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Automate That! Scripting Atlassian applications in Python

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  • FIS is part of the S&P 500 and is one of the world's top-ranked technology providers to the banking industry.
  • Three basic scenarios where scripting is useful
  • JIRA – JQL provides amazing ability to search for issues. The presentation choices are limited, however, particularly if you want a report that you can email to others.
  • We have 2,000 users, so we tend to value server stability
  • All examples here in python 2
  • No proper error handling in any of these examples
  • Note that fields with wiki markup are returned as-is
  • Here, we’re going to use cookies. The JSESSIONID cookie can be used interchangeably between REST and non-REST callsYou can also use basic auth
  • No fields specified, so all fields are returned for all issues
  • Currently not possible to search based on an existing filter using REST
  • No fields are returned…. Just a list of the issues
  • Custom fields are listed alongside system fields
  • The contents of the “value” are highly dependent on the field type
  • The revisions “size” attribute tells us how many files were committed in that changeset
  • In practice, it seems that changesets are returned in decreasing order. The documentation doesn’t specify any order, however, so we’ll make no assumptions here
  • Bamboo allows basic auth, but you have to supply “os_authType=basic” as a query parameter in addition to the basicauth header. Here, we elect to exercise the user interface and obtain a cookie instead.
  • Just asking for the last 10 build results – would really want to loop backwards a chunk at a timeExpanding the related jira issues – can expand other fields as well Requesting the results in xml. Json also available
  • Note that we can also expand comment, labels, and stages (in addition to related issues)
  • Transcript

    • 1.
    • 2. Has this happened to you?
      Email to users results in 50+ undeliverable
      Need to verify the users in Active Directory
      Then “deactivate” former employees in Crowd
      750 mouse clicks later, you’re done!
      2
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/left-hand/4231405740/
    • 3. 3
      Automate That!
    • 4. Agenda
      Use cases for scripting
      Atlassian APIs available for scripting
      The awesome power and simplicity of python
      Examples
      4
    • 5. When is scripting useful?
      Automate time consuming tasks
      Perform data analysis
      Cross-reference data from multiple systems
      5
    • 6. Some specific use cases
      Crowd – Deactivate Users and remove from all groups
      Bamboo – Disable all plans in a project
      JIRA – Release Notes
      Subversion – custom commit acceptance
      Custom build processes – pull code linked to a specific issue into a patch archive
      6
    • 7. Why Scripts?Why Not Plugins?
      7
      • I’m not a Java Developer
      • 8. Installing new plugins can require a restart
      • 9. Prefer to minimize ad hoc changes on the server
      • 10. Need to correlate information from several systems
      • 11. Need an agile process to accommodate changing requirements
    • APIs for scripting(that we avoid if possible)
      The user interface
      Can do anything a user can do
      Reporting tasks are relatively easy (particularly when xml is available)
      Actions are relatively hard (and prone to breakage)
      Capture browser traffic with livehttpheaders, firebug, etc
      Form token checking can be an obstacle
      XML-RPC and SOAP
      Relatively low-level interface
      Many actions available
      Relatively complex to use
      8
    • 12. More APIs for scripting(the ones we prefer to use)
      RESTful Remote APIs (now deprecated)
      High level interface
      Supports a handful of actions
      Now emerging: “real” REST interfaces
      High level interface
      Supports a handful of actions
      http://confluence.atlassian.com/display/REST/Guidelines+for+Atlassian+REST+API+Design
      9
    • 13. Why Python?
      Powerful standard libraries
      Http(s) with cookie handling
      XML and JSON
      Unicode
      Third Party Libraries
      SOAP
      REST
      Templates
      Subversion
      Portable, cross-platform
      10
    • 14. Python Versions
      2.x
      Ships with most linux distributions
      Lots of third-party packages available
      3.x
      Latest version
      Deliberately incompatible with 2.x
      Not as many third-party libraries
      11
    • 15. HTTP(s) with Python
      Python 2
      httplib – low level, all HTTP verbs
      urllib – GET and POST, utilities
      urllib2 – GET and POST using Request class, easier manipulation of headers, handlers for cookies, proxies, etc.
