardiac & smooth muscle and glands </li></ul><ul><li>automatic,  involuntary  &...
ANS Reflex Arc <ul><li>6 components : </li></ul><ul><li>1 )  sensory receptor </li></ul><ul><li>2 )  sensory (afferent neu...
ANS  Motor Neurons ganglia
Autonomic Nervous System Structure <ul><li>a  motor or efferent  system  </li></ul><ul><li>2 neuron  motor pathway </li></...
Autonomic Nervous System Structure ganglia
Autonomic Nervous System Structure <ul><li>2 divisions: </li></ul><ul><li>sympathetic(stress)  </li></ul><ul><li>(fight/fl...
Autonomic Nervous System Structure <ul><li>2 divisions: </li></ul><ul><li>parasympathetic(peace) </li></ul><ul><li>(feed/b...
Sympathetic  <ul><li>acts during  stress </li></ul><ul><li>activates the  adrenal medulla - epinephrine </li></ul><ul><li>...
Sympathetic <ul><li>short preganglionics  secrete  ACh in ganglia </li></ul><ul><li>long postganglionics  secrete  noradre...
Parasympathetic <ul><li>acts during </li></ul><ul><li>arises from   cranio sacral   CNS </li></ul><ul><li>terminal ganglia...
Parasympathetic <ul><li>long preganglionics  secrete  ACh in ganglia </li></ul><ul><li>short postganglionics  secrete  ACh...
Actions Of ANS
 
 
Drug Abuse <ul><li>mood altering drugs can affect the N.S. 2 ways: </li></ul><ul><li>affecting the limbic system </li></ul...
Drug Abuse <ul><li>stimulants excite neuronal activity e.g caffeine </li></ul><ul><li>depressants suppress neuronal activi...
Drug Abuse <ul><li>the neurotransmitter dopamine affects mood </li></ul><ul><li>some mood altering drugs prolong dopamine ...
Drug Abuse <ul><li>psychological/physical dependencies can be developed which  </li></ul><ul><li>cause addictions </li></ul>
Drug Abuse <ul><li>addictions cause </li></ul><ul><li>the person to require more and more of the drug to get the same effe...
Drug Abuse <ul><li>Commonly abused drugs: </li></ul><ul><li>alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>nicotine </li></ul><ul><li>cocaine <...
Drug Abuse
Drug Abuse <ul><li>Indicate which are stimulants (s) and which are depressants (d) </li></ul><ul><li>alcohol </li></ul><ul...
Chapter 17: Part 2  Internet Resources : <ul><li>http://www.hon.ch/HONselect/Selection/A08.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://c...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

B17 ns03part2

437

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
437
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "B17 ns03part2"

