sociology-1

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sociology-1

  1. 1. ANJANI SRIKANTH KOKA 4/16/2012 1
  2. 2.  Origins and Development of Sociology Society, Sociology and its Method The Social Sciences 4/16/2012 2
  3. 3.  “Study hard and you will do well in life.” “If you do this elective or set of electives you will have a better chance of getting a good job in the future”. “As a boy/girl this does not seem a correct choice of job” “Your family needs you to get a job soon so why choose a profession that will take a very long time” or “You will join your family business so why do you wish to do this job?” 4/16/2012 3
  4. 4.  Sociology makes a scientific study of society: Prior to the emergence of sociology the study of society was carried on in an unscientific manner and society had never been the central concern of any science. It is through the study of sociology that the truly scientific study of the society has been possible. 4/16/2012 4
  5. 5.  Sociology because of its bearing upon many of the problems of the present world has assumed such a great importance that it is considered to be the best approach to all the social sciences. 4/16/2012 5
  6. 6.  Sociology studies role of the institutions in the development of the individuals: It is through sociology that scientific study of the great social institutions and the relation of the individual to each is being made. The home and family ,the school and education, the church and religion, the state and government ,industry and work ,the community and association, these are institutions through which society functions. 4/16/2012 6
  7. 7.  Sociology studies these institutions and their role in the development of the individual and suggests suitable measures for re strengthening them with a view to enable them to serve the individual better. 4/16/2012 7
  8. 8.  Study of sociology is indispensable for understanding and planning of society: Society is a complex phenomenon with a multitude of intricacies. It is impossible to understand and solve its numerous problems without support of sociology. It is rightly said that we cannot understand and mend society without any knowledge of its mechanism and construction. 4/16/2012 8
  9. 9.  Without the investigation carried out by sociology no real effective social planning would be possible. It helps us to determine the most efficient means for reaching the goals agreed upon. A certain amount of knowledge about society is necessary before any social policies can be carried out. 4/16/2012 9
  10. 10.  Sociology is of great importance in the solution of social problems: The present world is suffering from many problems which can be solved through scientific study of the society. It is the task of sociology to study the social problems through the methods of scientific research and to find out solution to them. 4/16/2012 10
  11. 11.  The scientific study of human affairs will ultimately provide the body of knowledge and principles that will enable us to control the conditions of social life and improve them. 4/16/2012 11
  12. 12.  Sociology has drawn our attention to the intrinsic worth and dignity of man: Sociology has been instrumental in changing our attitude towards human beings. In a specialized society we are all limited as to the amount of the whole organization and culture that we can experience directly. 4/16/2012 12
  13. 13.  We can hardly know the people of other areas intimately. In order to have insight into and appreciation of the motives by which others live and the conditions under which they exist a knowledge of sociology is essential. 4/16/2012 13
  14. 14.  Sociology has changed our outlook with regard to the problems of crime etc: It is through the study of sociology that our whole outlook on various aspects of crime has change. The criminals are now treated as human beings suffering from mental deficiencies and efforts are accordingly made to rehabilitate them as useful members of the society. 4/16/2012 14
  15. 15.  Sociology has made great contribution to enrich human culture: Human culture has been made richer by the contribution of sociology. The social phenomenon is now understood in the light of scientific knowledge and enquiry. According to Lowie most of us harbor the comfortable delusion that our way of doing things is the only sensible if not only possible one. 4/16/2012 15
  16. 16.  Sociology has given us training to have rational approach to questions concerning oneself, ones religion, customs, morals and institutions. It has further taught us to be objective, critical and dispassionate. It enables man to have better understanding both of himself and of others. 4/16/2012 16
  17. 17.  By comparative study of societies and groups other than his existence ,his life becomes richer and fuller than it would otherwise be. Sociology also impresses upon us the necessity of overcoming narrow personal prejudices, ambitions and class hatred. 4/16/2012 17
