Costing Interventions on Domestic Violence Against Women in Mozambique


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Costing Interventions on Domestic Violence Against Women in Mozambique

  1. 1. Costing Interventions on Domestic Violence Against Women in Mozambique International Seminar to Exchange Experiences and Methodologies to Cost Gender Equality Policies and Interventions, Bolívia: 10-12 September 2013 By: Maimuna Ibraimo
  2. 2. What was costed, Leadership • The National Plan on Prevention and Combat to Domestic Violence (2008-2012) • =multisector Plan defined at central level • Was Coordinated by the Ministry of Women in Collaboration with other Ministries: Interior, Health, Justice; and with NGOs providing services on Domestic Violence
  3. 3. Context: At the moment there was not any law covering Domestic Violence. There were dispersed activities promoted by UNWOMEN, and others developed by the civil society (drafting of the Law) There was also some work on children through the Ministry of Interior, the Gabinete de Atendimento a Mulher e Criança, under support of UNICEF Data showing that domestic Violence is a matter of concern
  4. 4. The Process • However, there has been defined a framework for intervention on Violence Against Women: – National Policy on Women – National Plan on Women Advancement – National Council on Women Advancement wich has a technical representation, but is designed to to have a high level representation: Ministers, Civil society, academia .... – Gender Coordination Group: Government, donor community, scholars, civil society organizations, NGO = Now: headed by UNWOMEN and Ministry of Women – The PRSP
  5. 5. The Process: Framing what to cost • Study (2005) on Socio-economic costs of domestic violence (CECAGE): incidence data from Police station & indicative cost estimation considering recurrent expenditures • METHODOLOGY: • Health Costs (HC) • Functioning Costs (CF): goods and services for • functioning of health institutions, such as water, electric power, cleaning, supplies, office supplies and equipment foreveryday use in specific institutions. • Work Force Costs (CWF): wages and salaries (care & councelling) • Medication Costs (CM): medicine used to treat Victims • Hospitalization Costs (CH): costs of feeding the patients admitted in the hospitals.
  6. 6. Estimation Metodology: Health • Levels of Offense: • High Level (L1): Qualified Voluntary Body offences, Rape, • Frustrated Infanticide and Private Imprisonment; • Middle Level (L2): SimpleVoluntary Body Injury, kidnapping, Insults and Mistreatment; • Low Level (L3): includes Moral Abuse, Death Threats, Home and children Abandonment, Theft, Public Indecency and Defamation. • Health costs in each of the three considered levels: • HC(L1)= %LxVx(CF/patient + CWF/patient + CM/patient + CH/patient) • HC(L2) = %LxVx(CF / patient + CWF / patient + 1 CM / patient • CS(L3) = %LxVx(CF / patient + CWF / patient) • V=number of Victims of Violence • Global Health Costs = HC(L1) + HC(L2) + HC(L3)
  7. 7. Methodology: Justice • Work Force Costs (CWF) per victim– Magistrates (investigations and litigation costs); • Administrative costs (AC) per victim – offices supplies, water and light; • CJ = CFT (Unit )%Justic*V +CA(Unit )%Justic*V • %justic= % of cases brought to justice • V = number of cases
  8. 8. Challenges: • Estimations were partial: wages, medical intervention, goods & services involved • Methodology not applied directly • But findings and recomemndations guided definition of the activities to be implemented after discussion at GCG and CNAM-technical level through gender focal points of relevant sector in order to buy out the recommendations of the study • Problem: weak position of gender focal points in specific sector – no decision making power • Role of Minister of Women in bringing the issue at ministry level through CNAM and Council of Ministers
  9. 9. The Costing: Additional areas of intervention • (i) Coordination - MMAS • (ii) the protection of the victims - Interior • (iii) the legal assistance – Interior, Justice, NGOS • (iv) the psychological support – Health, NGOs • (v) social assistance - MMAS • (vi) medical care - Health – Building/expansion of Gabinetes de Atendimento Modelo, and Center of Integrated Assistance to the Victims – Equipment / transportation means – Needed reforms: legal, programs, research, appraisals
  10. 10. What was costed? • The recommendations helped to define the activities to be developed, so activities were costed • Because of their nature, some of the activities had a general coverage, eg: coordination, legal reform .... • Other activities were defined in relation to population targets (%) – to be monitored by national surveys – or priority areas (where reported cases of violence was high) • Basis: implementation capacity • Time frame: 2009-2012
  11. 11. Costing / Budgeting Procedures • All implementable activities must be summitted through the sector’s Economic & Social Plan and public budget proposal; if the sector does not register them in their proposal, no funds are allocated through the public budget. • All costing proceedures in all public institutions must comply with the Contract Act (Lei de Empreitada) which is regulated by the Decree nº 16/2010 (Regulamento de Contratação de Empreitadas de Obras Públicas, Fornecimento de Bens e Prestação de Serviços ao Estado • Every budget executor institution – Unidade Gestoras Executoras das Aquisições UGEA - (within each sector/directorate) has contracting role.