  1. 1. Nervous System Part 2 Chapter 17
  2. 2. Limbic System <ul><li>tracts & nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>parts of cerebrum ( prefrontal lobe), basal nuclei, thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus </li></ul><ul><li>the emotional/visceral brain </li></ul>
  3. 3. Limbic System <ul><li>links basic emotions and higher functions </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. stress causing high BP, gut irritability </li></ul>
  4. 4. Limbic System <ul><li>prefrontal lobes (highest mental functions) </li></ul><ul><li>modify behaviour in response to emotions </li></ul><ul><li>amygdala/hippocampus important in memory </li></ul>
  5. 5. Memory & Learning <ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><li>storing thoughts, events, facts </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>using memories to change behaviour </li></ul>
  6. 6. Memory <ul><li>short term - as in remembering a phone number you have just looked up </li></ul><ul><li>long term - as in remembering your own name </li></ul>697-???? ?Jackie?
  7. 7. Memory <ul><li>improved by </li></ul><ul><li>repetition - - - - - </li></ul><ul><li>linking with known facts </li></ul><ul><li>strong </li></ul><ul><li>emotions </li></ul>AHA!
  8. 8. Memory <ul><li>stored throughout the cortex </li></ul><ul><li>found in association areas </li></ul>
  9. 9. Memory <ul><li>hippocampus links association areas with prefrontal lobes where memories are used </li></ul><ul><li>amygdala links pain/pleasure/fear with memories </li></ul>
  10. 10. Long Term Potentiation <ul><li>neurons at well used synapses change physically </li></ul><ul><li>they transmit information from one neuron to another more easily </li></ul>
  11. 11. Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>everything outside the CNS: </li></ul><ul><li>sensory nerves </li></ul><ul><li>motor nerves </li></ul><ul><li>ganglia </li></ul>
  12. 13. Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>sensory nerves (afferent) carry information from receptors… </li></ul><ul><li>TO the CNS </li></ul><ul><li>motor nerves (efferent) carry information </li></ul><ul><li>FROM the CNS to muscles & glands </li></ul>
  13. 14. Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>sensory nerves (afferent) special and general senses </li></ul><ul><li>motor nerves (efferent) somatic (skeletal muscle) & autonomic (smooth & </li></ul><ul><li>cardiac muscle) and glands </li></ul>
  14. 15. Peripheral Nervous System Definitions <ul><li>ganglia - collections of neuron cell bodies in the PNS </li></ul><ul><li>nerves - bundles of axons and/or dendrites in the PNS </li></ul>
  15. 16. Peripheral Nervous System Definitions <ul><li>sensory nerve - bundle of sensory neuron dendrites </li></ul><ul><li>motor nerve - bundle of motor neuron axons </li></ul><ul><li>mixed nerve - bundle of both sensory dendrites & motor axons </li></ul>
  16. 17. Nerve
  17. 18. Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>includes sensory & motor </li></ul><ul><li>sensory: special & general senses </li></ul><ul><li>motor: somatic (skeletal muscles) and autonomic (cardiac & smooth muscles and glands) </li></ul>
  18. 19. Cranial Nerves <ul><li>12 pairs </li></ul><ul><li>come out of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>sensory, motor & mixed </li></ul><ul><li>control/sense head & neck except X, the vagus , which runs to organs of thorax & abdomen </li></ul>
  19. 20. Cranial Nerves
  20. 21. Spinal Nerves <ul><li>31 pairs all mixed </li></ul><ul><li>come out of the spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>each has 2 roots - ventral root (motor) & </li></ul><ul><li>dorsal root (sensory) and dorsal root ganglion (sensory neuron cell bodies) </li></ul>
  21. 22. Spinal Nerves
  22. 23. Reflexes <ul><li>there are a number of reflexes in the body - they are </li></ul><ul><li>automatic, rapid and involuntary </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. sneezing, knee jerk, eye blink (often protective) </li></ul>
  23. 24. Reflexes Dorsal root Ventral root Synapse (Brain or Spinal cord) (Interneuron)
  24. 25. Spinal Reflex Arc <ul><li>5 components (somatic) </li></ul><ul><li>1) sensory receptor </li></ul><ul><li>2) sensory neuron </li></ul><ul><li>3) Interneuron (association) </li></ul><ul><li>in brain or spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>4) motor neuron </li></ul><ul><li>5) effector organ </li></ul><ul><li>(muscle or gland) </li></ul>
