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17nov theme session_screen4_leyden

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Presentation from Kevin M. Leyden, (Research Professor of Social Science & Public Policy NUI Galway) - Used at Globe Forum Dublin 2010

Presentation from Kevin M. Leyden, (Research Professor of Social Science & Public Policy NUI Galway) - Used at Globe Forum Dublin 2010

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  • Read Title
  • I would like to discuss a few simple thoughts about the value of cities for sustainability, for health and for well-being.
  • A Few Facts
  • Pause
  • This is an interesting Quote from an IBM publication by the former Mayor of Denver: Read
  • I think this slide summarizes many of my main points…contains key issues to think about and discuss.
  • A Key Point is that Places differ on many levels….and we need to ask how these differences matter for sustainability, health and well-being…FOR EXAMPLE
  • Many places ILLUSTRATE People Oriented Designs….THOSE….
  • Such Designed emphasize the pedestrian, the cyclist and/or Public Transportation
  • And expect that most of one’s daily needs will be attained without the use of an automobile.
  • Such urban design as present all over the world: Here we have Seoul, Korea
  • And Shoppe Street, Galway
  • Such designs also emphasize human interaction in Public Squares…..(NEXT)
  • Parks and Pitches or other publiic gathering places (including coffee shops, community centers, and pubs).
  • And of course, there are multiple ways to get from point A to B
  • China
  • London: The best cities also recognize that urban dwellers need quiet neighborhoods that provide a sense of control, comfort, and access to nature.
  • Yet also provide people and families access to all the city has to offer.
  • In the United States (and many places in Ireland) the Market-place (the town square!) looks more like this. A place you drive to and thru!
  • With a new emphasis on designing for the efficient movement of the automobile instead of for people.
  • And you can See this Design – often associated with traffic – all over the world as well! (China)
  • Dubin
  • Also associated with Big Box retail Super Stores
  • And Loads of Parking
  • And cookie cutter housing estates that often lack character and access to community amenities.
  • I suppose this isn’t as ugly when you are driving at 70 KPH
  • What are the consequences of building and designing places around the automobile?
  • What are the consequences for Climate Change, for example?
  • This is a fascinating Webpage created by the Chicago based Center for Neighborhood Technology.
  • Car-Oriented Suburbs and counties produce far more CO2 per household. The city –per capita – is far better for the environment because there is less auto usage.
  • Really Interesting: When you COMBINE the cost of one’s home AND the Costs associated with driving the Suburban and county Model is FAR MORE expensive than most of us assume.
  • Design can also affect health on many levels…..(MOVE ON!)
  • Obesity in the States is epidemic. And it is a growing concern in countries like Ireland and the UK as well.
  • The benefits of being physically active on a regular basis are documented in thousands of studies. Physical activity can increase the life span while improving quality of life and can help prevent leading physical and psychological disorders. With health care costs continuing steep increases, the lower health care costs of active people is attracting more attention from policy makers.
  • Designs that emphasize the car instead of the pedestrian
  • The message is often clear. Don’t walk!
  • And in case you miss it…..
  • It is a problem that is also affecting our children
  • This change has a great deal to do with the places we live in and the way we design them
  • Close with a few thoughts about how we might begin to make cities more livable and attractive places…..there are many good models, but this particular insight comes from a 2008 survey of residents living in 10 international cities. The focus being on what they like and dislike about their cities. And how these attitudes affect their satisfaction with life in their cities and their individual happiness!
  • The survey compared residents in ten Cities…by the way the Swedes –or at least those living in Stockholm –turned out to be happier than most!

