GIA Singapore - Extracts and briefs (Sarah & Chris)
Excepts from...CO-DESIGNINGTHRIVING SOLUTIONSA prototype curriculum for social problem solving e Based on th Working Backwards nd the work Approach a Redesign al of the Radic I Te am @ TACSPrepared for...Global Innovation Academy,Pathfinder Programme Series, Singapore10 & 11 November, 2011 CO-DESIGNING THRIVING SOLUTIONS tacsi.org.au/curriculum
Excerpts from Co-designing Thriving SolutionsCo-designingWorking with people, practitionersand policymakers to develop newkinds of solutions.ThrivingActively developing.SolutionsA set of interactions and experiencesthat spread as principles, platforms,organisational models, & programs.
Excerpts from Co-designing Thriving Solutions Excerpts from Co-designing Thriving SolutionsIntroduction Educational disengagement, crime, drug addiction, unemployment, Developing a curriculum indigenous inequality. We believe systemic social problems require new Perhaps the only thing that has been more frustrating than our past kinds of solutions. And new solutions require new ways of working. attempts to prompt change with people, has been our past attempts to Welcome to excerpts Co-designing Solutions, a curriculum designed prompt change in how policymakers and practitioners work. We’ve run to equip teams with new ways to co-design solutions. Solutions that heaps of workshops, lectures, and action learning groups that have done focus on thriving, not just on meeting basic needs. Solutions that are little to shift work behaviour. fundamentally about prompting change, not maintaining the status quo. We take from this that prompting change is hard, and demands far more We’re here because we kept asking: is there a better way? Too many of rigour and resource. We’re putting rigour and resource into prototyping our past projects have gone nowhere. Projects where we invested a heck this curriculum. Over the coming 12-months, we’ll test four big hunches: of a lot of ourselves, and used all the methods we were trained in, neither prompted change for people nor systems. Our first hunch is that skills and tools are insufficient for working differently. In the past, we’ve used a ‘toolbox’ teaching method, only to Chris’ design-led projects engaged people through exciting interactions, find people struggle to figure out when, where, how, or why to use the but failed to impact on the systems around people. Sarah’s policy-led exercises and strategies. Now we think the focus needs to be on adopting Hunch 1 projects engaged policymakers with compelling arguments and new a mix of behaviours across a range of contexts. frameworks, but didn’t change people’s behaviour in or outside of systems. We both found ourselves doing a lot of work, but not shifting Our second hunch is that changing behaviours requires immersive, people’s lives. experiences. While we’ve long held the view that social interventions need to do more than transmit information to change behaviours, we haven’t Working together for the first time in London on a project to improve followed suit in our own teaching. In this curriculum, we aim to provide Hunch 2 outcomes for young people, we discovered behaviours, skills, and tools developmental experiences through hands-on live project work.Chris Vanstone & in each other’s way of working that complemented the limitations of ourSarah Schulman own. Sarah was new to the design behaviour of prototyping. Chris was Our third hunch is that this kind of work can really only be done byCo-leads, Radical new to tools of logic modelling and frameworks for behaviour change interdisciplinary teams. We suspect that our past teaching has focusedRedesign Team, TACSI andfounders of InWithFor from the social sciences. on the wrong unit: individuals. Indeed, we believe the strength of the approach lies in the continuous blend of different disciplines and Over time, and not without some confusion, we began to codify what Hunch 3 perspectives. we were learning about how to change behaviour. We named our hybrid problem-solving process ‘Working Backwards’ because it proceeds in a Our fourth hunch is that the best way to teach a blended approach is to different order to usual policy development. break concepts down into their component parts - to idenity what exactly can be designed - alongside learning about whole solutions. Out of our first year of work in Australia with and for The Australian Centre for Social Innovation (TACSI) came the solution Family by Family, a new Hunch 4 Like everything we make, this curriculum is a prototype and we value network of families helping families. It’s a solution that seems to shift your feedback. The curriculum was written from a UK / North American / behaviour and which is attracting the attention of policymakers. Australian perspective. We’d love to learn what’s applicable beyond those contexts and what’s not. We hope to spread the ‘Working Backwards’ approach to co-design more solutions to systemic social problems. This curriculum aims to equip teams, in and out of public systems, with the behaviours, skills, and tools to do that.