  25. 26. Spinal Reflex Arc Dorsal root ganglion
  26. 27. Somatic Nervous System <ul><li>controls skeletal muscles </li></ul><ul><li>under voluntary conscious control e.g. jumping </li></ul><ul><li>one neuron motor </li></ul><ul><li>pathway from spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>( efferent pathway ) </li></ul>
  27. 28. Autonomic Nervous System <ul><li>controls cardiac & smooth muscle and glands </li></ul><ul><li>automatic, involuntary & unconscious e.g.digestion </li></ul>
  28. 29. ANS Reflex Arc <ul><li>6 components : </li></ul><ul><li>1 ) sensory receptor </li></ul><ul><li>2 ) sensory (afferent neuron) </li></ul><ul><li>3 ) interneuron </li></ul><ul><li>4 ) motor neuron (preganglionic) </li></ul><ul><li>5 ) motor neuron (postganglionic) </li></ul><ul><li>6 ) effector organ (cardiac & smooth muscle. glands </li></ul>
  29. 30. ANS Motor Neurons ganglia
  30. 31. Autonomic Nervous System Structure <ul><li>a motor or efferent system </li></ul><ul><li>2 neuron motor pathway </li></ul><ul><li>neurons synapse in </li></ul><ul><li>ganglia - near the spinal cord (sympathetic) or in the organ (parasympathetic) </li></ul>
  31. 32. Autonomic Nervous System Structure ganglia
  32. 33. Autonomic Nervous System Structure <ul><li>2 divisions: </li></ul><ul><li>sympathetic(stress) </li></ul><ul><li>(fight/flight) </li></ul>
  33. 34. Autonomic Nervous System Structure <ul><li>2 divisions: </li></ul><ul><li>parasympathetic(peace) </li></ul><ul><li>(feed/breed or rest /digest) </li></ul>
  34. 35. Sympathetic <ul><li>acts during stress </li></ul><ul><li>activates the adrenal medulla - epinephrine </li></ul><ul><li>arises from the thoracolumbar cord </li></ul><ul><li>paravertebral ganglia (near spinal cord) </li></ul>
  35. 36. Sympathetic <ul><li>short preganglionics secrete ACh in ganglia </li></ul><ul><li>long postganglionics secrete noradrenaline (norepinephrine) in organ </li></ul><ul><li>mass activation </li></ul>
  36. 37. Parasympathetic <ul><li>acts during </li></ul><ul><li>arises from cranio sacral CNS </li></ul><ul><li>terminal ganglia near organ </li></ul>REST
  37. 38. Parasympathetic <ul><li>long preganglionics secrete ACh in ganglia </li></ul><ul><li>short postganglionics secrete ACh in organ </li></ul>
  38. 39. Actions Of ANS
  39. 42. Drug Abuse <ul><li>mood altering drugs can affect the N.S. 2 ways: </li></ul><ul><li>affecting the limbic system </li></ul><ul><li>increasing or decreasing neurotransmitter action </li></ul>
  40. 43. Drug Abuse <ul><li>stimulants excite neuronal activity e.g caffeine </li></ul><ul><li>depressants suppress neuronal activity e.g. alcohol </li></ul>
  41. 44. Drug Abuse <ul><li>the neurotransmitter dopamine affects mood </li></ul><ul><li>some mood altering drugs prolong dopamine activity </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. cocaine </li></ul>
  42. 45. Drug Abuse <ul><li>psychological/physical dependencies can be developed which </li></ul><ul><li>cause addictions </li></ul>
  43. 46. Drug Abuse <ul><li>addictions cause </li></ul><ul><li>the person to require more and more of the drug to get the same effect and </li></ul><ul><li>the person to suffer from withdrawal symptoms if the drug is not available </li></ul>
  44. 47. Drug Abuse <ul><li>Commonly abused drugs: </li></ul><ul><li>alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>nicotine </li></ul><ul><li>cocaine </li></ul><ul><li>heroin </li></ul><ul><li>marijuana </li></ul>
  45. 48. Drug Abuse
  46. 49. Drug Abuse <ul><li>Indicate which are stimulants (s) and which are depressants (d) </li></ul><ul><li>alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>nicotine </li></ul><ul><li>cocaine </li></ul><ul><li>heroin </li></ul><ul><li>marijuana </li></ul>
  47. 50. Chapter 17: Part 2 Internet Resources : <ul><li>http://www.hon.ch/HONselect/Selection/A08.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://courses.ncsu.edu/VMA913/ </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.webref.org/psychology/l/limbic_system.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/P/PNS.html </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.ndrf.org/ans.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.nida.nih.gov / </li></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×