Transcript

  • 1. The City Solution: How Making Cities Livable can Address Climate Change and Well-Being Kevin M. Leyden Research Professor of Social Science & Public Policy Centre for Innovation & Structural Change J.E. Cairnes School of Business & Economics National University of Ireland, Galway
  • 2.  
  • 3. We Are Becoming More Urban
    • 2008 marked a turning point in historical settlement patterns; for the first time in human history the majority of us live in urban areas. This trend will continue .
    • India, for example, is expected to build 500 new cities over the next 20 years.
  • 4.  
  • 5. The City in the 21 st Century
    • “ The 19 th Century was a century of empires, the 20 th century was a century of nation states. The 21 st century will be a century of cities.”
    • Wellington E. Web, former Mayor of Denver, Colorado as quoted in A Vision for Smarter Cities , published by IBM
  • 6.  
  • 7. The Future of the City: Issues
    • It is essential that we come to understand how to make cities and towns more livable, attractive places with a high quality of life. Our failure to do so – in the U.S. - lead to the decline of many urban cores.
    • Cities and towns hold huge potential for combating Climate Change. Cities and towns have smaller carbon footprints per capita. And they can be made far more efficient with green technologies and retrofits, renewable energy, smart metering, and pedestrian and transit-oriented planning.
    • We need to figure out how to enable people to age in place. Cities and towns need to be attractive places for families with children and the elderly, for example.
    • Urban design and planning has important implications for human health and well-being. We must gain a better understanding of issues of walkability, social connectivity, public places and access to nature in the city.
    • There is a need for research that examines how matters of urban design, transportation planning, and all types of urban public policy (e.g., housing policy, the support of cultural activities, crime-control and education policy) affect the attractiveness of places for creative people and innovative firms).
  • 8. Places Differ To what extend does Urban Design and Transportation Planning affect the Well-being of People and the Environment?
  • 9. Time-tested urban and town planning designs that emphasize the importance of Mixed-Use and Pedestrian Oriented Neighborhoods with a Unique Sense of Place
  • 10.  
  • 11.  
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14.  
  • 15.  
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  • 17.  
  • 18.  
  • 19.  
  • 20.  
  • 21. But for the last 50 years or so
    • Many countries –not all- have planned and built places that are very different. Places that are largely planned by developers and are oriented around roads and the automobile.
  • 22.  
  • 23.  
  • 24.  
  • 25.  
  • 26.  
  • 27.  
  • 28.  
  • 29.  
  • 30. Too Car-Focused?
    • There is now one car for every two adults in Ireland, an increase of 62 percent since 1990.
    • Source: Energy in Transport Trends and Influencing Factors, 2006. --Sustainable Energy Ireland
    • In the United States there is approximately one car for every adult. ( 251 million registered passenger vehicles).
    • Source: US Bureau of Transit Statistics (2006)
  • 31. The City Solution:
    • Climate Change and Carbon Emissions
  • 32.  
  • 33.  
  • 34.  
  • 35. Health, Planning and the Built Environment
    • Health Problems and costs associated with:
    • Obesity and Inactivity
    • Depression and Stress
    • Social Isolation and the lack of social support
    • Air and Water Pollution
  • 36. 1999 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1990, 1999, 2009 (*BMI  30, or about 30 lbs. overweight for 5’4” person) 2009 1990 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%
  • 37. Benefits of Physical Activity (30-40 minutes of walking a day)
    • Life span increase: 2 years
    • Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: 40% less
    • Rates of High Blood Pressure and Diabetes: Reduced
    • Risk of breast & colon cancer: Reduced
    • Mood and mental health status: Improved
    • Body Mass Index (BMI): Reduced
    • Health care costs: $300-$400 less per year
    • Cost: minimal
    • Surgeon General’s Report, 1996
  • 38.
    • There is clear evidence that walking & cycling are good for our health:
    • Yet in many cases we are planning and engineering walking out of our lives. A lot of it is because we plan our communities around the car.
  • 39.  
  • 40.  
  • 41.  
  • 42.  
  • 43. Obesity in the U.S.
    • Childhood obesity has more than tripled in the past 30 years . The prevalence of obesity among children aged 6 to 11 years increased from 6.5% in 1980 to 19.6% in 2008. The prevalence of obesity among adolescents aged 12 to 19 years increased from 5.0% to 18.1%
  • 44.
    • Percent of American children who walk or bike to school:
    • 1974: 66%
    • 2000: 13% (CDC, 2000)
  • 45.  
  • 46.  
  • 47. Key Factors Explaining Happiness
    • Good Health
    • Income
    • Job Opportunities/Cost of Living
    • Marital Status
    • Feeling Connected to the People in Neighborhood
    • Opportunities to Volunteer In City
  • 48. Happiness: Additional Variables
    • Access to Culture and leisure facilities such as movies, museums, concert halls
    • Access to Libraries
    • Availability of convenient Public Transportation
    • My city is a good place to rear and care for children
    • Role of Life-cycle
  • 49. In many places we have turned our backs to the city or to towns and village life
    • Serious need to revitalize urban places.
    • We need to refocus our public policies on making urban places more livable, healthy, creative, and sustainable.
    • Part of that is to focus upon planning that emphasizes pedestrian-oriented, mixed-use zoning models with a sense of place
  • 50. Low-tech solutions matter too!
  • 51.  
  • 52.  
  • 53.