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Nordic Climate Policy –a case study on effective measures and policies
 

Nordic Climate Policy – a case study on effective measures and policies

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Hur bra har de nordiska länderna lyckats med energiomställningen? Global Utmaning och tankesmedjenätverket Nordic Climate Network presenterade rapporten "Nordic Climate Policy – a case study on ...

Hur bra har de nordiska länderna lyckats med energiomställningen? Global Utmaning och tankesmedjenätverket Nordic Climate Network presenterade rapporten "Nordic Climate Policy – a case study on efficient policy measures" på COP 19 i Warszawa under ett seminarium.

Nordic Climate Network består av de nordiska tankesmedjorna Concito, Fores, Zero och Global Utmaning.

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    Nordic Climate Policy –a case study on effective measures and policies Nordic Climate Policy – a case study on effective measures and policies Presentation Transcript

    • COP19SIDEEVENT REDUCING EMISSIONS AND GROWING THE ECONOMY –THE NORDIC WAY - Green growth the Nordic Way Anna Gran, Coordinator, Nordic Council of Ministers’ Climate and Air Pollution Working Group - Open Climate Network Taryn Fransen, Project Director for Open Climate Network – World Resources Institute - Nordic Climate Policy – a case study on efficient policy measures Susanne Krawack, Chief consultant – Concito Ola Alterå, Senior Adviser – Global Utmaning Camilla Skriung, Policy advisor – Zero Jakop Dalunde, Programme director – Fores - IEA’s Nordic Energy Technology Perspectives – A carbon-neutral energy system by 2050 Benjamin Donald Smith, Senior Advisor - Nordic Energy Research - Panel discussion and interventions from the audience
    • Nordic Climate policy – a case study on effective measures and policies A population of about 25 million A GPD of about USD 1 trillion
    • Two parts: GHG mitigation in the Nordic Region – according to OCN – the policy landscape Four cases of successful GHG mitigation from Nordic countries
    • Reduction af fossil CO2 by 9% between 1990 and 2011, 25% including LULUCF Tons CO2e per Capita a. Nordic CO2e Emissions Tons CO2e per million USD 14 600 12 500 10 400 8 300 6 200 4 2 100 0 0 Nordic CO2e Emissions per Capita Nordic CO2e Emissions per GDP
    • Energy mix in electricity supply Nordic countries 9.6% 0.3% Biomass and waste 7.1% Wind 3.2% 6.4% 1.0% 19.9% Natural Gas Geothermal Hydro Oil 0.7% Nuclear 51.7% Solar Coal
    • Energy mix in the total energy consumption Oil Gas 2% Coal 32% 30% Nuclear 11% 15% 10% Renewables (including biofuels) Others
    • Reduction commitments 2020 compared to 1990: Sweden 40% non ETS Finland 16% non ETS Norway 30% both ETS and non ETS Denmark 40% % both ETS and non ETS
    • Type of policies: Policies to utilize renewable resources Energy and carbon taxes Cooperation between industry, R&D and government Local governments active role Building codes Focus on energy efficiency
    • More than GHG mitigation: Jobcreation Export Attract international companies Why? Innovative industry - cluster Favourable and long term framework Support by feed in tarrifs Support for R&D
    • Case: Wind power in Denmark
    • Case: Wind power in Denmark Transmission cables and a joint Nordic electricity market
    • Case: District Heating in Sweden Ola Alterå Senior Adviser – Global Utmaning
    • OECD Energy Balance
    • District Heating –utilizing resources that otherwise would have been lost • Combined heat and power producion • Waste heat from industries • Municipal waste incineration • Geothermal energy • Lower quality bioenergy • Solar heat
    • District Heating in Sweden – and the Nordics • About 60 TWh of heat production • Present in every community with more than 10,000 inhabitants • About 50% of heating market - dominating in city centres – – – – Denmark 60% Finland 50% Iceland 90% - geothermal Norway < 5%
    • District Heating Fuels in Sweden 1980-2011
    • How could it be done? • Local governance, planning and cooperation • General price incentives – energy and later carbon tax • Non regulated market stimulating competition and innovation – mostly by community owned companies