  18. 18.  Sociology is of great importance in the solution of international problems: The progress made by physical sciences has brought the nations of the world nearer to each other. But in the social field the world has been left behind by the revolutionary progress of the science. 4/16/2012 18
  19. 19.  The world is divided politically giving rise to stress and conflict. Men have failed to bring in peace. Sociology can help us in understanding the underlying causes and tensions. 4/16/2012 19
  20. 20.  The value of sociology lies in the fact that it keeps us update on modern situations: It contributes to making good citizens and finding solutions to the community problems. It adds to the knowledge of the society. It helps the individual find his relation to society. 4/16/2012 20
  21. 21.  The study of social phenomena and of the ways and means of promoting what Giddens calls social adequacy is one of the most urgent needs of the modern society. Sociology has a strong appeal to all types of mind through its direct bearing upon many of the initial problems of the present world. 4/16/2012 21
  22. 22.  West - Plato‟s Republic and Aristotle‟s Ethics and Politics --- India – Upanishads, Sutras and the Puranas Special importance – Laws of Manu or Manusmriti Sukracharya – Nitisastra Arthasastra by Chanakya or Kautilya is the most famous work of ancient Indian literature on this subject Persians - Zoroaster 4/16/2012 22
  23. 23.  The term sociology was coined by French philosopher and sociologist Auguste Comte Latin societas (society) and the Greek logos (study) He defined sociology as the science of social phenomena 4/16/2012 23
  24. 24.  Herbert Spencer – His sociology is essentially evolutionistic He asserted that society was like an organism or living body Frederic Le Play – applied case-study method to his research; introduced the survey method and the concept of „participant observer‟ 4/16/2012 24
  25. 25.  Karl Marx (economist) Charles Durkheim (biologist) Sigmund Freud (Psycho analyst) 4/16/2012 25
  26. 26.  Emile Durkheim and Max Weber became prominent Durkheim – ultimate social reality is the group, not the individual Max Weber introduced interpretive understanding (Verstehen) in sociology For him individual is the basic unit of society His approach is opposite to that of Durkheim 4/16/2012 26
  27. 27.  Verstehen refers to understanding the meaning of action from the actors point of view. It is entering into the shoes of the other, and adopting this research stance requires treating the actor as a subject, rather than an object of your observations. 4/16/2012 27
  28. 28.  Evolutionary and organismic theories Naturalist and analytical Structural-functionalist 4/16/2012 28
  29. 29.  In the simplest sense ,evolution means the slow process of change from a simple to a more complex structure. Evolution assumes that all living things are inter-related. Humans are supposed to have developed from some simpler forms. 4/16/2012 29
  30. 30.  Most of the scientists today accept the basic principle of evolution but they have varying views regarding how evolution has taken place or how far it has gone. The evolution of life began in the oceans. About four hundred million years ago the first land based creatures emerged. 4/16/2012 30
  31. 31.  Some of these gradually evolved into the large reptiles who were later displaced by mammals. Mammals are warm-blooded creatures having greater capacity to learn from experience than other animals and this capacity has reached its highest development in the human species. 4/16/2012 31
  32. 32.  Our closest relatives are chimpanzee, gorilla and orangutan Though similarities between man and other animal forms were discovered by Linnaeus who grouped men ,the great ape and monkeys in a single order, the main theory is Darwinism. Survival of the fittest through struggle for existence 4/16/2012 32
  33. 33.  A further elaboration of the evolutionary theory Darwin and Spencer Those which conceive of society as a biological organism with nerves, tissues, cells etc. 4/16/2012 33
  34. 34.  Naturalism or positivism: Attempts to equate the methods of sociology to those of the natural sciences such as physics, chemistry and biology by using external observation and measurement or quantification Inspiration: Comte, Pareto There is no qualitative difference between physical and social relations Disown introspection, interpretation 4/16/2012 34
  35. 35.  Inspiration: Max Weber Difference between natural and social sciences (contrast to naturalistic) Introspection, interpretation techniques have their place in sociology 4/16/2012 35
  36. 36.  Widely followed in modern times Inspiration: Comte, Spencer, Durkheim, and Pareto All parts of a culture or group are integrated into the whole or are interdependent on each other and social phenomena are functions or effects of social structures such as class systems etc. 4/16/2012 36
  37. 37.  Sociology – Latin societas (society) and the Greek logos (study or science) Reciprocal recognition and commonness are the characteristic features of every social relationship Method – Greek meta (with, after) and hodos (way) --- an apt way of doing something, investigating or teaching with brevity, thoroughness and the like. Method vs. technique 4/16/2012 37