      Python 3
      http.client – low level, all HTTP verbs
      http.parse - utilities
      urllib.request – similar to urllib2
      Third-Party
      httplib2 – high-level interface with all HTTP verbs, plus caching, compression, etc.
      12
    • 16. Example 1JIRA Issue Query & Retrieval
      13
    • 17. 14
      Discovering URLs for XML
    • 18. Simple Issue Retrieval
      15
      import urllib, httplib
      import xml.etree.ElementTree as etree
      jira_serverurl = 'http://jira.atlassian.com'
      jira_userid = 'myuserid'
      jira_password = 'mypassword'
      detailsURL = jira_serverurl +
      "/si/jira.issueviews:issue-xml/JRA-9/JRA-9.xml" +
      "?os_username=" + jira_userid + "&os_password=" + jira_password
      f = urllib.urlopen(detailsURL)
      tree=etree.parse(f)
      f.close()
      Construct a URL that looks like the one in the UI, with extra parms for our user auth
      Open the URL with one line!
      Parse the XML with one line!
    • 19. Find details in XML
      16
      Find based on tag name or path to element
      details = tree.getroot()
      print "Issue: " + details.find("channel/item/key").text
      print "Status: " + details.find("channel/item/status").text
      print "Summary: " + details.find("channel/item/summary").text
      print "Description: " + details.find("channel/item/description").text
      Issue: JRA-9
      Status: Open
      Summary: User Preference: User Time Zones
      Description: <p>Add time zones to user profile. That way the dates displayed to a user are always contiguous with their local time zone, rather than the server's time zone.</p>
    • 20. Behind the scenes…cookies!
      17
      Turn on debugging and see exactly what’s happening
      httplib.HTTPConnection.debuglevel= 1
      f = urllib.urlopen(detailsURL)
      send: 'GET /si/jira.issueviews:issue-xml/JRA-9/JRA-9.xml?os_username=myuserid&os_password=mypassword HTTP/1.0rnHost: jira.atlassian.comrnUser-Agent: Python-urllib/1.17rnrn'
      reply: 'HTTP/1.1 200 OKrn'
      header: Date: Wed, 20 Apr 2011 12:04:37 GMT
      header: Server: Apache-Coyote/1.1
      header: X-AREQUESTID: 424x2804517x1
      header: X-Seraph-LoginReason: OK
      header: X-AUSERNAME: myuserid
      header: X-ASESSIONID: 19b3b8o
      header: Content-Type: text/xml;charset=UTF-8
      header: Set-Cookie: JSESSIONID=A1357C4805B1345356404A65333436D3; Path=/
      header: Set-Cookie: atlassian.xsrf.token=AKVY-YUFR-9LM7-97AB|e5545d754a98ea0e54f
      8434fde36326fb340e8b7|lin; Path=/
      header: Connection: close
      JSESSIONID cookie sent from JIRA
    • 21. Authentication
      User credentials determine:
      The data returned
      The operations allowed
      Methods Available:
      Basic Authentication
      JSESSIONID Cookie
      Token Method
      18
    • 22. Basic Authentication
      Authentication credentials passed with each request
      Can be used with REST API
      19
    • 23. JSESSIONID Cookie
      Authentication credentials passed once; then cookie is used
      Used when scripting the user interface
      Can be used with REST API for JIRA, Confluence, and Bamboo
      20
    • 24. Token Method
      Authentication credentials passed once; then token is used
      Used with Fisheye/Crucible REST
      Used with Deprecated Bamboo Remote API
      21
    • 25. Obtaining a cookie