Excerpts from Co-designing Thriving Solutions Excerpts from Co-designing Thriving SolutionsThriving lives “ Today, the core challenge for most of us living in the West isn’t how long we live, but how we live - how we age, how we work, how we connect to others. We don’t just want to get by - to be The Thriving Outcomes An ongoing set of behaviours that keep lives moving in a good direction. insured from risk or protected from social circumstance - we want to be able to thrive. We want to have fulfilling relationships, to find and use our talents, to feel good and in-control, to have a purpose, to enjoy how we spend our time, and probably most of all, to know Building relationships we matter as people. Pursuing Using capabilities aspirations “ If we truly want more people to thrive, existing welfare systems and services won’t do. We need different kinds of social solutions - principles, platforms, organisations, and programs - designed with us, to develop our capabilities, aspirations, relationships, Feeling Achieving things and achievements. In practice, we need social solutions that can good shift our behaviours towards where want to go, not just to where systems and services want us to go. This requires social solutions that can broaden our preferences and motivations, teach us new skills, provide us with feedback, cultivate support networks, help us feel competent & in-control, and remove barriers to change.
Excerpts from Co-designing Thriving Solutions Excerpts from Co-designing Thriving SolutionsSolutions that thrive Solutions that thrive... Increase people’s aspirations, capabilities, relationships & “ Great social solutions aren’t just designed with and for people, but within economic and political contexts. Shifts in political priorities, political leadership, and fiscal resources are often windows of achievements over time. opportunity for new solutions to take hold. By identifying and exploiting these windows of opportunity, great solutions not only enable people to thrive, but are themselves thriving in their contexts.Solutions that thriveSolutions that contribute to thriving lives, generate resources, and leveragethe economic & political ecosystem to spread. “ The life-time and inter-generational costs associated with our existing services and systems - with the stagnation and dependency they inadvertently spawn - are high. Where society has invested in solutions that develop our capabilities, aspirations, and relationships, (rather than just manage risk) we’ve seen impressive financial gains. For instance, for every dollar invested in high-quality early childhood education, there is a $16.14 return on investment in Solutions that thrive... increased wages, more taxes paid, greater contribution to the Leverage the community, and less use of welfare, health care, and the criminal economical & political justice system.1 ecosystem to spread. When you look at people not as clients or customers, but as co- Solutions that thrive... producers, their capabilities, relationships and aspirations are not Generate resource: only outcomes, but inputs that can further develop the solution’s Outcomes generated resource base and reach. by the solution become inputs. 1 Schweinhart, Lawrence. “How to take the High/Scope Perry preschool to scale. “High/Scope Educational Research foundation for the National Invitational Conference of the Early Childhood Research Collaborative, 2007.
Excerpts from Co-designing Thriving Solutions Excerpts from Co-designing Thriving SolutionsTraditional problem solving “ Traditional policymaking, like widget making, is a vertical process: decisions at the top flow down the chain of command. People are the last to be reached. “ When you want to sell thousands of widgets or process thousands of welfare payments, you need a way of working that promotes mass precision, continuity, and conformity. Bureaucracy is fit for purpose. When you want to enable people to build aspirations, capabilities, achievements, and relationships, you need a different approach to solving problems and a different way of organising the work. Classic policy development People engaged last - at implementation.
Excerpts from Co-designing Thriving Solutions Excerpts from Co-designing Thriving SolutionsWorking backwards “ To get to thriving lives we think you need a problem solving approach that starts at the bottom with what people want and are capable of, rather than at the top with what systems and policies 7 GROW New solutions want and have available to spend. “ We call our problem solving approach ‘Working Backwards’ and we organise our work in interdisciplinary, non-hierarchical teams. Indeed, we work backwards as a team, first to work with people to identify what people want and can do before co-designing and prototyping new kinds of solutions and ways of spreading those New team solutions (e.g. principles, platforms, organisations, and programs). 2 LOOK & LISTEN Each phase of our approach starts with a question. To answer the question we draw on skills and tools from design, social science, business and policy development. 6 VALUE 1 GET-READY 1 Get ready What team fits the problem? Problem 2 Look & listen New outcomes What are good outcomes?Working 3 Create New systemsbackwards What ideas could improve outcomes?People engaged 3 CREATE 4 Prototype INTERACTIONSat every stage ofdevelopment What interactions shift outcomes? New scenarios 5 Prototype SYSTEMS What supports new interactions? 5 6 VALUE PROTOTYPE What value does the solution create? SYSTEMS 4 PROTOTYPE INTERACTIONS New interactions 7 Grow How can we spread the solution?