  38. 38.  For convenience, I decide to take a side path instead of the high road in order to go to a village, I may do it by going on foot or on bicycle. The following of the side path is the method and the use of the bicycle the technique. 4/16/2012 38
  39. 39.  Formulation of the Problem Observation (Spontaneous/Controlled) Classification Hypothesis Verification Prediction 4/16/2012 39
  40. 40.  Juvenile delinquency refers to antisocial or illegal behavior by children or adolescents Broken homes 4/16/2012 40
  41. 41.  A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for an observable phenomenon Chocolate may cause pimples. Salt in soil may affect plant growth. Plant growth may be affected by the color of the light. Bacterial growth may be affected by temperature. Ultra violet light may cause skin cancer. Taller people have larger handspans If I eat pizza everyday then I get fat. 4/16/2012 41
  42. 42.  When certain conditions obtain, broken homes are the main cause of juvenile delinquency Working hypothesis Scientific hypothesis If we give plant A more fertilizer than plant B then plant A will grow faster than plant B. 4/16/2012 42
  43. 43.  America --- broken homes are the main cause of juvenile delinquency France, India, Brazil and other nations???? We cannot accept this hypothesis as general or universal 4/16/2012 43
  44. 44.  Archimedes principle: „A body immersed in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the liquid it displaces‟ Fluid – water, oil or any other liquid This we can always predict without fear of being wrong. By prediction the law shows that it can act as such 4/16/2012 44
  45. 45.  Sociology and Economics Sociology and Political Science Sociology and History Sociology and Psychology Sociology and Anthropology Sociology and Ethics Other Social Sciences 4/16/2012 45
  46. 46.  Economics is the study of production and distribution of goods and services. As the economic process develops in society, it influences and is influenced by the social life of man; the relation between these two sciences is very intimate. Many economists like Max Weber interpret economic change as an aspect of social change 4/16/2012 46
  47. 47.  The study of economics would be misleading and incomplete apart from its social setting – an opinion that has gained considerable ground during the last few decades. As the economic system is embedded in the social structure as a part of it, the study of the former cannot be undertaken but as a function of the latter; that‟s why Economics must be the handmaid of sociology. 4/16/2012 47
  48. 48.  Economics deals with the production of goods and services and how they are distributed to people just like sociology which also consider how the goods are distributed to members of the society. 4/16/2012 48
  49. 49.  Political science deals with social groups organized under the sovereignty of the state Law and freedom; legislative power etc. Close affinity between sociology and political science but the view points are different; the former looks upon a state as a social institution; the latter as the supreme regulating power of the community and the source of political law 4/16/2012 49
  50. 50.  The correlation between these two branches as per Giddings: “To teach the theory of the state to men who have not learned the first principles of sociology, is like teaching astronomy or thermodynamics to men who have not learned Newton‟s laws of motion.” 4/16/2012 50
  51. 51.  Sociology and Political science are also related in the sense that they both concern the welfare of people in a society. Political science basically deals with the distribution of power and the exercise of power, democracy, dictatorship, communism, how people vote etc. 4/16/2012 51
  52. 52.  Ethics is concerned with the moral rightness or depravity of human actions It investigates the laws of morality and formulates the principles and rules of morally desirable actions. 4/16/2012 52
  53. 53.  A peaceful strike directed to improve the condition of the working classes, when all other legal means have proved futile, is morally good, or at least not wrong; whereas the same strike, used as a piece of revolutionary strategy, with the object of spreading unrest in the population, is ethically wrong. 4/16/2012 53
  54. 54.  No ethical action is possible unless it is social Not everything that is social is ethical 4/16/2012 54
  55. 55.  Do not furnish the image of competitors by unfair practices. Do not deceive or cheat the customers by selling substandard or defective products by under measurement or any other means. Do not report to hoarding, black marketing or profiteering. 4/16/2012 55
  56. 56.  Ensure payment of fair wages and fair treatment to the internal customers as well as external customers and share holders. Make accurate business records so that transparency to the share holders can be achieved. Treasure sincerity and accuracy in advertising, labeling and packaging. 4/16/2012 56