      Scripting the user interface login page
      Adding parameters to the user interface URL: “?os_username=myUserID&os_password=myPassword”
      Using the JIRA REST API
      22
    • 26. JIRA REST Authentication
      23
      import urllib, urllib2, cookielib, json
      # set up cookiejar for handling URLs
      cookiejar = cookielib.CookieJar()
      myopener= urllib2.build_opener(urllib2.HTTPCookieProcessor(cookiejar))
      creds = { "username" : jira_userid, "password" : jira_password }
      queryurl = jira_serverurl + "/rest/auth/latest/session"
      req = urllib2.Request(queryurl)
      req.add_data(json.dumps(creds))
      req.add_header("Content-type", "application/json")
      req.add_header("Accept", "application/json")
      fp= myopener.open(req)
      fp.close()
      urllib2 handles cookies automatically. We just need to give it a CookieJar
      Request and response are both JSON
      We don’t care about response, just the cookie
    • 27. Submitting a JIRA Querywith the user interface
      24
      # Search using JQL
      queryJQL = urllib.quote("key in watchedIssues()")
      queryURL = jira_serverurl +
      "/sr/jira.issueviews:searchrequest-xml/temp/SearchRequest.xml" +
      "?tempMax=1000&jqlQuery=" + queryJQL
      fp = myopener.open(queryURL)
      # Search using an existing filter
      filterId = "20124"
      queryURL = jira_serverurl +
      "/sr/jira.issueviews:searchrequest-xml/" +
      "{0}/SearchRequest-{0}.xml?tempMax=1000".format(filterId)
      fp = myopener.open(queryURL)
      Pass any JQL Query
      Or Pass the ID of an existing shared filter
    • 28. A JQL Query using REST
      25
      # Search using JQL
      queryJQL= "key in watchedIssues()"
      IssuesQuery= {
      "jql" : queryJQL,
      "startAt" : 0,
      "maxResults" : 1000 }
      queryURL = jira_serverurl + "/rest/api/latest/search"
      req = urllib2.Request(queryURL)
      req.add_data(json.dumps(IssuesQuery))
      req.add_header("Content-type", "application/json")
      req.add_header("Accept", "application/json")
      fp= myopener.open(req)
      data = json.load(fp)
      fp.close()
      Pass any JQL Query
      Request and response are both JSON
    • 29. XML returned from user interface query
      26
      An RSS Feed with all issues and requested fields that have values
    • 30. JSON returnedfrom a REST query
      27
      {u'total': 83,
      u'startAt': 0,
      u'issues': [{u'self': u'http://jira.atlassian.com/rest/api/latest/issue/JRA-23969',
      u'key': u'JRA-23969'},
      {u'self': u'http://jira.atlassian.com/rest/api/latest/issue/JRA-23138',
      u'key': u'JRA-23138'},
      {u'self': u'http://jira.atlassian.com/rest/api/latest/issue/BAM-2770',
      u'key': u'BAM-2770'},
      {u'self': u'http://jira.atlassian.com/rest/api/latest/issue/BAM-2489',
      u'key': u'BAM-2489'},
      {u'self': u'http://jira.atlassian.com/rest/api/latest/issue/BAM-1410',
      u'key': u'BAM-1410'},
      {u'self': u'http://jira.atlassian.com/rest/api/latest/issue/BAM-1143',
      u'key': u'BAM-1143'}],
      u'maxResults': 200}
      A list of the issues found, with links to retrieve more information
    • 31. JSON issue details
      28
      All applicable fields are returned, even if there’s no value
      Expand the html property to get rendered html for description, comments
    • 32. What’s the difference?