Excerpts from Co-designing Thriving Solutions Excerpts from Co-designing Thriving SolutionsWhat can be co-designed? User level interactions Prototyping can help us develop user level interactions (between people-people, people-machines, and people-objects) that shape behaviours & enable new aspirations, capabilities, relationships and achievements over time. “ We work backwards to co-design and prototype new kinds of solutions and ways to spread those solutions. What does that really mean? When you work in the traditional, industrial era way, you design rules, regulations, and processes that can be implemented from top-to-bottom. Instead, we work with people in their homes, workplaces, and communities to design something far more basic: interactions. Interactions are back-and-forth actions between people, and between people and things. You’re interacting with this document, and when you turn to your colleague to have a conversation about what you’ve just read, you’re interacting with your colleague. Solutions are a series of interactions over time - interactions that enable people to thrive, and interactions that enable the solution to thrive. Interactions that enable people to thrive help us develop our aspirations, capabilities, relationships, and achievements. Interactions that enable solutions to thrive help to organise the flow of work, generate and manage resources, grow influence, and expand reach. “ We prototype all three kinds of interactions, but first use co-design techniques to understand what thriving means and therefore what the interactions could enable. Organisational level interactions Prototyping organisational level interactions can help us develop policies and systems that support user level interactions. e.g HR, governance, and customer relationship management. Ecosystem level interactions Prototyping interactions with other organisations, potential partners, funders and policymakers can help determine how a solution will spread.
Excerpts from Co-designing Thriving Solutions Excerpts from Co-designing Thriving SolutionsNew work behaviours “ Analytic When it comes right down to it, solutions that thrive are a set of interactions that change people’s behaviour. The problem solving approaches we use to get to solutions that thrive also require a People Generative change in behaviour. They change the sequence of work (from the bottom-up), who we work with (real people), and how we go about our work (in flexible, interdisciplinary teams). Indeed, we think great social problem solvers - whether public Storytelling servants, innovators, designers, business analysts, community Making organisers or social scientists - think and do different things. They spend time with people in their context; they identify patterns & trends; they turn abstract concepts into concrete concepts; Feedback they make prototypes; they give and seek feedback; and they craft compelling stories for different audiences. We call these the people, analytic, generative, making, feedback, and storytelling behaviours.Behaviour New work behavioursThe actions or reactions of a person in response to external or internal Analytic behaviourstimuli. What you think, feel and do in a particular situation. e.g. When Identifying patterns and trends; breaking complex concepts into component parts; asking why and how questions.you’re lost you may look at a map, ask someone, or follow signs. Generative behaviour Identifying and exploiting opportunities; developing new ideas; applying concepts from one field to another; thinking visually and laterally. Enabling you and your team to develop these behaviours is the aim of the Co-designing Thriving Solutions curriculum. People behaviour Talking with; observing; listening; understanding, respecting and contextualising people. Making behaviour Turning abstract ideas into real, tangible products; using your hands. Feedback behaviour Showing work; making improvements; offering constructive suggestions to others; failing; persistently iterating. Storytelling behaviour Developing rational and emotive arguments; using different mediums; bringing ideas to life for people versus practice versus policy audiences.