  57. 57.  Kidney transplantation in India has become most popular because of easy availability at low cost. The doctors run into confusion when they come across the situation where a patient‟s life can be saved by disturbing the health of others. 4/16/2012 57
  58. 58.  The physical and cultural development of human beings from their origin to the present time is the object of the study of anthropology Human Evolution, Physical anthropology, Archaeology, Cultural anthropology, Social anthropology 4/16/2012 58
  59. 59.  Human evolution (study of fossil man) Physical anthropology (concerned with bodily characteristics of racial groups) Archaeology (attempts to reconstruct the social life of prehistoric man) Cultural anthropology (study of man‟s culture both material and non-material) Social anthropology (deals with man as a social being, in which sense it would coincide with sociology) 4/16/2012 59
  60. 60.  The non material aspects of any culture are its beliefs, customs, philosophy, patterns and ways of communication (verbal and non- verbal) and its government. The material aspect of culture consists of the physical. These are houses, food items, factories, raw materials and technologies. Every culture is the product of this interaction between its material and non material aspects. 4/16/2012 60
  61. 61.  History primarily deals with past events. Sociology on the other end will be concerned with how people interacted, how culture was affected etc. History emphasizes particular historical occurrences; sociology deals in general. 4/16/2012 61
  62. 62.  History primarily deals with past events and how they affected society e.g., how the colonization of Africa underdeveloped Africa. Sociology on the other end will be concerned with how people interacted, how culture was affected etc during the colonization and the present. 4/16/2012 62
  63. 63.  The primary interest of the sociologist is the finding of the general laws of society and that of the historian the reconstruction of the order in which historical events have been taking place. History deals with human events in so far as they are correlated in time, while sociology studies them from the viewpoint of the social relationships involved 4/16/2012 63
  64. 64.  While the historian describes the Napolean wars with all the circumstances accompanying them, a sociologist would study their impact on the lives of the people, the role that these wars had on the subsequent development of the nationalistic spirit in Europe and the part that convictions and propaganda played in arousing the spirits of patriots against the invader. 4/16/2012 64
  65. 65.  While the historian may deal with the development of the family in different civilizations, the sociologist‟s task is to investigate into the various forms of this institution; to trace the morphological similarity between them; to find their correlations so as to be able to formulate the laws of change and causality that intervene among those traits and institutions. 4/16/2012 65
  66. 66.  As society is fundamentally a mental phenomenon, the relation between social psychology and sociology becomes at once obvious. 4/16/2012 66
  67. 67.  Social psychology deals with the mental processes of man considered as a social being. It studies particularly the influence of group life on the mental development of the individual; the effect of the individual mind on the group, and the development of the mental life of the groups within themselves and in their relations with one another. 4/16/2012 67
  68. 68.  Psychology and Sociology link on that they deal with the behavior of people, psychology deals with the behavior of people and their mental process just like sociology which also seek to understand how peoples behavior affect society. The distinction is that the one studies society from the view point of the community element; the other from the viewpoint of psychological factors involved 4/16/2012 68
  69. 69.  Demography Law Criminology Industrial sociology Religious Sociology Organizational Sociology Sociology of communication Prognostics or futurology (society of future).  “FASTEST GROWING SCIENCE” 4/16/2012 69
  70. 70.  Meeting point of sociology and philosophy Its role is the study of the fundamental principles and concepts of social life in their epistemological and axiological aspects Epistemological : philosophical study of knowledge Axiological : philosophical study of values 4/16/2012 70
  71. 71.  Ontological: fundamental principles and concepts of social life such as man, society, justice, happiness etc. Criteriological: criticizes or inquires into the validity of the principles and conclusions of the social sciences Synthetic: Seeks to bring together its results with those of the other sciences that deal with man 4/16/2012 71
  72. 72.  In its axiological aspect social philosophy deals with the ultimate values of social life and the means of attaining them. Its objective is, therefore, the attainment of the social good in itself and in its relations with ultimate moral values. 4/16/2012 72

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