      29
      <reporter username="mlassau">Mark Lassau [Atlassian]</reporter>
      <customfield id="customfield_10160" key="com.atlassian.jira.toolkit:dayslastcommented">
      <customfieldname>Last commented</customfieldname>
      <customfieldvalues>
      1 week ago
      </customfieldvalues>
      </customfield>
      u'reporter': {
      u'type': u'com.opensymphony.user.User',
      u'name': u'reporter',
      u'value': {
      u'self': u'http://jira.atlassian.com/rest/api/latest/user?username=mlassau',
      u'displayName': u'MarkLassau [Atlassian]',
      u'name': u'mlassau'}},
      u'customfield_10160': {
      u'type': u'com.atlassian.jira.toolkit:dayslastcommented',
      u'name': u'Last commented',
      u'value': 604800},
      XML values are display strings
      REST values are type-dependent
    • 33. REST vs. non-REST
      30
      REST
      • More roundtrips to query JIRA and get issue details
      • 34. Returns all fields
      • 35. Values require type-specific interpretation
      • 36. Easier to transition issues
      • 37. Easier to get info for projects, components
      Non-REST
      • Can query based on existing filter
      • 38. XML returns only fields that contain values
      • 39. Values always one or more display strings
      • 40. Can do anything a user can do (with a little work)
    • Example 2Cross-referencing JIRA, Fisheye, and Bamboo build results
      31
    • 41. Which build resolved my issue?
      Bamboo keeps track of “related issues” (based on issue IDs included in commit comments), but doesn’t know when issues are resolved.
      If we know the issue is resolved in JIRA, we can look to see the latest build that lists our ID as a “related issue”
      Not a continuous integration build? We’ll need to look in fisheye to determine the highest revision related to this issue and then look in bamboo to see if a build using this revision has completed successfully.
      32
    • 42. To Fisheye for related commits!
      33
      queryURL= FisheyeServer + "/rest-service-fe/changeset-v1/listChangesets" +
      "?rep={0}&comment={1}&expand=changesets".format(FisheyeRepo, myissue)
      req= urllib2.Request(queryURL)
      auth_string = '{0}:{1}'.format(fisheye_userid,fisheye_password)
      base64string = base64.encodestring(auth_string)[:-1]
      req.add_header("Authorization", "Basic {0}".format(base64string))
      response = myopener.open(req)
      issuecommits=etree.parse(response).getroot()
      response.close()
      Query a specific fisheye repository for a commit with our JIRA issue ID in the comments
      Use basic auth headers to authenticate
    • 43. Fisheye changesets returned
      34
      <results expand="changesets">
      <changesets>
      <changeset>
      <csid>130948</csid>
      <date>2011-04-29T12:35:56.150-04:00</date>
      <author>lc6081</author>
      <branch>trunk</branch>
      <comment>MYJIRAPROJECT-2823 Modified to add parameters</comment>
      <revisions size="1" />
      </changeset>
      </changesets>
      </results>
    • 44. Parsing the changesets
      35
      commits = []
      for changeset in issuecommits.findall("changesets/changeset"):
      commits.append(changeset.findtext("csid"))
      commits.sort()
      print "Highest commit is: " + commits[-1]
      Highest commit is: 130948
    • 45. Logging into Bamboo
      36
      urllib2.HTTPCookieProcessor(cookiejar))
      cookiejar = cookielib.CookieJar()
      myopener = urllib2.build_opener(urllib2.HTTPCookieProcessor(cookiejar))
      queryURL = bambooServer + "/userlogin!default.action“
      params= urllib.urlencode({
      "os_username" : bambooUserid,
      "os_password" : bambooPassword})
      response = myopener.open(queryURL, params)
      response.close()