Excerpts from Co-designing Thriving Solutions Excerpts from Co-designing Thriving SolutionsPrototyping “ Prototyping is a way of rapidly developing early hunches into solutions that work for people. Prototyping involves testing solutions at an early stage with users, in context and using what you learn about what works (and what doesn’t) to improve your solution. Any interaction can be prototyped be it at the user, People Storytelling organisational or eco-system level. Prototyping can enable you to build solutions that work faster and cheaper because mistakes are made (and learnt from) earlier and with less cost. Analytic Generative Prototyping involves moving through a loop of new work behaviours. Good prototyping means having a clear understanding of the user you are designing for, what outcome you are trying to achieve with and for that user, and what aspect of your solution you are prototyping. 1 People question Feedback Making Who is this for and what outcomes am I trying to enable with and for them? Testing 2 Generative question What form could the solution take? 3 Making question How can I best represent the aspect of the solution I am testing? 4 Feedback question How can I best get feedback from the user of my solution? The prototyping loop Prototyping involved moving 5 Analytic question through a cycle of behaviours multiple times improving What can I do differently in the next iteration? your nacet solution on each revolution. 6 Storytelling question How can I communicate failure and lessons learnt?
LearningbriefsPrepared for Global Innovation Academy[Pathfinder Programme Series, Singapore 2011]
Brief 1What can be designed?NOT TO BEOPENED BEFORE10.11.11
Dissect solutionsThe Task... For more on prototyping seeDissect the following solution into its component parts and map auser-level, organisational-level, and ecosystem-level interaction. This is service design thinking Edited by Marc Stickdorn and Jakob SchneiderGroup 1&4: Green House Nursing AlternativeGroup 2: Girl Scouts / Girl Guides The starfish and the spiderGroup 3&5: Pratham By Ori Brafman and Rod Beckstrom Systems thinking in the public sectorThe Details… By John SeddonGroups of 6 - 45 minutesSee the next pages for your group’s brief Deconstructing analysis techniques http://tinyurl.com/yknwm2kThe Steps...1 AnalyseLook through the case study materials provided.Divide your team into pairs. 1 pair will focus on user-level, 1 onorganisation-level ,and 1 on eco-system level. Using post-it notes,identify the component parts of the interaction you’ve been given.2 MakeIn pairs, quickly sketch a storyboard detailing the scenes thatmake up the given interaction, and the actors and props present.Where there’s not enough information, creatively infer what actors/ props might be present.3 Get FeedbackShare storyboards amongst your small group, and stick yourstoryboard to the wall for larger group feedback. Briefs >
Brief 1: Dissect solutionsGroup 1&4Green HouseNursing AlternativeThe Solution: Your briefsThe Green House Nursing Alternativehttp://thegreenhouseproject.org/ Pair 1 / User-level interactions.http://vimeo.com/5806884 Storyboard elders’ interactions at meal time within the Green House home (i.e. skech the scenes, actors and props an elderThe systemic problem: encounters before, during, and after meal time)Too many older people in expensive institutionalised care with http://vimeo.com/5808073poor quality of life outcomes. Indeed in the United States, halfof the 1.7 million people living in nursing homes suffer from Pair 2 / Organisation-level interactions.untreated pain (USA Today, 2003). Storyboard the shahbazim role. How are they trained and how are they organised? (i.e. sketch the scenes, actors and propsThe identified opportunity: shahbazim encounter before, during, and after their training).De-institutionalize long-term care by eliminating large nursing http://vimeo.com/5807912facilities and creating habilitative, social settings which focus onlife and relationships. Pair 3 / Ecosystem-level interactions. Storyboard what it takes for an organisation to sign up to the Eden Alternative Registry (i.e. sketch the scenes, actors and props an organisation encounters before, during, and after they sign-up). The Eden Alternative is the set of principles & a philosophy underpinning Green House Homes. The Eden Alternative Registry offers a way to spread the ideas behind Green House Homes, not just the physical buildings. http://tinyurl.com/c8uehye