    • Case: Zero emission cars in Norway Camilla Skriung, Policy advisor ZERO
    • Zero emission cars in Norway • Norway, one of the smallest car marketsin Europe, has become a very large zero emission car market. How did thishappen?
    • Zero emission cars in Norway Annualsales of zero emissioncarsin Norway 2009-2013 Sales of zero emissioncars in Norway in 2013 All time high record of 9 % (rechargeable cars) of new cars sales was passed in September 2013.
    • Zero emission cars in Norway Norwegian zero emission car sales in comparison with other European countries: The share of electric cars of new cars in Norway is at world record level, more than 4 times greater than in the second country on the list in Western Europe.
    • Zero emission cars in Norway • How did this happen? • The main success factors have been: • Sufficient financial incentives at the time of purchase • Increased convenience/time saving • Charging infrastructure • Long-term predictable policy
    • Zero emission cars in Norway • Norwegian zero emission car incentives: • 1) Exemptions: Registration fee exemption Value added on purchase Public parking fee exemption Road toll exemption Reduced tax on electric company cars Road usage tax exemption • 2) Free charging infrastructure • 3) Permission to use lanes reserved for public transportation
    • Zero emission cars in Norway • 4) Considerably lower annual fees • 5) Public charging spots • 6) Hydrogen filling stations • 7) Transnova • 8) Public procurement • 9) Free ferry transport
    • Zero emission cars in Norway
    • Case: Reducing emissions from the Swedish transport sector Jakop Dalunde Programme director, FORES
    • Background ● Ambition to reduce non-EU ETS overall emissions with 40 percent by 2020, compared to 1990 emissions. ● This means a reduction of approximately 20 million tons Carbon dioxide equivalents. ● Transports make up two thirds of emissions in the non-trading sector
    • Background Greenhouse gas emissions from road transportation (in million tons CO2e)
    • Cars down, trucks up ● A closer look at the numbers show that emissions from cars down with about 10 per cent ● Emissions from heavy duty transport continue to increase, except from a dip in 2009. ● Total increase from trucks since 1990 is over 34 per cent
    • Cars down, trucks up ● A closer look at the numbers show that emissions from cars down with about 10 per cent ● Emissions from heavy duty transport continue to increase, except from a dip in 2009. ● Total increase from trucks since 1990 is over 34 per cent
    • Cars down, trucks up Greenhouse gas emissions from road transportation
    • Policy: The carbon tax ● The decision taken by the Swedish parliament in 1990, came into force 1 January 1991. ● Began at 0.25 SEK/kg, currenty the carbon tax is 1.08 SEK/kg Co2. ● Combined with lowered income tax, Pigovian perspective
    • Policy: The carbon tax ● Two kinds of incentives: more expensive to drive fossil-vehicles and substitution effect, increased demand for renewably energy and alternative transportations. ● Elestacity - higher cost does not equal lower emissions.
    • Policy: Other measures ● Exemption from the energy and carbon dioxide tax for all bio-fuelled transportations - corresponding to a tax relief of about 5 Swedish kronor per litre of petrol. ● Pump station law
    • Policy: Other measures ● Support for research and demonstrations of bio-fuels - in 2009 a three-year support of 875 million Swedish kronor was granted ● Bonus for buying greener cars. Future bonus/malus system.
    • Evalutation Carbon dioxide emissions for newly registered cars, gram CO2/km 190 180 Total Petrol 170 Diesel 160 Gas 150 Ethanol 140 EU average 130 120 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
    • Evaluation ● Given the large number of actions, it is hard to evaluate each separate policy. ● However, likely the combination of policies were key. ● Emissions lowered by 7% since introduction of carbon tax
    • Conclusion ● The carbon tax likely amajor contributing cause of lowering emissions from the transport sector ● Emissions likely would have increased without it, since traffic is still growing. ● Effect likely been much stronger combined with other measures