      Using a POST to the user interface login screen to retrieve a JSESSIONID cookie
    • 46. Querying for build results
      37
      # Warning: This is a very resource-intensive operation.
      # You should consider limiting the number of builds returned
      queryURL= bambooServer + "/rest/api/latest/result/MYPROJECT-MYPLAN" +
      "?expand=results[-10:-1].result.jiraIssues"
      req = urllib2.Request(queryURL)
      req.add_header("Accept", "application/xml")
      response = myopener.open(req)
      results=etree.parse(response).getroot()
      response.close()
      Use negative indexes to return the last entries in build list, e.g. [-10:-1] returns last ten builds in list
      Request the related issues
      Ask for XML
      (JSON also available)
    • 47. Example (partial) build results
      38
      <results expand="results">
      <link href="http://mybamboo.domain.com:8080/rest/api/latest/result/MYPROJECT-MYPLAN" rel="self" />
      <results expand="result" max-result="25" size="46" start-index="0">
      <result expand="comments,labels,jiraIssues,stages" id="3146125" key="MYPROJECT-MYPLAN-26" lifeCycleState="Finished" number="26" state="Successful">
      <link href="http://mybamboo.domain.com:8080/rest/api/latest/result/MYPROJECT-MYPLAN-26" rel="self" />
      <buildStartedTime>2011-04-29T05:04:14.460-05:00</buildStartedTime>
      <buildCompletedTime>2011-04-29T05:34:35.687-05:00</buildCompletedTime>
      <buildRelativeTime>4 days ago</buildRelativeTime>
      <vcsRevisionKey>4483</vcsRevisionKey>
      <buildReason>Code has changed</buildReason>
      <comments max-result="0" size="0" start-index="0" />
      <labels max-result="0" size="0" start-index="0" />
      <jiraIssues max-result="1" size="1" start-index="0">
      <issue iconUrl="http://myjira.domain.com/images/icons/bug.gif"
      issueType="Defect" key="MYJIRAPROJECT-1629"
      summary="Need to display an error message when balance is zero.">
      <urlhref="http://myjira.domain.com/browse/MYJIRAPROJECT-1629" rel="self" />
      </issue>
      </jiraIssues>
      <stages max-result="1" size="1" start-index="0" />
      </result>
      </results>
      </results>
      Can also expand comments, labels, and stages
      jiraIssues property has been expanded here
    • 48. Walking through build results
      39
      for result in results.findall("results/result"):
      print result.get("key") + ":"
      print "tRevision: " + result.findtext("vcsRevisionKey")
      issues = [issue.get("key") for issue in result.findall("jiraIssues/issue")]
      print "tIssues: " + ", ".join(issues)
      MYPROJECT-MYPLAN-31:
      Revision: 4489
      Issues: MYJIRAPROJECT-1658
      MYPROJECT-MYPLAN-30:
      Revision: 4486
      Issues: MYJIRAPROJECT-1630
      MYPROJECT-MYPLAN-29:
      Revision: 4485
      Issues: MYJIRAPROJECT-1616, MYJIRAPROJECT-1663
    • 49. Example 3Removing a user from a Crowd group
      40
    • 50. Beyond GET and POST
      41
      Lower-level HTTPConnection needed
      connection = httplib.HTTPConnection('myCrowdServer.mydomain.com:8080')
      operation = 'DELETE'
      urlpath = "/rest/usermanagement/latest/user/group/direct" +
      "?username={0}&groupname={1}".format(userToRemove, fromGroup)
      body = None
      auth_string = '{0}:{1}'.format(crowdAppName,crowdAppPassword)
      base64string = base64.encodestring(auth_string)[:-1]
      headers = {'Authorization' : "Basic {0}".format(base64string)}
      connection.request(operation, urlpath, body, headers)
      response = connection.getresponse()
      print response.status, response.reason
      connection.close()
      Authenticate as a Crowd Application
      204 - group membership is successfully deleted 403 - not allowed to delete the group membership 404 - the user or group or membership could not be found
    • 51. A few loose ends
      Be prepared to handle Unicode strings
      Error handling – not shown here, but important!
      Formatting output – several python libraries for handling templates are available
      REST Interfaces – you can write your own!
      http://confluence.atlassian.com/display/DEVNET/Plugin+Tutorial+-+Writing+REST+Services
      42
    • 52. Links for more information
      http://confluence.atlassian.com/display/JIRA/Displaying+Search+Results+in+XML
      http://confluence.atlassian.com/display/JIRA/JIRA+REST+API+(Alpha)+Tutorial
      http://confluence.atlassian.com/display/CONFDEV/Confluence+REST+APIs
      http://confluence.atlassian.com/display/FECRUDEV/REST+API+Guide
      http://confluence.atlassian.com/display/BAMBOO/Bamboo+REST+APIs
      http://confluence.atlassian.com/display/CROWDDEV/Crowd+REST+APIs
      43