Brief 1: Dissect solutionsGroup 2Girl ScoutsThe Solution: Your briefsGirl Scouts / Girl Guideswww.girlscouts.org Pair 1 / User-level interactions. Storyboard how girls earn some of the ‘new’ 21st century badgesThe systemic problem: (i.e. sketch the scenes, actors and props a girl might encounter inToo few girls have the role models, skills, or values to grow up to order to get a badge).be effective leaders http://tinyurl.com/452gxbh http://www.girlscouts.org/forgirls/The identified opportunity:To create new kind of leaders - leaders who value diversity,inclusion, collaboration and are committed to improving their Pair 2 / Organisation-level interactions.neighborhoods, communities, and the world Storyboard the volunteer recruitment process. How might a community member become a girl scout volunteer? (i.e. sketch the scenes, actors and props a person might encounter in order to become a volunteer). http://vimeo.com/17450655 Pair 3 / Ecosystem-level interactions. Storyboard the Girls Scouts and Dairy Queen (DQ) partnership. How does that partnership play out in Dairy Queen restaurants across the United States? (i.e. sketch the scenes, actors and props that are a result of the corporate partnership). http://tinyurl.com/89xo3b9
Brief 1: Dissect solutionsGroup 3&5PrathamThe solution Your briefsPrathamwww.pratham.org Pair 1 / User-level interactions. Storyboard the Read India programme - a mass scale, rapid,The systemic problem: learning to read campaign. In other words, sketch the scenes,Nealry 80% of children in India do not complete elementary actors and props a child might encounter if they were part of theeducation, and 50% of children actually going to school do not Read India programme.know the 3 R’s after four years of schooling. Universal access to http://tinyurl.com/789svdxeducation has not translated into actual improvements in learningoutcomes. Pair 2 / Organisation-level interactions. Storyboard the volunteer mobilisation and training process. HowThe identified opportunity: might somebody come to volunteer with Pratham? In other words,To improve achievement in schools - and show how that drives sketch the scenes, actors and props somebody might encounterimprovements in enrollment and retention rates. before and during their time as a volunteer.To rapidly improve learning outcomes though inexpensive, scalable http://tinyurl.com/7q59s2jinterventions in schools and in communities. Pair 3 / Ecosystem-level interactions. Storyboard how the Annual Status of Education (ASER) Centre goes about implementing the Annual Status of Education Survey and Report. In other words, sketch the scenes, actors and props underpinning data collection. ASER is a centre sponsored by Pratham that collects data in order to influence government policy & philanthropic practice. http://tinyurl.com/85kx3n5
Brief 2PrototypingNOT TO BEOPENED BEFORE11.11.11
Prototype an “organiser”The task... For More, see...Co-design and prototype an “organiser” to hold your partner’s The Craftsmanconference materials (eg this book, their pens, notepad and By Richard Sennetworkbook.) The outcome we’re after is your partner feelingorganised. Designing a handbag http://productdesign.dundee.ac.uk/productprocess/?p=18The details…In pairs - 30 minutes1 person = user1 person = makerThe steps…1 AnalyseHow does your partner currently keep track of their conferencematerials? What kind of bags, purses, cases, etc. are they currentlymaking use of? What’s working? What’s not working?What does it mean to ‘feel organised?’What would a great container to ‘hold & organise stuff’ look like?What would a bad container look like?2 GenerateDrawing on the available materials and other resources, sketch aconcept for some sort of device to hold & organise your partner’sconference materials - and to complement any other bags ororganisational devices they may already have.3 MakeConstruct a first version of the “organiser”.4 Get FeedbackAs you are making your “organiser”, seek feedback. Keep track ofthe number of iterations / alterations you make to the “organiser”.How does the “organiser” work in the context?How could the “organiser” be made more usable, useful &delightful?
Brief 3PrototypingNOT TO BEOPENED BEFORE11.11.11
Build connectionsThe Task...Co-design & prototype an experience to build connections betweenconference participants & to achieve the following outcomeGroup 1&4: Aim to enable enjoyment & funGroup 2&5: Aim to enable supportive relationshipsGroup 3&6: Aim to enable knowledge sharingThe Details...Groups of 5-6 / 1.5 hoursThe Steps...1 GenerateHunches: what behaviours might underpin the outcome yourgroup was given? What kinds of interactions & experiences couldenable those behaviours?Ideas: drawing on the available resources, how could you put thoseinteractions & experience into practice?2 Makea) A storyboard describing the experienceb) Two props (i.e. touchpoints) to bring to life the experience3 FeedbackTest & tweak the props with another group. You might use roleplay, or walk through an experience step by step.4 AnalyseObserve how ‘users’ from the other group react to the storyboardand props.How do the scenes play out? Inspiration >What seems to work? What doesn’t?What could be different?