  12. 12. Costing Proceedures • 3 regimes: – General – Especial – international agreements, external financing when it is specified in the financial agreement, must be authorized by Minister of Finance – Exceptional. Modalities: previous qualification, limited tendering, 2 stage tendering, direct adjudication • General juridical regime: • Use of tendering process (concurso público) • UGEA surveys the tendering needs of the units needing to acquire goods and services, • Lowest price serves as reference for costing and sellection of provider, but technical criteria may apply
  13. 13. So what for Domestic Violence? • No common fund, basket fund, quota was specified for Activities on Preventing & combating Domestic Violence • Costing/implementation depends on sector • Ministry of Women: • Has various UGEA. One of them is in the National Directorate of Women • = more freedom to fulfill the requirements of the Decree nº 16/2010
  14. 14. Costing Proceedures - MMAS • For construction of Centro Integrado de Atendimento às Vítimas in Manhiça: • Ask for support of the Ministry of Public Works and Housing for standards • All procurement proceedures followed according to decree • No problems with Ministry of Planning & Development / Finance as activities were registered in the Sector’s Economic & Social Plan (including the implied budget + donor support) and followed normal requirements
  15. 15. Costing Proceedures - Interior • Women & Child Department does not have an UGEA • Budget depends on Comando Geral / Provincial • Difficulties first at planning level as no specific activities on women and child protection is registered. This is despite the introduction of Program budget which opens larger space for integration of gender related activities • Before, it was an incremental budget with mopre specification of functioning costs (wages & goods/services), and investiment expenditures
  16. 16. Costing Proceedures - Interior • From the Command, Women & Child Department only receives goods & services provided, mostly stationary as wages & salaries are somewhat independent • This made costing estimates very shy: only using the available facilities & staff for provision of services, according to “needs estimation” • Most of activities financed by donor community = off budget
  17. 17. Costing Proceedures - Interior • UGEA’s (or rather the project manager) does the costing according to donor agency’s proceedures (which may vary according to each country). • UNFPA, for instance, does tendering, by asking for at least 3 quotations. – = Other juridical regimes of costing / procurement do not apply • Part of costing is not real as everything may be provided physically by donor agency • Financial mobilization based on lobbying through GCG and individual negotiations with donor community.
  18. 18. Results (financing)+factors • Advance for sectors which had strong leadership support in relation to gender as this helped to align defined activities/objectives to sector’s PES/OE • But dependence on donor community exhacerbated the problem • Role of donor has always been key for results • Union of women for the same goal: NGOs, Government, civil society, (some) men, donors • (Forum Mulher vrs approval of Law 29/2009 + gender integration in PARPA)
  19. 19. Challenges • Financial resources for implementation of plans/recommendations • Budget absorption problem? • Yet, lack of leadership committment. Women / focal points can be isolated • New interventions and how demanding they can be, eg Centre de Atendimento Integrado
  20. 20. Lessons learned and recommendations to increase financing for gender equality • Within the public sector, improvements can only happens if there effective buy out of the leadership (including national directors) of the gender agenda and (maybe) gender units are created with planning & budgeting authonomy • Continued advocacy is key to this end, but continued technical & financial support (also through paralel financing) may help to change the view that gender related activities are implementable, sustainable and contribute for the overall wellbeing ofboth women and her male counterparts.